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Human resources in metal and electro sectors in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.


Until 1990 metal and electro industry in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegowina had a key position in industry structure. Many years of stoppage in production, caused by the war, had very strong negative effects on the technology development and working out processes (Causevic & Domazet, 2006). When big production systems, which were the most important for development, stopped working, all technological-developmental institutes and research-developmental centres disappeared (Akademija nauka i umjetnosti Bosne i Hercegovine, 2006). As human resources are of key importance for starting developmental activities, analysis of industry and industry production structure in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegowina for metal and electro sector has been done as a part of "Development of Industrial Policy in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegowina" Project. One of segments of that analysis is human resources in metal and electro sectors in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegowina. Because of lack of data in Federal Statistics Agency, a Questionnaire, of 81 questions, was made. Among other topics, it included: qualification, age, sex and organisational structure, shortage of some professions, scholarships, investment into specializations and investment in development and research (Djukic et al., 2009). Based on answers got from 32 firms, with 11207 employees, this paper shows human resources in metal and electro sectors in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegowina, pointing out disposition of high educated persons depending on size of the firm and type of industrial production. In post war period such analysis has not been made by domestic works (Federalni zavod za statistiku, 2008). As the questionnaire included more than 80% firms in metal and electro sectors in Feeration of Bosnia and Herzegowina, all indexes got here are relevant for further estimation of human resources.


Because of easier observing of human resources and existing technologies, metal sector in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegowina is divided into: aluminium (Al), automobile (Au) and metal-working (Met) industry, metallurgy (Me) and tool rooms (TR). This research includes: 4 firms in aluminium industry and 5 firms in electro (El) industry. Table 1 shows qualification structure of employees in metal and electro sectors. Figure 1 shows percentage of each qualification in metal and electro sectors out of total number of employees.

Qualification structure in five industries of metal sector is given in Figure 2.


Analysis of high educated persons depending on size of the firm (Figure 3) shows that majority of high educated persons are employed in big firms (more than 500 employees). 65% high educated persons, 73% masters and 71% doctors of science are employed in four big companies of metal and electro sectors. Share of women employed in five industries in metal sector is shown in Figure 4.




Qualification structure in metal and electro sectors (Figure 1) shows that majority of employees in metal sector are skilled workers (40,57%), than employees with secondary school finished (20,7%), high-skilled workers (16,16%), and that there are only 7,11% high educated employees. At the same time, in electro sector, majority of employees are persons with secondary school finished (31,3%), than high educated employees (27,6%), and skilled workers (24,6%). Analysis of five industries in metal sector (Figure 2) shows that aluminium and metal-working industry have the most skilled workers employed (44,8%), automobile industry 39,9%, tool-rooms 37,5%, and metallurgy 36,4%. At the same time, there are the most high educated persons in automobile industry (8,3%), aluminium industry (7,1%), metal-working 6,9%, metallurgy 6,7%, and in tool-rooms only 5,8%. If metal and electro sectors are compared, it is seen that majority of employed in metal sector are skilled workers and persons who finished secondary school, and in electro sector people who finished secondary school and high educated persons. Disposition of high educated persons depending on size of the firm (Figure 3) shows that those persons are mainly employed in four big firms. If it is taken in consideration that number of doctors of science is extremely small, only 7, and masters 29, it is easy to conclude that developmental and research activities are only possible to be organized within big firms. Considering the small number of doctors and masters of science in metal and electro sectors, it is only possible to make serious researches in cooperation with corresponding faculties and institutes.

Share of women in metal sector (Figure 4) shows that there are only 4,7% women employed in aluminium industry, and 27,5% in automobile industry. If production programmes of these industries are analysed, it can be concluded that processing industry has the smallest number of women employed, because of nature of job and working conditions. At the same time, share of women in electro sector is 37,6%, what is significantly more than in metal sector.

Share of administration in metal sector is 12,5%, and in electro sector it is 20,4%.


Based on research on human resources in metal and electro sector in F of BiH, it can be concluded that total numbed of high educated persons is about 10%, and it is insufficient for organizing serious centres within those firms (Vijece ministara Bosne i Hercegovine, 2007). Share of doctors and masters of science is minor and it is much more the result of personal ambitions of employees, than programmed improving of employed personnel. Total number of non-skilled workers is about 12,5%, which clearly shows existence of out-of-date technologies in those firms. Separate analysis of all firms shows that within aluminium and electro industries there are some firms which have new technologies, new organization and structure of employees, which is significantly better than in metal and electro sectors, and that their employees are in average almost ten years younger. All those firms are 100% private firms.


Causevic, F. & Domazet, A. (2006). Razvoj izvoznih potencijala i konkurennosti metalnog sektora Bosne i Hercegovine, Ekonomski institut Sarajevo, Sarajevo

Djukic, H. & Cohodar, M. (2009). Analiza industrije i structure industrijske proizvodnje u FBiH za metalni i elektro sector, Projekt: Razvoj industrijske politike u FBiH, Masinski fakultet Univerziteta u Sarajevu, Fakultet strojarstva i racunarstva Sveucilista u Mostaru, Mostar

***(2008) Federalni zavod za statistiku, Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine u brojkama, Sarajevo

***(2006) Akademija nauka i umjetnosti Bosne i Hercegovine, Strategija naucnotehnoloskog razvoja Bosne i Hercegovine, Sarajevo

***(2007) Vijece ministara Bosne i Hercegovine, Sektor za ekonomska istrazivanja, Bosna i Hercegovina Ekonomski Trendovi, godisnji izvjestaj, Sarajevo
Tab. 1. Qualification structure of employees

Indus. Al Au Me TR Met El

[SIGMA] 1352 1859 3530 309 2546 1611

Dr 3 0 2 0 0 2

M.S. 1 3 6 0 3 16

High 96 153 239 18 177 445

College 28 43 61 10 40 72

High 95 150 960 67 279 47

Sec. 480 319 603 82 506 505

Skilled 606 742 1287 116 1142 395

Half- 43 449 372 16 399 129

Fig. 4 Share of women in metal sector


aluminium 4,70%
metallurgy 9,90%
metal-working 12,80%
tool rooms 24,30%
automobile 27,50%

Note: Table made from bar graph.
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Author:Djukic, Himzo; Obad, Milenko; Nozic, Mirna
Publication:Annals of DAAAM & Proceedings
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:4EXBO
Date:Jan 1, 2009
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