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Human malevolence and providence in King Lear.

Humanity must perforce prey on itself, Like monsters of the deep. (4.2.49-50)

IN 1903, Bertrand Russell captured the essence of the modern secular worldview in a well-known passage in "A Free Man's Worship":
 Brief and powerless is man's life; on him and all his race the
 slow, sure doom falls pitiless and dark. Blind to good and evil,
 reckless of destruction, omnipotent matter rolls on its relentless
 way. (115)


This materialist conception of man as a despairing orphan alone in an indifferent universe, still a staple theme in Shakespeare criticism, has always provided a double difficulty. On the one hand, there is the problem of aligning such a conception with the spiritual dimension in Shakespeare's works, with the various ghosts and faeries and with the anthropology of sin, suffering and restoration, if not resurrection, employed in various plays. But on the other hand, at least for part of the last century, King Lear, taken alone, seemed like a possible exception, as perhaps Shakespeare's momentary lapse into spiritual despair and rejection of Christianity, perhaps even his prophetic sense of the impending secular worldview. However, to Christian critics that view always seemed anachronistic in projecting a modern mindset onto a Jacobean play, and it clearly envisions an extraordinary break in theological continuity between Measure for Measure and the romances.

Here I shall argue that the play is not a theodicy, an indictment of divine justice of the sort that came in during the late seventeenth century and after, but instead an indictment of human malevolence, a theological position that was current during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. King Lear is indeed a naturalistic representation (as the secular critics have argued), but more precisely the postulated depiction of a pagan world placed against an implied theistic background and showing us the starkness of a world subject to human malevolence. Shakespeare inquires into the source of evil and points the finger of indictment, not at the gods whom he all but removes, but at human beings given over to passion and malice. Thus it is not the universe or the gods who are indifferent to the human suffering, as the secular critics would have it, but rather sinful humanity, who "must perforce prey on itself, like monsters of the deep" (4.2.49-50). (1) Obviously, this concentration on human malevolence would lose focus with the direct intervention of the gods, and so Shakespeare found it aesthetically necessary to reduce the divine element to the laws and operations of natural theology, of time and nature. Rather than problematizing theistic faith, King Lear probes the optimistic humanist faith in human nature, as for example with Erasmus's fragile anticipation in 1517 of "the near approach of a golden age," so quickly shattered by the Reformation engendered by Luther and Henry VIII. He raises precisely the questions Voltaire and his descendents have never been able to answer regarding the origin of human evil, the problem of suffering, the basis of human dignity, the fragility of human dependency on relationships, all the problems that affront the Enlightenment belief in optimism, autonomy, tolerance, the brotherhood of man and individual freedom. It is no wonder that the play appeals to the secular mentality as tragedy par excellence, since this hypothetically pagan world of Lear reflects the widely accepted worldview described by Russell. In the light of the brutal excesses of the twentieth century, however, it ought to have relevance as a study in human evil, rather than as a challenge to divine justice. The Enlightenment optimistic view of human nature requires the source of evil to be found in God. But to locate evil in God forces an anachronistic interpretation of Shakespeare from a modern perspective well outside the Medieval-Renaissance theological context that located evil in the "hard hearts" of mankind (3.6.76-77).

Let us for the moment retrace some past lines of interpretation of King Lear. With considerable simplification, to be sure, we might describe theological discussion over the past forty years as divided into three general approaches, two of which proceeded from rationalistic assumptions that stand in the way of an accurate assessment of the theology of the play. (2) The optimistic Christian interpretation, pursued by such critics as G. Wilson Knight and Roy Battenhouse, made out the ending of the play to be redemptive, or at least purgative or regenerative in some sense, in that suffering leads to growth in self-knowledge, patience, humility and love (Elton 3). For example, Ivor Morris, following Granville-Barker and Bradley, sees Lear as achieving a renunciation of the world and experiencing the value of the bond of love:
 Should we not be at least near the troth if we called this poem The
 Redemption of King Lear, and declared that the business of 'the
 gods' with him was neither to torment him, nor to teach him a
 'noble anger', but to lead him to attain through apparently
 hopeless failure the very end and aim of life? (3)


The problem is, of course, that at the end of the play Cordelia is hanged and Lear dies in a delusional state of mind, something well short of any suggestion of redemption. Nahum Tate and Samuel Johnson, as we all know, found the play's ending to be in violation of poetic justice, a lapse of rationality that seemingly justified rewriting the final scene.

More recently, the pessimistic secular interpretation, emanating from a once fashionable belief in a meaningless universe, has been equally rationalistic. Over the last thirty-five years, William Elton and Stephen Greenblatt are perhaps the most notable figures to pursue this line of reasoning, but they have argued from an obviously flawed conception of religion that hardly inspires confidence. (4) The inadequacies of their interpretations are evident enough. Elton advances his claims cautiously, alleging that Shakespeare uses what he inventively describes as the device of "sequential irony," that is, a series of some ten patterned instances in which appeals to the gods are either unanswered or followed by acts of human or divine cruelty. (5) "Sequential irony" is at first described rather hesitantly:
 ... In Lear structural irony is a principle of action which, with
 the safety of indirection, probes the ways of the gods to man....
 Lear may indicate the fallibility of pagan heavenly reliance (329)
 ... Perhaps, the sequence appears to imply, the gods are
 indifferent to weakness and oppression; perhaps, even further, such
 appeals serve only to exasperate them and summon their cruelty
 (330). [italics mine]


But gradually he moves on to claim more confidently that "divine cruelty apparently has no limits" (331). And he concludes that the play confirms "an implicit [italics mine] direction of the tragedy," an implicit direction towards an "annihilation of faith in poetic justice and, within the confines of a grim, pagan universe, annihilation of faith in divine justice" (334). Having appealed to an "implicit direction" to the tragedy, he claims that "the purported benevolent, just, or special providence cannot be shown to be operative" (336), and so the final scene "shatters ... the foundations of faith itself" (337). But this is an example of "heads I win, tails you lose." Elton finds implicit evidence for a skeptical Shakespeare, but then demands explicit evidence for a Christian one. And it is difficult to see how the play "shatters the foundations of faith," since faith traditionally has no visible "foundations" and is "the evidence for things unseen" (Hebrews 11.1). It seems remarkable that Elton's grasp of Christian theology was never seriously questioned.

Similarly, Greenblatt maintains that "the characters appeal again and again to the pagan gods, but the gods remain utterly silent" (Negotiations 119). And again "In King Lear, as Harsnett says of the Catholic church, 'neither God, Angel, nor devil can be gotten to speak'" (123). Even further, "Lear's sorrows are not redeemed; nothing can turn them into joy," and although the play has "generated the craving for such satisfaction" (125), it "empties out" the significance of religious ritual.

It seems only fair to point out that such thoroughgoing skepticism betrays some preconceptions and assumptions, preconceptions and assumptions that involve substantial difficulties. The chief of these is the curious likeness between the secular interpretation and a Puritan conception of the theater. Greenblatt conceives of theater as "a fraudulent institution" (127). He finds that as auditors of the play "we enjoy being brazenly lied to" (119), and, in his latest work describing Shakespeare as "a decisively secular dramatist," he reiterates the secular, theme that there "seems to be no overarching design" to the universe, the gods are "conspicuously, devastatingly silent" and they do not answer the prayers addressed to them (Will in the World 36, 357). The expectations embedded in these remarks are disturbingly rationalistic and simplistic: thus, drama should be based on literal truth, prayers should always be answered, the gods should directly intervene in the action or immediately respond to prayers, suffering is invariably to be equated with cruelty, virtue must always triumph, and so on. Too, Elton maintains that Shakespeare's audience contained a considerable number of skeptics, and of course they are pretentiously described as "more troubled and sophisticated" than the "less speculative devout" (Elton 338). (6) Perhaps the crowning irony is that if Shakespeare held the skeptical position adopted by Elton and Greenblatt, it would align him (and them) with the cruel atheists in the play: Edmund, Goneril, Regan and Cornwall, who almost never address the gods. Thus the secular interpretation suffers from some awkward ramifications and inconsistencies. Rooted as it is in an Enlightenment conception of religion as myth and superstition, and extolling the virtues of freedom, doubt, individualism and tolerance while simultaneously assigning all injustices to the gods, it is doubtful whether it can provide an accurate frame of reference for interpretation of an author who lived in an hierarchical, dogmatic and communal society. (7) Even if we assume that the gods do not exist in the play, then the responsibility for evil falls on Edmund, Cornwall and the two daughters. If we assume the gods exist and are malign, then again Edmund and his friends are responsible for cooperating as ministers of the gods, except possibly in the instance of the storm.

A variation on this interpretive line would conceive of the play as "problematizing theistic belief," that is, as turning the play into a presentation of questions, a play of opposites and polarities, a vehicle for skeptical examination of contrary positions. (8) But Elizabethan poetics stress the moral aim of moving us towards virtue and away from vice, that is, holding "the mirror up to nature" and showing "virtue her own feature, scorn her own image" (Hamlet, 3.2.22-23). (9) Again, this modern skepticism, emanating from the Enlightenment, assumes the existence of a substantial sixteenth-century audience of skeptics and the currency of skeptical philosophy, both questionable claims, pace Sextus Empiricus and Montaigne. (10) Moreover, sixteenth-century skepticism was not directed against religion, but was used by theologians against other religious positions, Catholic or Protestant. (11)

Within King Lear itself, there are indications that Shakespeare distances himself from skepticism. The evil Edmund's first speech on "nature" and "the plague of custom" expresses the skeptical reduction of morality to simple convention. (Compare Montaigne's essay "Of Custome": "The laws of conscience, which we say to proceed from nature, rise and proceed of custome." (12) Montaigne's scepticism of course fell back on custom as the source of social and moral order, whereas Edmund validates unregulated, fallen nature over against custom. Nevertheless, both conceive of custom as arbitrary.) In response to Edgar's celebrated sententia "Ripeness is all," the weak-minded Gloucester observes "And that's true too" (4.2.11), a passing satirical jab at the skeptical habit of equating the force of opposing statements and states of affairs (isostheneia). Confronted with his evil daughters, Lear wants to retreat into a calm state of ataraxia, reminiscent of the skeptical desire for therapeutic peace of mind, whereas the virtuous Cordelia wants to confront her sisters. The refusal to engage opposing positions and the desire to avoid conflict by seeking the comfort of ataraxia or tranquility is characteristic of the skeptical mind. (13) Elsewhere, the insufficiency of a skeptical view of reality is made apparent when Horatio sees the Ghost in Hamlet and exclaims "Before my God, I might not this believe / Without the sensible and true avouch / Of mine own eyes" (1.1.56-58), a vision confirmed three scenes later by young Hamlet himself, and the rootlessness of skepticism is explicitly satirized when Hamlet mocks Polonius's relativistic remarks about the shape of clouds (3.2.376-82). Overall, Shakespeare seems to consider skepticism the mark of weak minds.

The third, less prominent reading, best represented by Rene Fortin's brilliant treatment, has emphasized the mystery of the play. (14) It is this line of interpretation that I wish to reaffirm and pursue, albeit with some qualifications. While the secular interpretation is difficult to align with the religious culture of Elizabethan England, not to mention Shakespeare's general recognition of spiritual realities, and the fact that theodicy (the attempt to rationalize the ways of God to man) only flourished in the late seventeenth century, nevertheless the secular attention to the cosmic dimension of the play has some validity. We cannot reduce King Lear to a play about problems of retirement, family relationships, or political power and control. Its structural resemblance to the Book of Job remains striking with its serial divestment of the main character of his worldly goods and his children's support. But again Job clearly emphasizes the divine origin of the problem of evil in the initial exchange between God and Satan, a cosmic conversation absent in King Lear. Shakespeare instead traces the source of evil to the "hardness of heart" of mankind, represented by Goneril, Regan, Cornwall and Edmund. Even Lear himself seems to be at the heart of evil in the play, with his unnatural and "unkind" rejection of his favorite daughter Cordelia and his incontinent display of rage at his other daughters. And indeed, as I have argued elsewhere, the representation of the passion of anger, of extreme rage, seems to be Shakespeare's central concern. (15) In conjunction with this main point of interest, other important themes of nature and endurance and patience are repeated and orchestrated, along with the more subdued but important religious references to doomsday and final judgment. However, this line of theological interpretation still raises some important questions.

First of all, the relation of King Lear to its earlier presumed source King Leir seems problematic. According to Elton (70), "the religious references in the old play are, for the most part, explicitly Christian," and Shakespeare makes of the story a "paganized version of a Christian play." Unquestionably then, it is necessary to explain why Shakespeare secularizes, naturalizes or paganizes his Christianized source. But this problem is not difficult to resolve, as several Christian critics have pointed out. (16) The setting in ancient Britain emphasizes the mystery and the harshness of the pagan world, the bleakness of a world without the Christian God, and it may well be that Shakespeare is calling attention to the falsity of pagan gods. (17) I would add that a more significant reason for Shakespeare's de-Christianizing of the old play is precisely that a pagan setting heightens the mystery and the tragedy, whereas explicit Christian themes of forgiveness, redemption and a loving God would clearly weaken the tragic effect, which in Elizabethan criticism is made out to be the pain of sorrow and woe. There are, of course, other literary examples of naturalistic representations in sixteenth-century England. More's Utopia portrays a society without the advantages of revelation, and Shakespeare's Caliban shows us man without nurture (who finally sues for grace), and so on.

So Shakespeare has indeed produced a "pagan" play, but one that is not quite secularized in a modern sense, but rather naturalized in a Jacobean sense. There are a considerable number of Christian references scattered throughout the play. For example, there are references to faith, reason and miracles (1.1.222-3), priests (3.2.81), hell (4.6.127), holy water (4.3.30), redemption from original sin (4.6.206), souls in bliss (4.7.45), the end-time (5.3.264-65), the rack (5.3.315) and the after-life (5.3.322). They are not emphasized, to be sure, but they are woven into the naturalistic representation, and some of them are strategically placed. When Cordelia returns from France to rescue her father, she is twice described as a Christ figure:
 O dear father,
 It is thy business that I go about. (4.4.23-24)

 Thou hast [one] daughter
 Who redeems nature from the general curse. (4.6.205-6)


The latter allusion to Christ's redemption of mankind makes Elton's claim that Cordelia merely represents a "virtuous heathen" very difficult to accept. Moreover, as several critics have pointed out, the final scene seems designed as a secular imitation of Michelangelo's Pieta, when Lear enters with the dead Cordelia in his arms in place of the crucified Christ. Then too, Kent and Edgar liken Lear's collapse to the end of the world.
 Kent. Is this the promis'd end?
 Edg. Or image of that horror? (5.3.264-65)


After Lear has died, Kent clearly refers to the after-life, a strange punctuating remark if the final scene is secular and pessimistic.
 I have a journey, sir, to go:
 My master calls me, I must not say no. (5.3.322-23)


These passing Christian allusions compel us to qualify the description of Shakespeare's play as secularized, particularly in a modern sense. There is still something of a Christian theological frame around Shakespeare's portrait of Lear as "this great decay" (5.3.298).

Less obvious is the general atmosphere created in King Lear and its reflection of the situation of Catholics in England. Shakespeare seems especially concerned with some timely Catholic anxieties, which may explain the appeal the play had for Cholmeley's Men as they toured Yorkshire and were carefully watched by the authorities. With Gloucester, there is torture and persecution by malign figures, such as was the case with Topcliffe and his crew. With Edgar, there is the need for concealment and endurance of the sort that was necessary for the Jesuits in particular and Catholics in general. With Edmund's fake letter and the mock trial, a recent article has pointed out interesting parallels to the Monteagle letter and the Gunpowder Plot trial (See Nina Taunton and Valerie Hart, "King Lear, King James and the Gunpowder Treason of 1605"). There is the strangely positive attitude toward foreign invasion, in this case by the French who come to save Lear, suggestive of the Spanish Armada and its failure (see also the foreign invasions in King John and Cymbeline). There is the positive attitude toward exorcism and "miracles" as a kind of benevolent fraud practiced for the spiritual good of the individual, just as Edgar tricks his father out of his despair. And finally, there is the rejection and betrayal of the father by his children, a possibility that must have harried some Catholic parents. These are all fears and anxious concerns that obviously applied more to the general situation of Catholics in England than to Protestants. Furthermore, it is extremely hard to imagine the play as Protestant in tendency, when the Protestant tendency was toward stylistic plainness, rather than Catholic baroque intricacy and ornateness, and toward condemnation of the drama as conducive to vice, rather than as curative and conducive to virtue.

Following the opening acts of the play, dominated by passion and rejection, the second stage of the play (Acts 3 & 4) brings into view the suffering of Lear and Gloucester. The secular rationalistic accounts of their sufferings, most influentially argued by Elton and Greenblatt, trace them to divine indifference (even cruelty) and make of them an indictment of the gods. Suffering by implication is therefore absurd and meaningless, if not cruel.

But in fact, as I have indicated above, together with the rationalistic demand for visible intervention by the gods, for immediate answers to prayers and for tidy rational endings, the secular view of suffering is too simplistic, too oblivious to the theological dimension of the play. (18) In the Enlightenment manner, its appeal lies in its negative indictment of a Christian worldview, not in any independent, positive explanation on its own terms, and, again, it would rather embarrassingly place the secular critics on the side of Edmund, Goneril and Regan. Neither can it account for the play's anthropology of sin, suffering, forgiveness and reconciliation. I pass over the larger problem of indicting gods who are not there, or the residual Christianity implied in finding a pagan universe "grim." In short, as Rene Fortin has acutely observed:
 If we examine closely the secular arguments, we find that nothing
 short of poetic justice would validate a religious argument; (2)
 that a truly Christian play would have to dramatize the miraculous
 intervention of the gods or otherwise catch them red-handed as
 they intrude into the affairs of men; and (3) that the universe in
 which the tragic ordeal takes place would have to be transparently
 meaningful. (115)


Contrariwise, a Christian or theistic reading avoids these pitfalls. If we turn to various well-known Christian theological sources, it is apparent that divine beings are spiritual and invisible, that providence operates through the mediation of virtuous human beings, and, most importantly, that suffering can have value--it can be punishment for sin, it can be perfective, it can be expiatory, it can be redemptive, and it can lead to illumination. (19) In general, for example, John Calvin calls attention to the mystery of God's justice as inscrutable, unsearchable and surpassing man's reason. Consequently, we can only wonder at it (Institutes 3.23.5). More specifically, according to Thomas Aquinas, God's justice is proportioned, and so:
 Mercy and truth are necessarily found in all God's works, if mercy
 be taken to mean the removal of any kind of defect.... Justice and
 mercy appear in the punishment of the just in this world, since by
 afflictions lesser faults are cleansed in them, and they are the
 more raised up from earthly affections to God. As to this Gregory
 says: (Moral. xxvi.9): The evils that press on us in this world
 force us to go to God. (Summa 1.21.4; Cf. also Seneca, On
 Providence, 1.6)


More severely, Calvin perceives affliction as twofold: God's vengeance serves to punish, and his chastisement to correct and improve.
 But all of us are not a little concerned to understand the purpose
 of the chastisements by which God reproves our sins ... One
 judgment we call, for the sake of teaching, that of vengeance; the
 other, of chastisement. Now by the judgment of vengeance, God
 should be understood as taking vengeance upon his enemies; so that
 he exercises his wrath against them, he confounds them, he scatters
 them, he brings them to nought. Therefore, let us consider this to
 be God's vengeance, properly speaking: when punishment is joined
 with his indignation. In the judgment of chastisement he is not so
 harsh as to be angry, nor does he take vengeance so as to blast
 with destruction. Consequently, it is not, properly speaking,
 punishment or vengeance, but correction and admonition. (3.4.31)


And to turn to an influential non-Christian authority, one should point out that Seneca in his "On Providence" provides a similar perspective:
 But as the discussion progresses, I shall show how the things that
 seem to be evils are not really so. This much I now say,--that
 those things which you call hardships, which you call adversities
 and accursed, are, in the first place, for the good of the persons
 themselves to whom they come; in the second place, that they are
 for the good of the whole human family, for which the gods have a
 greater concern than for single persons; again, I say that good men
 are willing that these things should happen and, if they are
 unwilling, that they deserve misfortune. I shall add, further, that
 these things happen thus by destiny, and that they rightly befall
 good men by the same law which makes them good. I shall induce you,
 in fine, never to commiserate a good man. For he can be called
 miserable, but he cannot be so. (On Providence, p. 15)


In this vein, Seneca goes on to describe the relation between the gods and men in terms of certain analogies: God as Athletic Trainer, God as Good Father, God as Skillful Surgeon, the Good Man as Gladiator, and the Good Man as Soldier. Finally, he maintains that Good Fortune is a curse, since it enfeebles virtue.

Thus the classical and Christian worldviews conceive of the world as a crucible, as "a vale for soul-making," to use the phrase of John Keats, in contrast to the Enlightenment utopian attempt to transform the world into an earthly paradise, a paradise that the early Wordsworth thought would be "a simple produce of the common day." After the Enlightenment utopian project begins, the conception of suffering understandably changes from something meaningful and perfective to something scandalous and debilitating. The latter frame of reference, of course, would have rendered Shakespeare's play incomprehensible to his audience. The "forlorn hope of an impossible redemption" of which Greenblatt speaks would have registered as applying to hope in this radically imperfectible world and to the preposterous illusion of utopian perfection, not to hope in the redemptive power of Christ.

Whether from Senecan, Calvinist or Thomistic sources, then, Shakespeare is clearly aware of this theological conception of suffering as punitive, purgative, perfective and illuminative. In The Tempest, Ariel explains to the three men of sin, that Providence "delaying, not forgetting" their foul deeds, has incensed the seas and shores against their peace, attempting to lead them to "heart's sorrow /And a clear life ensuing" (3.3.53-6, 73-5, 81-2). Accordingly, Prospero through his art brings those who have sinned against him to penitence and illumination:
 ... They being penitent,
 The sole drift of my purpose doth extend
 Not a frown further.
 ... The charm dissolves apace,
 And as the morning steals upon the night,
 Melting the darkness, so their rising senses
 Begin to chase the ignorant fumes that mantle
 Their clearer reason. (5.1.28-30, 64-8)


Subsequently, Alonso resigns his dukedom and asks pardon for his wrongs (5.1.118-19). The parallel in the two plays of a providential storm punishing sinners and bringing them to illumination and reconciliation seems unmistakable. In both plays, there is a certain dynamic. First, sin is followed by a punitive storm, which leads to a second stage of distraction and madness, and then to a third stage of illumination, pardon and reconciliation.

This patterned sequence occurs in dual form in King Lear. After the addled Lear is brought to Cordelia in a chair asleep, he awakes and recognizes her as his good daughter (4.7.41-44). His misperception of the moral quality of his three daughters is certainly purged and rectified, and his afflictions have cleansed him, not only of "lesser faults" but of the major passion of angry rage. Again, the parallel action in the sub-plot involving Gloucester moves from his sin and misperception of the moral quality of his two sons to his punitive suffering and illumination, to the final revelation that Edgar is his good child and Edmund his bad. Indeed, in the scene immediately following the loss of his eyes, Gloucester's words confirm this conception of illuminative and perfective suffering--But Gloucester's other eye is put out, as he calls upon Edmund to rescue him to no avail. With his total blindness comes the revelation that Edgar has been his good son:
 O my follies! Then Edgar was abus'd.
 Kind gods, forgive me that, and prosper him! (3.7.91-92)


With the loss of his second eye, Gloucester gains in spiritual insight and a sense of forgiveness. He sees reality as it is, leaving off his former blindness and vengefulness and recognizing Edgar as his true son. In the very next scene, the commentary of Gloucester underscores this. After Edgar encounters his blind father being led by an old man, he exclaims against the world, not the gods--"World, world, O world" [Elton somehow links this remark to the "irony of the gods" and to divine cruelty]--and then Gloucester comments:
 I stumbled when I saw. Full oft 'tis seen,
 Our means secure us, and our mere defects
 Prove our commodities. (4.1.19-21)


That is, our worldly means and the security of prosperity deceive us, and our defects or adversities prove to be benefits. In both plots, then, misperception (or spiritual blindness) leads to madness or physical blindness, and then to recognition and illumination.

We cannot, then, accurately describe Shakespeare's conception of providence in King Lear as completely "pagan" or nihilistic in the modern sense. Contrary to the claims of Elton and Greenblatt, prayers are answered and the gods do operate in the action of the play. (20) But not explicitly and not always, as a few critics have observed. (21) Shakespeare acknowledges the mystery of divine providence and does not represent the action of providence rationalistically. By definition, of course, faith does not depend on evidence or sensible validation (In Hebrews 11.1, the classic definition, faith is "the evidence for things not seen"), and some notable blunders have been made by secular scholars in this respect, especially with the not uncommon claim, for example, that faith is based on science or the medieval worldview. (22) As I have mentioned, Elton follows this view when he refers to "the foundations of faith." It seems necessary to point out what should be obvious to anyone familiar with Christian theology, that prayers can go unanswered and that the gods act supernaturally, that is, without visibly manifesting themselves. By definition, the supernatural is beyond the natural.

Clearly then, the gods are not directly seen, but rather they enter into the action supernaturally by mediation through virtuous human beings. Several examples occur in the course of the play. In the first scene, Kent commends Cordelia to the gods:
 Kent. The gods to their dear shelter take thee, maid,
 That justly think'st and hast most rightly said! (1.1.182-83)


And then, calling attention to the gods' mysterious "neglect," France accepts Cordelia as his wife:
 France. Gods, gods! 'tis strange that from their cold'st neglect My
 love should kindle to inflam'd respect. (1.1.254-55)


Following Kent's prayer, France's chiasmus, remarking the "strange" and wondrous movement from the gods' "cold'st neglect" to his "inflam'd respect," suggests that mysterious mediation through human beings is taking place.

Later, there is another important sequence. First, one of Gloucester's eyes is put out:
 Corn. See't shalt thou never. Fellows, hold the chair. Upon these
 eyes of thine I'll set my foot.
 Glou. He that will think to live till he be old, Give me some help!
 O cruel! O you gods! (3.7.67-70


Immediately, one of the servants protests and wounds Cornwall, as if in answer to this appeal to the gods. Albany responds to the news that Cornwall has been killed, attributing the action to the gods acting through the servant:
 This shows you are above,
 You justicers, that these our nether crimes
 So speedily can venge. (4.2.78-80)


More significantly, as a parallel consequence of their respective sins of lust and rage, Gloucester is blinded, and Lear slips into madness. The plot and sub-plot continue this parallel representation of sin and its punishment, bringing both men to a less punitive, more medicinal conversion. On the cliffs of Dover, Edgar tricks Gloucester out of despair into a more hopeful attitude. And Cordelia prays that the gods might cure Lear's madness:
 O you kind gods!
 Cure this great breach in his abused nature
 Th' untun'd and jarring senses, O, wind up
 Of this child-changed father. (4.7.13-16)


Not surprisingly, within thirty lines, through the ministrations accorded Lear by the Doctor, the old king is cured.

The overall theological principle, then, is that providential governance manifests itself through the mediation of virtuous human beings like Cornwall's servant, Edgar, Cordelia and the Doctor. The principle is perhaps best expressed by Lear as he considers the "poor, naked wretches" who must suffer homeless and unfed in the storm:
 O, I have ta'en
 Too little care of this! Take physic, pomp,
 Expose thyself to feel what wretches feel,
 That thou mayst shake the superflux to them,
 And show the heavens more just. (3.4.35-7)


By compassionate giving to the poor one's excess wealth or "superflux," one manifests the justice of the gods. Just as Lear gains a sense of compassion from his suffering in the storm, so also does Gloucester as he gives money to Edgar disguised as poor Tom:
 Here, take this purse, thou whom the heav'ns' plagues
 Have humbled to all strokes. That I am wretched
 Makes thee the happier; heavens, deal so still!
 Let the superfluous and lust-dieted man,
 That slaves your ordinance, that will not see
 Because he does not feel, feel your pow'r quickly;
 So distribution should undo excess,
 And each man have enough. (4.1.64-71).


A similar point about mediation is made elsewhere in All's Well That Ends Well and in Antony and Cleopatra:
 He that of greatest works is finisher
 Oft does them by the weakest minister....
 Methinks in thee some blessed spirit doth speak
 His powerful sound within an organ weak.
 (2.1.136-41,175-76; see also 2.3.24-39)

 You are abus'd
 Beyond the mark of thought; and the high gods,
 To do you justice, makes his ministers
 Of us and those that love you. Antony and Cleopatra (3.6.88).


Reformed-Protestant and secular-based commentary unfortunately tends to locate grace and nature, the divine and the human, at entirely separated extremes. Thus it seems to follow, for one Protestant critic, that Albany's comment on the justice of Cornwall's death has nothing to do with the action of the gods but is "the result of the self-sacrificing and very human heroism of Cornwall's servant." Likewise, in his speech on shaking the "superflux" to the poor, Lear is not meaning to "shew the heavens more just" but is rather proposing "that 'Divine justice' is, in fact, man's doing" (Hunter 188-9). Another Protestant critic alleges that "So far as nonhuman forces are concerned, the play works almost entirely within the concept of nature with its storm and calm" (West 160).

Such reductive commentary proceeds, however, without much reference to sixteenth-century theologians, for whom the orders of grace and nature are complementary. Aquinas, whom we can take as the normative Catholic theologian, observes that God mediates his providence:
 ... there are certain intermediaries of God's providence; for He
 governs things inferior by superior, not on account of any defect
 in His power, but by reason of His goodness; so that the dignity of
 causality is imparted even to creatures. (la 22.3; cf. Calvin Inst.
 1.16.9)


In the same article, he goes on to argue against Plato's notion of three-fold providence, the second of which may apply to Gloucester's belief in planetary influence and Edmund's cynical reply (1.2.103-33):
 The second providence is over individuals of all that can be
 generated and corrupted, [Plato] attributed to the divinities who
 circulate in the heavens; that is, certain separate substances,
 which move corporeal things in a circular direction.


It would seem that Protestant theologians were less inclined to admit human mediation. As Alexandra Walsham points out:
 The particular preoccupation which Protestants displayed with the
 workings of providence stemmed in large part from their expulsion
 of all intermediaries between God and the individual soul,
 from their uncompromising insistence upon mankind's utter impotence
 and depravity and complete dependence upon the mercy of
 its Maker and Redeemer. Heightened awareness of the awesome
 and irresistible power of the Almighty was a logical corollary of
 elevating grace above strenuous human effort and making it the
 sole criterion for salvation (9).


But in spite of the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 and the exposure of the Gunpowder Plot in 1605, popularly perceived as purely divine interventions, theologians such as Calvin (Inst. 1.17.9) and others had allowed for human mediation (Walsham 12-13).

However, in addition to operating through virtuous human beings, Shakespeare also conceives of providence as working through time and nature. Edgar's notion that "ripeness is all" (5.2.11), with the implied necessity of virtuous endurance and patience, suggests that Nature (the servant of Providence) acts not immediately but over the course of time. (23) At the end of the first scene, Cordelia warns her sisters who have flattered Lear:
 Time shall unfold what plighted cunning hides,
 Who covers faults, at last with shame derides. (1.1.280-81)


This is precisely what happens in the course of the play. Goneril and Regan are exposed as cunning flatterers, but only in the course of time. Indeed, after Albany learns of Goneril's cruel treatment of Lear, he remarks rather prophetically:
 If that the heavens do not their visible spirits
 Send quickly down to tame [these] vile offenses,
 It will come,
 Humanity must perforce prey on itself,
 Like monsters of the deep. (4.2.46-50)


Eventually, this prediction that punishment "will come" takes place as Regan and Goneril "marry in an instant," Regan being poisoned by Goneril and Goneril committing suicide (5.3.224-29). Edmund too expresses the notion as he dies:
 What you have charg'd me with, that have I done,
 And more, much more, the time will bring it out. (5.3.163-4)


The theme recurs in The Tempest when Ariel scolds Alonso and his friends for their treatment of Prospero:
 ... for which foul deed
 The pow'rs, delaying (not forgetting), have
 Incens'd the seas and shores ... (3.3.72-74)


Ariel describes himself as a minister of Fate so that it seems clear that the heavenly powers act through mediation and in the course of time, not directly and immediately as the secular critics have demanded. (24)

It is also clear from Catholic and Protestant theologians that not all prayers are answered. (25) Shakespeare's awareness of the relevant theological principle is evident from what Menecrates says in Antony and Cleopatra:
 We, ignorant of ourselves,
 Beg often our own harms, which the wise pow'rs
 Deny us for our good (2.1.5-7).


Thus, from a theological standpoint, divine providence answers prayers with the good of mankind in mind (presumably the spiritual good, even more than the material good). There is also the suggestion of mystery, of two distinct orders of knowledge. Humankind is ignorant of itself, the gods are the "wiser pow'rs."

Consider now three paramount examples: Gloucester's loss of his eyes (3.7.67-82), Edgar's bidding Gloucester to pray that the right side will prevail in battle (5.2.2) and Lear's loss of Cordelia, this after Albany exclaims "The gods defend her" (5.3.257). In each case, the prayer goes unanswered. As we have seen, although Cornwall's servant intervenes, Gloucester's loss of sight leads to his spiritual awareness, his ignorance to his spiritual good. But Edgar's bidding Gloucester to pray (perhaps significantly not an actualized action in the play) goes unanswered, and the innocent Cordelia dies. These two instances simply suggest that Shakespeare's theology does not assume a thoroughgoing rationalistic form. Traditionally, the gods act in mysterious ways, as in the Book of Job and Isaiah 55.8: "My thoughts are not your thoughts, nor are your ways my ways." Despite the scandal taken by the secular critics, the suffering of the innocent is a significant part of the Judeo-Christian tradition, especially evident in the principal iconic examples of Job and Christ. Both are complete innocents like Cordelia. Shakespeare follows this aspect of Christian theology in all his tragedies with the deaths of the innocent Paris, Emilia, Laertes, Ophelia, Lady Macduff and her son, and most poignantly with Cordelia. The realistic portrait of the consequences of sinful passion and sheer malice requires that the innocent die with the guilty. Rationalist interpretations fail at this point to take into account the doctrine of original sin and the consequent conception of the world as fallen away from reason and subject to evil, disorder and chaos.

Theologically, Aquinas explains this providential order in terms of universal and particular causes working in a fallen world;
 A thing can escape the order of a particular cause; but not the
 order of a universal cause. For nothing escapes the order of a
 particular cause except through the intervention and hindrance of
 some other particular cause; as, for instance, wood may be
 prevented from burning, by the action of water. ... Since God,
 then, provides universally for all being, it belongs to his
 providence to permit certain defects in particular effects, that
 the perfect good of the universe may not be hindered, for if all
 evil were prevented, much good would be absent from the universe. A
 lion would cease to live, if there were no slaying of animals; and
 there would be no patience of martyrs if there were no tyrannical
 persecution. (1a 22.2)


In other words, without evil in the world, there would be no occasion for the exercise of virtue of the sort shown by various characters in the play.

Consistent with Christian theology, both Catholic and Calvinist, Shakespeare locates the source of evil and disorder in humanity itself. Lear himself poses the question:
 Then let them anatomize Regan; see what breeds about her heart.
 Is there any cause in nature that makes these hard hearts?
 (3.6.76-77)


The phrase "hard hearts" has an obvious scriptural resonance, reminding us of Pharaoh's hardness of heart, reiterated some twenty times in Exodus. Shakespeare not only plays on "hard hearts" but also on the variation "stony hearts" with Lear's exclamation in the last scene "O, you are men of stones" (5.3.258). Again the source of "hardness of heart" is a theological question dealt with by both Aquinas (Summa 1a2ae 79.3-4) and Calvin (Institutes 3.24.13-14). Aquinas's discussion of blindness and hardness of heart (excaecatio and obduratio) is of particular interest, suggesting the spiritual condition of both Gloucester and Lear:
 ... hence it is that spiritual blindness corresponds to sight,
 heaviness of the ears to hearing, and hardness of heart to the
 affections. (1A2Ae 79.3)
 Therefore blindness, of its very nature, is directed to the
 damnation of those who are blinded; for which reason it is
 accounted an effect of reprobation. But through God's mercy,
 temporary blindness is directed medicinally to the spiritual
 welfare of those who are blinded. (1a2ae 79.4)


Lear's initial "spiritual blindness" and hardness of heart towards Cordelia, paralleled by Gloucester's "spiritual blindness" towards Edgar and brazenness towards Edmund, ultimately leads to spiritual awareness and healing. The Doctor "cures" Lear after Cordelia implores the gods:
 O you kind gods!
 Cure this great breach in his abused nature,
 Th' untun'd and jarring senses. (4.7.13-16)


And Gloucester, after addressing the gods and trying to end his suffering, is "preserved" by them, according to the commentary of Edgar (4.6.34-36, 74). Thus there is a double pattern of blindness and hardness of heart, followed by the humiliating and softening recognition of sin, and completed by providential healing. Again, Aquinas's comments seem relevant:
 Blindness is a kind of preamble to sin. Now sin has a twofold
 relation,--to one thing directly, viz. to the sinner's
 damnation;--to another, by reason of God's mercy or providence,
 viz. that the sinner may be healed, in so far as God permits some
 to fall into sin, that by acknowledging their sin, they may be
 humbled and converted, as Augustine states (De Nat. et Grat. Xxii).
 (la2ae 79.4)


The same pattern is drawn from scriptural sources by Calvin who, in explaining resistance to preaching of the Word, cites Isaiah 6.9-10:
 Make the heart of this people stubborn, and their ears heavy, and
 shut their eyes; lest perchance they see with their eyes, and hear
 with their ears, and understand with their hearts, and turn and be
 healed. (Institutes 3.24.13)


He adds:
 When the impious hear these things, they complain that God with
 unbridled power abuses his miserable creatures for his cruel
 amusement. But we ... confess that the wicked suffer nothing out of
 accord with God's most righteous judgment. Despite the fact that we
 do not clearly grasp the reason for this, let us not be unwilling
 to admit some ignorance where God's wisdom rises to its height.
 (3.24.14)


Albeit the existence of mystery is acknowledged, the play clearly divides the characters into those who are hard of heart (Edmund, Goneril, Regan and Cornwall) and those who are compassionate and charitably virtuous (Edgar, Cordelia and Albany). The former perish to a man, the latter survive, except for Cordelia. Thus the ending of the play leaves us with an undoubted sense of mystery, but with some sense of rational order as well, indeed of partial poetic justice apparent in the survival of Edgar, Kent and Albany.

In the light of these theological dimensions of the play, it is important to realize that Lear's poignant question "Why should a dog, a horse, a rat, have life, / And thou no breath at all?" emanates from a weakened mind, a mind still unable to see the real cause of evil. All too obviously the basic plot of the play points out, not the injustice of the gods, but the savagery of human evil. Albany observes that "Humanity must perforce prey upon itself, / Like monsters of the deep" (4.2.49-50). Thus, Lear is not mistreated by the gods, but by his evil daughters. Gloucester is not tortured by divine agents but by Cornwall, Goneril and Regan. And Cordelia, after all, is not done in by a storm or supernatural beings, but by Edmund. Lear's question "Is there any cause in nature that make[s] these hard hearts?" (3.6.77-8) seems clearly answered. The injustice of the heavens alleged by some critics is in reality the result of human evil. (26)

Emerging at the end of the play, the sense of a rational order in nature, rather than a purely redemptive one, suggests that Shakespeare conceives of nature in Catholic rather than Protestant terms. (27) Finally the order of nature is not completely corrupted, and the Catholic doctrine of merit, implying both human participation in divine providence and reward for virtuous action, seems to have some place. Thus Lear realizes the importance of charitable mediation: "Take physic, pomp / ... That thou mayst shake the superflux to them, / And show the heavens more just" (3.4.35-7), and Albany declares: "All friends shall taste / The wages of their virtue, and all foes / The cup of their deservings" (5.3.303-5).

In essence, then, in King Lear Shakespeare represents a world reduced to its starkest natural dimensions. He portrays the deficiency, indeed the horror, of a world apparently without grace and certainly without redemption, very much contrary to what he does in the romances that followed King Lear. The gods remain silent, human beings manifest either very little virtue or a great deal of cruelty. From the very first scenes, we sense that Cordelia's appeal to her natural bond seems a trifle severe, that Edmund's ode to the goddess Nature is clearly self-serving, and that Gloucester's conception of the world being ruled by the planets seems impersonal and cold. Lear's objection to "unaccommodated man" is an eloquent testimony to the inhumanity of a natural world devoid of the gift of Christian faith and of its conception of human dignity based on man as created in the image of God:
 Thou wert better in a grave than to answer with
 thy uncover'd body this extremity of the skies.
 Is man no more than this? Consider him well.
 Thou ow'st the worm no silk, the beast no hide,
 the sheep no wool, the cat no perfume. ... Thou art
 the thing itself: unaccommodated man is no more
 but such a poor, bare, fork'd animal as thou art. (3.4.101-9)


Lear is no Promethean rebel, angrily indicting the heavens for earthly injustices, but a pagan Jeremiah pointing the finger at "man's inhumanity to man" and objecting to the reduction of humanity to a mere "fork'd animal." To the contrary, the transcendent example of true humanity lies in the radiantly virtuous Cordelia, with her truthfulness, her compassion, and her filial love.

A thoroughly logical secular interpretation would attribute everything to accident and chance without any mystery about it. Accordingly, Gloucester's loss of his eyes would be simply an unlucky consequence of being in the wrong place at the wrong time. Lear would merely suffer the misfortune of having two malign daughters. And Cordelia would die by accident, unfortunately forgotten by Albany. With the gods in exile, nothing makes sense, because if the universe is indeed a random and accidental chaos, then there is no divine justice or injustice. There is only Lady Fortune, arbitrary and capricious.

Finally, then, previous secular accounts of King Lear fail to bring adequately into interpretive play certain theological doctrines, common to sixteenth-century Catholics and Protestants alike: particularly the notions that the workings of Providence are transcendent and mysterious, that the "gods" work by mediation through virtuous human beings, that prayers are not always answered, that suffering can be punitive and perfective and that the source of evil lies not in God but in the hardness of the human heart when it is given to passion and malice. A theologically sophisticated Christian drama would therefore present such a spiritual understanding of the world incorporating a certain sense of mystery, rather than employ a crudely moralistic, rationalistic and graphic illustration of Christian truths, as the secular critics demand. Shakespeare stands in the Medieval, not the Enlightenment, tradition of theology.

Works Cited

Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica. 3 vols. Ed. Fathers of the Dominican Province. NY: Benziger, 1947.

Battenhouse, Roy W. Shakespearean Tragedy: Its Art and Its Christian Premises. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1969.

Beauregard, David. Virtue's Own Feature: Shakespeare and the Virtue Ethics Tradition. Newark: U Delaware P, 1995.

Biscoglio, Frances. "Invocations to the Gods in King Lear." Shakespeare Newsletter 51 (2001): 13-18.

Calvin, John. Institutes of the Christian Religion. Trans. Ford Lewis Battles. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1960.

Diehl, Huston. "Religion and Shakespearean tragedy." In The Cambridge Companion to Shakespearean Tragedy. Ed. Claire McEachern. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002. Pp. 86-102.

Doran, Madeleine. Endeavors of Art: A Study of Form in Elizabethan Drama. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1954.

Elton, William. King Lear and the Gods. Rev. ed. Lexington: UP Kentucky, 1988; original edition 1966, reprinted 1968.

Fortin, Rene. "Hermeneutical Circularity and Christian Interpretations of King Lear." Shakespeare Studies 12 (1979): 113-25.

--. "King Lear: Tragedy and the Anatomy of Evil," Faith & Reason 28 (2003), 299-316.

Greenblatt, Stephen. "Shakespeare Bewitched." In New Historical Literary Study: Essays on Reproducing Texts, Representing History. Ed Jeffrey Cox and Larry Reynolds. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1993. pp. 108-35.

--. Shakespearean Negotiations: The Circulation of Social Energy in Renaissance England. Berkeley: U California P, 1988.

--. Will in the World: How Shakespeare Became Shakespeare. NY: Norton, 2004.

Halio, Jay. King Lear: A Guide to the Play. Westport, CT: Greenwood P, 2001.

Holbrook, Peter. "Shakespeare as a Force for Good." Shakespeare Survey 56 (2003): 203-14.

Hunter, Robert G. Shakespeare and the Mystery of God's Judgments. Athens, GA: U Georgia P, 1976.

Lawrence, Sean. "'Gods That We Adore': The Divine in King Lear," Renascence 56.3 (Spring 2004): 143-59.

McAlindon, T. Shakespeare's Tragic Cosmos. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1991.

Montaigne, Michel. The Essayes of Montaigne: John Florio's Translation. Ed. J. I. M. Stewart. New York: Modern Library, n. d. Bk. 1, Ch. XXII. pp. 80-81.

Murdoch, Iris. "Against Dryness." In Existentialists and Mystics: Writings on Philosophy and Literature. New York: Penguin, 1999. Pp. 287-96.

Nussbaum, Martha. The Therapy of Desire: Theory and Practice in Hellenistic Ethics. (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1994), 280-315.

Pincoffs, Edmund. "Quandary Ethics" Mind (1971): 552-71.

Popkin, Richard. The History of Scepticism: from Erasmus to Spinoza. Berkeley: U California P, 1979.

Ray, Robert. Approaches to Teaching Shakespeare's King Lear. NY: MLA, 1986: 23-28.

Russell, Bertrand. "A Free Man's Worship." In Why I am not a Christian. London, 1903.

Schmitt, Charles B. and Skinner, Quentin, eds. The Cambridge History of Renaissance Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988.

Seneca. "On Providence." In Seneca: Moral Essays. Vol. 1. Trans. John Basore. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1928.

Shakespeare, William. The Riverside Shakespeare. Ed. G. Blakemore Evans. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1974.

Smith, G. Gregory. Elizabethan Critical Essays. 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1904.

Sommerville, C. John. The Secularization of Early Modern England: From Religious Culture to Religious Faith. NY: Oxford UP, 1992.

Strier, Richard. "Shakespeare and the Skeptics," Religion & Literature (2000): 171-96.

Taunton, Nina and Hart, Valerie, "King Lear, King James and the Gunpowder Treason of 1605," Renaissance Studies 17 (2003): 695-715.

Thompson, Ann, ed. King Lear. Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press International, Inc., 1988.

Tuve, Rosemond. Elizabethan and Metaphysical Imagery. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1947.

Walsh, James and Walsh, P. G., eds. Divine Providence & Human Suffering. Message of the Fathers of the Church. vol. 18 Wilmington, Delaware: M. Glazier, 1985.

Walsham, Alexandra. Providence in Early Modern England. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1999.

West, Robert H. Shakespeare & the Outer Mystery. Lexington: U of Kentucky P, 1968.

Whitehead, Frank. "The Gods in King Lear." Essays in Criticism 42 (1992): 196-220.

Williams, George Walton. "Invocations to the Gods in King Lear: A Second Opinion." Shakespeare Newsletter 51 (2001-2): 89, 106.

Womack, Peter. "Secularizing King Lear: Shakespeare, Tate, and the Sacred," Shakespeare Survey 55 (2002), 96-105.

Notes

(1) All references to King Lear are to The Riverside Shakespeare, ed. G. Blakemore Evans (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1974).

(2) For a survey of criticism, see Ann Thompson, King Lear (Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities P International, 1988), Robert Ray, Approaches to Teaching Shakespeare's King Lear (NY: MLA, 1986): 23-28; and Jay Halio, King Lear: A Guide to the Play (Westport, CT: Greenwood P, 2001).

(3) Ivor Morris, Shakespeare's God: The Role of Religion in the Tragedies (London: Allen & Unwin, 1972), 368. Although there is no "redemption" of Lear in the final scene, there is a muted suggestion that there is an after-life when Kent remarks "I have a journey, sir, shortly to go: / My master calls me, I must not say no" (5.3.322-23).

(4) William Elton, King Lear and the Gods. Stephen Greenblatt, Shakespearean Negotiations: The Circulation of Social Energy in Renaissance England (Berkeley: U California P, 1988), "Shakespeare Bewitched," in New Historical Literary Study: Essays on Reproducing Texts, Representing History, ed Jeffrey Cox and Larry Reynolds (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1993): 108-35, and Will in the World: How Shakespeare Became Shakespeare (NY: Norton, 2004). See also Frank Whitehead, "The Gods in King Lear," Essays in Criticism 42 (1992): 196-220; Richard Strier, "Shakespeare and the Skeptics," Religion & Literature (2000): 171-96, esp. 180-89; and Huston Diehl, "Religion and Shakespearean tragedy" in The Cambridge Companion to Shakespearean Tragedy, ed. Claire McEachern (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002).

(5) Elton defines sequential irony as "the tacit commentary which the dramatist, operating ab extra ... operates through a dynamism of action in which certain sequent juxtapositions ... themselves may take on meaning" (329). Very few of the alleged instances are really convincing.

(6) Actually, from 1480 to 1640, 44 percent of works published were religious, according to C. John Sommerville, The Secularization of Early Modern England: From Religious Culture to Religious Faith (NY: Oxford UP, 1992), 92-3.

(7) See for example, the claim of Stephen Greenblatt that "In the last analysis ... Shakespeare's theater, like most of the art we value, is on the side of a liberating, tolerant doubt" ("Shakespeare Bewitched," 127), and Peter Holbrook's statement that "occasionally, at least, he has been a force for good, and one good in particular: freedom" ("Shakespeare as a Force for Good," 214).

(8) See the stimulating but conflicted discussion in T. McAlindon's Shakespeare's Tragic Cosmos (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1991). McAlindon sees an "oppositional design" in the play (183), and so he tries to accommodate opposing critical interpretations: "The text does not actually subvert the doctrine of divine providence, for that doctrine firmly acknowledges that the good need not expect justice in this life, that God seldom intervenes directly in human affairs, and that his providential plan is worked out, not through miracles, but through the good and bad deeds of men and women and the operation of nature. On the other hand, there is an arresting absence of any kind of imaginative support in the play for the idea of an omnipotent and benevolent deity. And there is no firm hint of an afterlife where flights of angels sing the afflicted to their rest, or where the wicked meet with a punishment commensurate with the evil they have done" (195). But of course there is a firm hint of an afterlife in Kent's final remark "I have a journey, sir, shortly to go: / My master calls me, I must not say no" (5.3.322-23). The philosopher Edmund Pincoffs ("Quandary Ethics" Mind [1971]: 552-71) has called this modern skeptical phenomenon "quandary ethics," which he alleges is a recent academic tradition in American universities, which would explain the contemporary tendency to project problems, dilemmas and polar opposites onto Shakespearean drama. The supposed polarities and problems become the solution; e. g., the two senses of nature as rational and fallen, as human and animal, become morally and interpretively equivalent. What is significant, too, is the general overlooking of Aristotelian-Thomistic sources, certainly a more central Renaissance episteme than Heraclitus, Empedocles, Paracelsus, Bruno and Montaigne (6, 9). Indeed, the importance of cosmology seems overemphasized. Finally, McAlindon correctly locates this allegedly scientific, polarizing Renaissance mindset in nineteenth- and twentieth-century thinkers like Hegel and Nietzsche and critics like A. P. Rossiter and Norman Rabkin, without recognizing it as a projection onto the past (10-12). He acknowledges that "by definition" major contradictions and conflicts are "capable of some kind of resolution," but then finds that "the tragedies leave us with many unanswered questions, ethical, axiological, and metaphysical" (12).

(9) On the moral function of Elizabethan poetry and drama, see the classic studies of Rosemond Tuve, Elizabethan and Metaphysical Imagery (Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1947), 398-403, and Madeleine Doran, Endeavors of Art: A Study of Form in Elizabethan Drama (Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1954) 85-100. See also David Beauregard, Virtue's Own Feature: Shakespeare and the Virtue Ethics Tradition (Newark: U Delaware P, 1995), 28-30. The disastrous consequences of intellectualist art, in the rationalistic and skeptical mode, are spelled out by Iris Murdoch in "Against Dryness," in Existentialists and Mystics: Writings on Philosophy and Literature (New York: Penguin, 1999), 287-96.

(10) See Charles B. Schmitt, ed. Cambridge History of Renaissance Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988.

(11) See Richard Popkin, The History of Scepticism: from Erasmus to Spinoza (Berkeley: U of California P), xvii-xix.

(12) The Essayes of Montaigne: John Florio's Translation, ed. J. I. M. Stewart (New York: Modern Library, n. d.), Bk. 1, Ch. XXII (pp. 80-81).

(13) On the nature of skepticism as therapy rather than philosophy, see Martha Nussbaum's brilliant treatment in The Therapy of Desire: Theory' and Practice in Hellenistic Ethics (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1994), 280-315.

(14) Rene Fortin, "Hermeneutical Circularity and Christian Interpretations of King Lear," Shakespeare Studies 12 (1979): 113-25. See also his "King Lear: Tragedy and the Anatomy of Evil," Faith & Reason 28 (2003), 299-316.

(15) David Beauregard, Virtue's Own Feature: Shakespeare and the Virtue Ethics Tradition (Newark: U of Delaware Press, 1995).

(16) See Battenhouse, Shakespearean Tragedy, 301; R. G. Hunter, Shakespeare and the Mystery of God's Judgments, 186-7.

(17) See the interesting treatment of Sean Lawrence, "'Gods That We Adore': The Divine in King Lear," Renascence 56.3 (Spring 2004): 143-59.

(18) For a brilliant demonstration of the historical impact of secular rationalism on the aesthetics of King Lear, see Peter Womack, "Secularizing King Lear: Shakespeare, Tare, and the Sacred," Shakespeare Survey 55 (2002), 96-105.

(19) For a selection of patristic sources on the topic, see James Walsh and P. G. Walsh, eds. Divine Providence & Human Suffering, Message of the Fathers of the Church vol. 18 (Wilmington, Delaware: M. Glazier, 1985).

(20) The main oversight in Elton's "survey" of Renaissance conceptions of providence is stunning. He assumes that God's mysterious ways, his distance and hiddenness, indicate that special providence is not operative, this in spite of Aquinas, Calvin and others, not to mention the oft quoted sentence from Scripture about human beings being worth more than many sparrows (Mt 10:31, Lk 12:7). Elton's assumption is that Providence must be visible, immediate and explicit, which of course negates the possibility of a spiritual dimension operative in the play.

(21) See Fortin, "Hermeneutical Circularity and Christian Interpretations of King Lear," 118-19; Biscoglio, "Invocations to the Gods in King Lear," 16b.

(22) The lines in Donne's First Anniversary, "And new philosophy calls all in doubt," are often cited to this end, but the lines actually provide evidence supporting the Christian medieval doctrine of the world as fallen.

(23) On time, see McAlindon, Shakespeare's Tragic Cosmos, 13-18.

(24) On the corrective and restorative role of time, see McAlindon, Shakespeare's Tragic Cosmos, 13-18.

(25) On prayer in King Lear, see Biscoglio, "Invocations to the Gods in King Lear" 13-18.

(26) See, e.g., Whitehead, "The Gods in King Lear," for whom mankind, in the case of Edgar's persecution and impoverishment, must redress "an appalling injustice the responsibility for which ... must belong to the heavenly powers" (204). He is oblivious to the responsibility of Edmund, Goneril, Regan and Cornwall for the suffering of Lear: "If the world is a rack, a terrible instrument of torture, who but the gods can have made it so?" (212).

(27) Both the Protestant and secular mindsets split grace and nature, Protestantism in conceiving of God as distant and hidden, and the secularists seeing Him as non-existent. The Catholic notion of merit implies a union of grace and nature, God acting through virtuous human beings who participate in divine providence by mediating divine grace.
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