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Human resource development through training: a study on business teachers of Bangladesh.

INTRODUCTION

During the early years of the 20th century, the difference between per capita GDP in rich and poor countries was estimated at a ratio of 3:1. However, by the last decade of the century, the ratio had exceeded 15:1 [11]. Among the various factors, lack of skilled human resources (HR) was identified as causing the fivefold investment difference in GDP. In the new millennium there is no finish line of success and there is no ultimate area of failure. Managers in 21st century, thus, rethink and redesign their business missions and strategies so that they may work in a competitive battlefield of rapidly changing rivals and diminishing customer loyalty. Everyday business practices are becoming more unconventional and unusual due to the accelerated pace of technological change. Consequently, management education is the only weapon that organization can depend on to be available long-term for success.

But, management education is aimed at shaping the students into career seeking efficient business managers or administrators, sensitive organization leaders and change agents [17]. One of the major objectives of management education is to educate and train business graduates to become productive units of industrial production and business services in order to survive in competitive business markets. Training is a planned process to modify attitude, knowledge, and skill, behavior through learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities. Its purpose, in the work situation, is to develop the abilities of the individual and to satisfy the current and future needs of the organization [18]. It may mean changing what institutional actors know, how they work, their attitudes toward their professor or their interactions with their colleagues or their seniors.

Research Problem:

The significance and value of training has long been recognized. Consider the popular and often repeated quotation, "Give a person a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a person to fish and you feed him for a lifetime." This simple but profound saying is attributed to the wisdom of Confusius who lived in the 5th century BC. Given today's business climate and the exponential growth in technology with its effect on the economy and society at large, the need for training is more pronounced than ever [15]. Beardwell and Holden [4] argue that the recognition of the importance of training has been heavily influenced by the intensification of global competition. Technological developments and the demand of market have led some universities to the realization that success relies on the knowledge, skills of the faculties, and this means considerable and continuous investment in training and development. It appears that training is essential for the business teachers for quality assurance and enhancement in the higher business education of Bangladesh.

Further, students' productivity is the function of teacher-student ratio, teacher-student qualifications, infrastructure, curriculum, teaching aid etc. Productive business graduate means trained and qualified, managerial and operational expert, civil servants, professionals, teachers and technicians. The productivity of an organization depends, to a great extent, on productive managerial people of the organization. Productivity is significant because it influences the well-being of the entire society as well as individual institutions. The only way to increase the output of goods and services to society is to increase organizational productivity [6]. Thus, it appears that there is a relationship between the productivity of the organization and the contribution of productive business graduates in business, industry and the like. Further, tertiary education is central to the creation on which knowledge production and utilization depend and to the lifelong learning practices necessary for updating people's knowledge and skills. It is argued that productive business graduates can contribute to qualitative improvements through the use of new technology resulting from the acquisition of skills, knowledge, capacity, ability etc. Thus, the productive business graduate is essential for creating new method, system, product, services for meeting and the demand of knowledge, economy, employability and total quality management in the sectors of economy. It appears that creative business teachers can play an effective role to create productive business graduates in the country. Creative teachers are not a small group of brilliant superstars; they are ordinary teachers who pursue the discipline of variety in their teaching. So fur our knowledge goes, no in depth study has yet been done on this area of research. This research gap motivated the present authors to undertake a study titled "Training of Teachers for Creating Productive Business Graduates: A Study on Business Teachers of Bangladesh".

Objectives of The Study:

The main objective of this paper is to identify the effective method of training of teachers for creating productive business graduates in Bangladesh in general and in sample business school in particular.

Research Methodology:

Quantitative and qualitative research instruments have been used in the present research. Questionnaire survey, focus group study, depth interview and observation method have been used in this paper. Two business schools have been selected for the research purpose based on purposive sampling. These universities have been selected one from public and the other from private university. Data, thus, collected have been processed in order to make the findings of the research are interesting and useful to the readers, policymakers and other relevant stakeholders.

Findings And Their Analyses:

The findings of the study have been analyzed as follows:

Teaching in business studies:

Teaching in the field of business studies is based on a combination of activities that use diverse typologies of methods appropriate to each type of module. The core teaching methods are didactic (lectures, directed reading, practical classes, keynote speeches, and seminars) complemented with case studies, problem solving exercises, and individual or group independent research [14]. Teachers and students are rethinking the learning process to face future challenges both in the class room and in the professional world. Further, in the recent past of Dhaka University was reputedly branded as the 'Oxford of the East' for its excellence in education and research. In such context, we were interested to know the qualification of the teachers of both sample universities. Data, thus, collected have been shown in Table-1.

The Table-1 shows that the ratio of Ph.D. holder teachers in sample Public and Private Universities are 29.1% and 22.2% respectively. But the international standard of Ph.D. holder teacher at university level is 40% of total teachers. The survey data shows that both sample public and private universities have deviated from the international standard of Ph.D. faculties in the sample universities and consequently, are adversely affecting the quality education in sample universities. The second degree holder teachers of sample public and private universities are 28.5% and 6.67% respectively. It has been, further, identified that teachers without a second degree are 41.8% and 71.1% respectively in simple Public and Private universities. This is alarming for quality assurance as well as quality enhancement of the higher education in Bangladesh. It seems that training is a must for the teachers of the Universities either in public or private universities. Again, the World Bank is giving emphasis on quality higher education including private universities in Bangladesh [21].

Effective Teaching for Effective Performance:

Training is a planned process to modify attitude, knowledge, skill, behavior through learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities. Its purpose, in the work situation, is to develop the abilities of the individual and to satisfy the current and future needs of the organization. It means changing what teachers know, how they work, their attitudes toward their seniors or their interactions with their colleagues.

Need of Training of Faculties of Sample Universities:

Beardwell and Holden [4] argue that the recognition of the importance of training has been heavily influenced by the intensification of global competition. Technological developments and the demand of market have led some universities to the realization that success relies on the knowledge, skills of the faculties, and this means considerable and continuous investment in training and development. It appears that training is essential for the teachers for quality assurance and enhancement in the higher business education either in public or in private universities of Bangladesh.

Training of Teachers:

The main objectives of the training of teachers are to enrich the teaching skills of junior faculty; and senior faculty will participate in seminars and organize workshop to update business curricula and to share experiences, skills, knowledge in teaching methods in order to build up valid teaching methodology in sample universities. The junior teachers of both universities will interact with senior teachers of sample universities for developing common idea of thinking, identifying potential research areas for higher studies like M. Phil, Ph.D. and focusing common action of agenda for further collaboration and cooperation between the teachers of the sample universities. Further, the teachers of sample universities can interact with one another for prioritizing their research agenda, identifying areas of research interest through mutuality model for sharing of ideas, experiences and learning by win-win strategy.

Faculty Development Program:

Faculty development is a continuous process of improvement for meeting the requirements of quality education in higher studies especially in creating skilled and productive business graduates in Bangladesh. Faculty development methods are (i) learning by doing (ii) mentoring (iii) workshops (v) seminars (vi) case studies (vii) role playing (viii) simulations (ix) problem-solving etc.

Learning by doing:

The junior faculties of sample private university can work under collaborative research program with the senior teacher of sample public university for learning. They can involve in joint research work for journal publications, seminar presentation. In a workshop, the junior faculty can contribute as an assistant/associate to conducting different activities of faculty development workshop. In consultancy work, the junior faculty can work as junior consultant with a senior teacher of sample public/private University for continuous learning and improvement. The junior teacher can sit together with under-grade/post-grade students in the class room. Thus, the junior faculty can see how the senior teacher is teaching, interacting, sharing ideas with the students in the class room. Thus, the junior teacher of Public/Private University can learn from senior teachers in different phases of learning e.g. research, teaching, consultancy, presentations and the likes.

Mentoring:

It is another method of training whereby a senior or experienced teacher takes charge of the training and development of a newly recruited teacher. This suggests a much closer association than master/apprentice and elements of a father/son, mother/daughter relationship can exist whereby the mentor i.e. the senior teacher acts as an advisor, teacher, helper, supporter and protector to the junior teacher either in the sample public or in sample private university for training and development of junior faculties.

Workshop:

It is a method of an intensive training activity in which participants learn primarily by doing as against a 'sit and listen' type of activity. The key idea is heavy participant activity and high interaction, stemming from the use of a good variety participative training techniques. 'Faculty Development Workshop' can be organized for the training of newly recruited as well as experienced faculties for updating teaching methodology, research skill, curriculum development etc. The faculties of sample Public and Private Universities can sit together for designing dynamic pedagogy, participatory teaching methods by establishing linkage with industries and networking with other stakeholders.

Case studies:

The case study method presents a faculty with a written description of an organizational/industrial problem. The faculty then analyses the case in his own way, diagnoses the problem and presents his or her findings and solutions in a discussion meeting with other junior/senior faculties of both sample Public and Private Universities for learning and development.

Sensitivity Training:

Faculties are brought together in a free and open environment in which participant faculties discuss themselves and their interactive process, loosely facilitated by a senior faculty. This senior faculty then creates the opportunity for the participant faculties to express their concepts, ideas, thinking, understanding, beliefs and attitudes. The outcome of sensitivity training is an increased ability to emphasize improved listening skills, greater openness, increased tolerance and improved negotiation skill. It appears that sensitivity training is an instrument to build up capacity of the teacher and it facilitates understanding ability of different level of teachers. This process improves mental faculty of junior teachers and as such congenial learning environment may be created. Thus, this training process may create new opportunity for interactive learning among faculties of sample Public and Private Universities under common thinking, understanding and mutual benefits.

Lecture Courses:

Formal lecture courses offer an opportunity for teachers to acquire knowledge and develop their conceptual and analytical abilities. In the lecture method, participant faculties can interact with lecturer on delivered issues. The lecture may be organized on teaching methodology, research skill, consultancy works, curriculum, Training of Trainers (TOT) etc. In PPP framework, the teacher of sample public and private university can organize lecture series in order to train and update junior teachers' as well senior teachers of the target institutions.

Problem solving Method:

This is a technique used by experienced teachers of either sample public or private university to ensure that training is essential for teachers of the sample universities for ensuring effective teaching, research and consultancy sources. An opportunity may be given to the trainee teacher to identify and solve real problems in higher education, like research problem identification, curriculum design, syllabus structure etc.

It has been revealed by focus group study, that teacher training methods are different forms like lectures, workshops, seminars, case studies etc. By depth interview, the research confirms that project work, role playing, guided reading and simulation can contribute to qualitative improvement of teachers of universities in general and in sample universities in particular. In the line of the findings of this research, 'knowledge Principles' of Androgogy (1977) may be considered for training of teachers of sample universities. Knowles [12] developed four principles for training of teachers/facilitators of an educational institution. These are as follows:

Principle 1: Teacher as self-directed:

Teachers are able to learn more effectively in a self-directed environment. It motivates the teachers to feel a need to learn. Learning is an iterative, dynamic process of change dependent on the self-efficacy of the teacher to take responsibility of teaching to the students of the sample universities. Galbraith [8] rightly argued that students and teachers are involved in a continual process of learning activity, reflection upon activity, collaborative analysis of activity, new activity, further reflection and so on.

Principle 2: Learners as Resources:

Teachers can be a resource for their own learning and the learning of their students. Bond et al. [2] identified that teachers undergo a basic change in the way that they feel about learning and allow students to rely on themselves as resources of learning. Patterson & Pegg claimed that collaborative approach is the best method for learning of teachers as well as of students.

Principle 3: Learning as Developmental:

This principle is focused on the teacher's developmental goals. It requires that teachers choose strategies that will enable them to achieve their learning goals. Lawson supports the importance of training in helping teachers to make career transitions and claims that training can be a powerful tool in influencing the delivery of education service to the students. Beaman [1] indicated that teachers need assessment not just for evaluation, but also for motivation and feedback of teaching. It appears that self actualization is the driving force in lifelong learning of a teacher for enhancing knowledge, skill and building capacity for achieving career goals in the profession.

Principle 4: Learning as Application to Real World:

The main theme of this principle is the need for immediate application of theory to practice. Galbraith [8] claims that successful education will relate theory to practice. Wankel & Deplillippi [20] advocate that bringing real world opportunities into the classroom through simulation, cases, technology and collaborative learning opportunities between educational institutions and business organizations.

Findings of Qualitative Research:

Depth interview has been used as an instrument for investigation and collection of qualitative data for the research purpose. The survey results are:

Training of Teachers for Professional Development:

The qualitative data claim that training is an essential component for the career development of the teachers. It has been reported that training methods of teachers are working in small groups, discussions, investigations, case studies, consultancy, research works, writing research reports, presentation of research findings in seminars and so on.

Teachers Training:

The focus group study reveals that the junior teachers have to discuss with senior colleagues about teaching, research and other relevant issues, organize ideas using e.g. concept maps and write project plans before lectures, seminars and presentation in the classroom. It appears that teachers will be given series of text books and other learning materials for value addition in their class room teaching, preparing research proposals for conducting research works and designing for consultancy services to the industry market. The present research argues that in everyday university life, teachers may prepare individual teaching material for class room teaching as well as classification in mind for meeting the query of their students.

Motivation Theories for Teacher's Training:

Literature review suggests that the two motivation theories (i) self-determination theory (Ryan & Deccizro) and (ii) socio emotional selectivity theory (Carstenses, 1991) may be used for training of the teachers of sample universities. The survey data supports that self-determination theory directly suggests informing teachers of how an action relates to their own career development. Again, socio emotional selectivity theory gives insight regarding motivational process for involving teachers in training methods for achieving their professional development. It appears that both theories play complementary role in the enrichment of training of teachers for assurance of quality in higher management education in Bangladesh in general and in sample universities.

ICT use as main Content focus of teacher training:

This approach has an emphasis on teacher training in how to use ICT in the class room. It covers issues such as selecting appropriate and adequate ICT tools and supporting students in the use of those tools, techniques, approaches, using ICT to promote learning activities, developing new methods of facilitating learning and evaluating students' performance and so on. It facilitates learning, thinking and promoting creativity in the teaching methodology for enhancing quality higher management education for creating skilled and productive business graduates in Bangladesh.

An internet based online teacher training has recently been introduced and has been found to provide a flexible and interactive training environment for teachers (Jerry, 2003). Moreover, web-based communication technologies may be applied for on-going professional development and networking of teachers for sample universities.

Conclusion:

Teaching is becoming one of the most challenging professions in our society and it is truer in case of management education in Bangladesh. Modern developments of innovative technologies have provided new facilities in teaching profession. These challenges compel teachers to continuously acquire new knowledge and skills for teaching to the students efficiently and effectively. It appears that TOT (Training of Trainers) can contribute in the management of teachers training for creating congenial and enjoyable learning environment in management education institutions especially in sample FBA of Public and Private Universities. Moreover, TOT may be used as an effective instrument to share resources, knowledge, experiences in providing effective and efficient teacher training too. Further, a well designed teacher training module is essential to meet the demands of today's teachers who want to learn to teach better and in competitive style.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 25 January 2014

Received in revised form

2 June April 2014

Accepted 6 June 2014

Available online 15 June 2014

REFERENCES

[1] Beaman, R., 1998. The Unquiet. Even Loud, Andragogy--Alternative Assessment for Adult Learners, Innovative Higher Education, 23(1): 47 (13).

[2] Bond, D. et al. 1993. Using Experience for Learning, Bristol, Pennsylvania: The Society for Research into Higher Education, Open University Press.

[3] Bonn, Empirica, 2006. Benchmarking Access and Use of ICT in Schools, The European Learning Foundation.

[4] Beardwell, I. & L. Holden, (Eds.) 1997. Human resource management: a contemporary perspective. Englewood Clifs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

[5] Carstensesn, I.I., 1991. Socio emotional selectivity theory. Social Activity in Life span context, Annual Review Gerontology and Geriatrics., 11: 195-217.

[6] Esterson, Emily, 1998 "First class delivery" Inc. Technology, September., 15: 89.

[7] Employment and Training Act, 1981. Manpower Service Commission, UK.

[8] Galbraith, M.W., 1990. Adult Learning Methods: A Grride for Effective Instruction, Malabar: Robert E. Krieger Publishing.

[9] Greiner, Jerry M., 2000. Convocation Speech, The Fourth Convocation Ceremony, Independent University, Dhaka, June 3.

[10] Haque, M. Shamsul, 2002. Higher Education in Bangladesh; Failure in Strategic Management with Catastrophic Consequences for the Nation, Management Forum (AMDIB), pp: 15.

[11] Haque, M.S., 2002. "Failure in Strategic Management with catastrophic consequences for the Nation", Management Forum, AMDIB, Dhaka, pp: 13.

[12] Knowles, M.S., 1977. "The Modern Practices of Adult Education: Andragogy vs. Pedagogy", New York: Association Press.

[13] Mannan, Abdul, 2012. "Creative teaching method", Seminar paper, HEQEP, CP-139, Department of Marketing Studies and International Marketing, Chittagong University.

[14] Vigaray, et al., 2010. "Teaching methods: a study and results in several modules of business studies", Proceedings of EDULEARN10 conference, Barcelona, Spain.

[15] McClelland, 2002. "A training needs assessment for the united way of DUNN County Wisconsin", p: 7.

[16] Patterson, I. & S. Pegg, 1999. Adult Learning on the Increase: The Need for Leisure Studies Program to Respond Management, pp: 328.

[17] Shollapur, M.R., 1999. Quality in Management Education: A Perspective: University News, 37(36): 1-5.

[18] Thompson, Deis, 2004. "Androgogy for adult learners in higher education", Allied academies international conference, p: 107.

[19] UGC Report, 2011. Dhaka

[20] Wankel, C. & B. Delippi, 2003. Educating Managers with Tomorrow's Technologies, Greenustech Conn: Information Age Publication.

[21] World Bank, 2010. Washington

(1) Md. Sarwar Uddin, (2) Mohammed Solaiman, (3) Mohammad Masrurul Mowla

(1) Assistant Professor and PhD Research Fellow, Faculty of Business Administration, BGC Trust University Bangladesh.

(2) Supernumerary Professor, Department of Marketing, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

(3) Associate Professor of Marketing, Department of Business Administration International Islamic University Chittagong (IIUC), Chittagong, Bangladesh

Corresponding Author: Md. Sarwar Uddin, Assistant Professor and PhD Research Fellow, Faculty of Business Administration, BGC Trust University Bangladesh

E-mail sarwaredu@gmail.com
Table 1: Break-down of Business Teachers in Terms
of Qualifications

Sample Public University

No. of      No. of     No. of     No. of without
teachers    Ph.D.      Second     second Degree
            holders    Degree     holders
                       holders
98          29         28         41

Sample Private University

No. of           No. of Ph.D.     No. of Second    No. of without
teachers         holders          Degree           second Degree
                                  holders          holders

45 (including    10 (including    03 (including    32 (including
part time        part time        part time        part time
teachers)        teachers)        teachers)        teachers)

(Source: Field Survey)
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Article Details
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Author:Uddin, Sarwar; Solaiman, Mohammed; Mowla, Mohammad Masrurul
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Jun 20, 2014
Words:3759
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