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How it began....

Hot hors d'oeuvres in frozen form marketed by Kathleen Watson Kelley, New York. as well as cold hors d'oeuvres.

Bridgeford Company. San Diego, Calif., is producing corned beef hash as well as a line of frozen fruits and vegetables.

Prepared foods. So many packers are entering the frozen prepared foods business that QUICK FROZEN FOODS has a special section titled "Cooked and Prepared Foods," mentioning as many as 20 new companies per issue.

J. R. Simplot plans to freeze potatoes in Nampa, Idaho. Publishers note:

Saul Beck purchased Quick Frozen Foods from Harcourt Brace Jovanovich in 1985. The magazine name was changed to Frozen Food Digest (including Quick Frozen Foods).

The following pages contain events and news that were compiled from 1938-78. Saul Beck Publications also publishes Quick Frozen Foods Annual Processors Directory and Buyers' Guide.

The first issue was 64 pages, of which 18 were advertising. Among the advertisers in that first issue that are still familiar today were processors Birds Eye, Booth Fisheries, Long Island Duckling; cabinet maker C.V. Hill; warehousemen U.S. Cold Storage, Merchants Refrigerating Company and National Cold Storage; and packaging company Du Pont.

Circulation was only 2,000, advertising rates were commensurately low, but despite that the magazine edged into the black with its first issue. This was extraordinary, because the nation was still in the throes of the deepest and most prolonged Depression in its history.

The total volume of frozen foods in 1938 was 268 million pounds. The category with the highest production was frozen fruits, which today has the lowest poundage. In 1938 almost half, 130 million pounds, of everything frozen was fruits. Much of this was bulk, for use in ice cream, for preservers and bakers. Fruits were good items at retail, as well; a fine store might stock peaches, apricots, apples, strawberries, loganberries, gooseberries, cherries, cranberries, red raspberries, blackberries, currants, Persian melons and grapefruit sections. Fruits would remain the primary products through 1947, after which vegetables surged ahead, primarily because of their popularity in the retail cabinets.

The dollar value of all frozen products in 1938 was just $68 million. The main categories, in order of their importance, were fruits, vegetables, seafoods, poultry and meats. There were no frozen prepared foods and no concentrated juices, though a very limited amount of whole orange juice was frozen. There probably were about 200 processors, using the loosest definition of the term--but no one knows for sure, because at that time there was no directory of the industry.

A lot of what was frozen was intended for further processing and sale in a nonfrozen form. Most retail stores had no frozen food cabinets at all. Those that did have them were usually quality stores catering to the carriage trade. Very few super markets had any frozen foods. The large department stores like Macy's, Bamberger's and Marshall Fields would only that year begin to sell frozen foods in their gourmet departments and were early promoters of the products.

Usually a store kept only one brand, because the cabinet was supplied to him either by a large company like Birds Eye or by his distributor. They paid rental or in certain circumstances were loaned the case. Many stores stocked frozen foods in their ice cream cabinets. Virtually all of these cabinets were closed, and a clerk had to be called if the customer wanted to buy a package. It was this fact that retarded the introduction of frozen foods into the super markets, because frozen foods were not suitable for self-service. About 90 per cent of frozen food sales were bulk or institutional.

There either were signs above the cabinets listing the frozen products and the prices of each (and frozen foods were relatively high in price for the Depression) or glass thermopane windows, through which the packages might be seen--but even in those cabinets, a clerk or the store owner had to secure the package for the customer. Because of the cost of refrigeration and service, coupled with low volume, retailers placed very high markups on frozen products and kept them more as a convenience, regarding them as unprofitable, which they probably were. An estimated 5,000 to 6,000 stores carried frozen foods in 1938.

The only storage space the consumer had for frozen foods was the ice cube compartment in the refrigerator. The frozen food packages were rectangular and small in size so they could fit into such compartments.

The word "frozen," when applied to food, had been considered a synonym for "spoiled," for any fresh fruits or vegetables that became frozen by cold weather lost texture and flavor and were virtually inedible. For that reason many of the early brands had names like Honor Brand Frosted Foods Corp., or Birds Eye Frosted Foods. There still are vestiges remaining of that terminology such as the Eastern Frosted Foods Association, which still bears the old designation. QUICK FROZEN FOODS magazine was considered quite daring to use frozen foods in its title, but then, it was dealing directly with the trade and not the public.

It should also be remembered that in 1938 something like 20 per cent of those people 21 to 65 years of age in the labor market were unemployed. A starting salary in most companies of $15 per week was considered fair, and $30 per week was adequate to support a family of four in modest circumstances. Less than two per cent of the high school graduates went on to college, and 40 per cent of American-born children never finished high school. There were no superhighways, radio was the big thing and television sets were not yet available in the stores, though you could build your own if you bought the components. A drawback was that there were no channels to tune in on.

Only certain areas of the United States sold frozen foods at all. Great sections of the country had no cabinets and no distributors, so the products were simply unavailable. That was the situation as the first issue of QUICK FROZEN FOODS appeared, and we have capsulated some of the events--both highlights and fascinating trivia--of the 40 years that QUICK FROZEN FOODS magazine has been the magazine of record, the spokesman, the prophet and the inspirator to the frozen food industry.



Super markets: "Some super markets have taken to frozen foods in a big way. This is so in the East, but more especially throughout the Midwest. Most distributors of standard frozen food lines can count anywhere from 2% to 10% of their outlets as super markets. Interesting also is the super market's merchandising attitude towards frosted foods. Some large supers have installed two cases, each with a complete line."--Frozen Foods Forum.

Distribution: "Birds Eye has complete control over its distribution. All advertising is furnished by them--prices are maintained. Price cutting may mean loss of franchise.... Birds Eye...rents the case for $10 to $12.50 a month on a three-year contract...but the case remains their property."

England: Birds Eye established Frosted Foods Ltd. in Great Britain to sell its brand frozen foods, as well as franchise it to other nations; but eventually it was purchased by Unilever and is today the major brand in the United Kingdom, and in tonnage and dollar sales it has at times ranked first in the world.

Warehouse holdings: The first frozen food warehouse holding report in history was published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture this month, and as of July 1, 1938, showed 25 million pounds of fruits and 31 million pounds of vegetables in low-temperature storage. Biggest item is strawberries with almost 11 million pounds, second-biggest is green peas with 10.7 million pounds.


Airline feeding: The cover of the issue showed a passenger on United Air Lines eating frozen raspberries as part of her meal.

Shrimp freezing. Birds Eye announced that it would be opening a plant for the freezing of shrimp in Jacksonville, Fla.


Retail prices. Frozen spinach (pound), 23|cents~; peas, 25|cents~; peas and carrots, 23|cents~; cauliflower, 19|cents~; baby lima beans, 25|cents~; broccoli, 23|cents~; corn, 23|cents~; two ears corn-on-the-cob, 16|cents~.

Clarence Birdseye. Reported manufacturing his newest invention, the Birdseye Reflector lamp, silvered on the inside to control the light without external reflection of any kind.


Frozen turkey rolls were suggested by QUICK FROZEN FOODS to increase sales and profitability, and a step-by-step photo sequence of how to prepare them for freezing was presented.



England: S. W. Smedley, British frozen food processor, ran first full-page frozen food ad in Great Britain in the London Daily Standard, for Thursday, December 29, 1938, promoting frozen vegetables and berries for New Year's Day celebrations.


Chipsteaks. The inventor and first producer of chipsteaks, thinly sliced beef with all the gristle and fat removed, was Earl F. Shores of the Chipsteak Company, Los Angeles, Calif.

Locker plants. Since few homes have freezers, there are plants in hundreds of small towns and some cities where you can rent a low-temperature drawer and store frozen products. These rental places would usually cut up, wrap and freeze sides of beef as well as poultry for customers, and they are beginning to stock and sell frozen foods in commercial packs, as well as pack some themselves. QUICK FROZEN FOODS is catering to them, running articles every issue on their progress.


Frozen food pack. QUICK FROZEN FOODS estimates that of all frozen foods produced in 1938, 60% went to further processors, bakeries, ice cream manufacturers and preservers, 30% to the institutional trade and just 10% to the retail stores.

Frosted Foods Institute of California. This group was formed by California industry for the sole purpose of renting an exhibit at the Golden Gate International Exposition of San Francisco Bay, in which they displayed frozen foods and used the slogans: "Fresh summer foods in winter," "Science's Gift to Good Living," and added, "natural flavors," "firm texture," "full vitamin values," "no waste," "sanitary pack," "easily prepared." It was not an association in a true sense, but would meet annually.

Cryovac. The Dewey & Almy Chemical Co. believes it has come up with shrink-wrap of great advantage for packaging frozen poultry.

Birds Eye. At a Chicago dinner Clarence Francis, president of General Foods, reveals that $40 million has been invested in Birds Eye since 1929 and that 4,250 retail stores across the country carry the brand.

1939 New York World's Fair. Birds Eye is the only frozen food company with an exhibit.


Fruits. Morris Roth, head of Frigid Food Products, of Detroit, expands to a Cleveland location to increase production of frozen fruits. (This firm is still a leader in that field.)

Trucking: 85% of the refrigerated truck lines still using dry ice to transport frozen foods.


Packaging. Bags, primarily cellophane, were in use by 81% of FF packers for at least some products, according to a QFF survey. Some reported using cellophane bags as far back as 1930. In most cases the bags were inserted in the carton, giving double protection and good stacking.

Plant construction. The John Dulany & Sons plant in Exmore, Va., is one of the first built from the ground up specifically for freezing products. Most others have converted from other uses. Vegetables and fruits are the products packed.


Eastern Frosted Foods Association. A luncheon meeting is held at the Lincoln Hotel in New York City, presided over by John J. Antun of the Merchants Refrigeration Company, for what would become the nation's first true frozen food association. They call themselves The New York Quick Frozen Foods Luncheon Club, eventually The Eastern Frosted Foods Association.


Sales per store. Gross sales of all foods in many small stores (and super markets are still in their early growth stage) across the country are considered adequate at $2,000 a week. Frozen foods sales in these stores, where they carry frozen products, are averaging $20 to $40 weekly.


QFF circulation. Getting advertising was tough, but at the end of its first year, QUICK FROZEN FOODS had 4,853 paid subscribers. The magazine filled a need.

World War II. Packers, brokers, transporters, warehousemen and equipment manufacturers see the outbreak of hostilities in Europe as a boost to business.


The big three brands: Birds Eye, the Stokely-controlled Honor Brand, and Booth, all strong in retail sizes.

Fresh frozen dogfood: Scientifically blended by Nieman's.

Carrier Corp. This manufacturer of refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment is the first exhibitor to renew space at the New York World's Fair. As part of its exhibit it has an igloo with a frozen food cabinet, stocked with retail products on display.

Door-to-door-sales of frozen foods were instigated by BobWhite Frosted Foods, New York, N.Y., which sold products to housewives on a regular route from a refrigerated truck. During the forties and even into the fifties, there were hundreds of such businesses. Macy's and Bamberger's department store would also deliver with dry ice and Jiffy bags.


Full-color frozen food advertisement, a first, appeared on the inside back cover of the Saturday Evening Post, paid for by Du Pont Cellophane, then a leader in frozen food packaging.

Frozen lamb. A trial shipment, pre-cut, individually wrapped in cellophane, was shipped from Iceland. Tests were made under direction of QUICK FROZEN FOODS special representative Roy M. Cohen.

Midwestern Frozen Food Association organized by QUICK FROZEN FOODS at the Hotel Auditorium, December 13, 1939, along the lines of the previously-formed New York group. Price of attendance is the cost of the Chicago luncheon, $1.00.



Birds Eye drops price control. Under George Mentley, that primary brand announces that it would no longer enforce price controls on its products, and retailers could now charge whatever they wished. That it would also abandon its policy of renting cabinets, and retailers could use their own or purchase them outright. Birds Eye had 4,400 cabinets on rental and would apply rental money already paid by retailer toward the purchase of the cabinet. Simultaneously it was taking a 22-page schedule in Life magazine for 1940, including some in four-color, to promote its products.

First National Frozen Food Meeting sponsored by QUICK FROZEN FOODS magazine in conjunction with the National Canners Association Convention in Chicago, on January 23, 1940, at the Auditorium Hotel. Two hundred attend and 50 have to be turned away for lack of accommodations. Chairman is John J. Antun and among the featured speakers is H. C. Diehl of the U.S. Frozen Food Laboratories in Seattle, Wash. There are exhibits by 27 members of the frozen food industry. L. F. Noonan, a processor who heads the Frosted Food Institute of California, says that it is now a group of packers dedicated to improving business in that state. At the end of 1939, there were 375 stores with frozen food cabinets in the entire state of California!


Good Humor is now using its trucks in the-winter, selling 23 different frozen fruits and vegetables door-to-door, beginning January 19, 1940, in the Newark and Elizabeth, N.J., environs. Super markets regard it as good advertising for frozen products, all of which are Good Humor brand.

Quick Frozen Foods now claims 7,000 circulation.


Refrigerator with freezer compartment built by Philco promoted by an offer of 21 packages of Birds Eye frozen foods for anyone who buys it. This sparks tie-ins by other processors with refrigerator manufacturers.

Frosted Foods Association of New York. The New York Quick Frozen Foods Luncheon club, which had met 10 times since May 1939, decided to formalize activities, and John Antun was elected president. Dues were set at $10 a year. The group has been averaging 60 a meeting.

California: Frozen food sales, which reached an estimated $350,000 in 1939, is given a shot in the arm when Golden State Dairy, of San Francisco, receives a statewide franchise for the distribution of Birds Eye frozen foods. Birds Eye announces that this would bring the total number of stores selling its products to 7,000, but in spite of this the brand is still unprofitable. It would not renew its exhibit for the second year at the World's Fair on which it had spent $170,000.


Statistics. In the absence of any industry body collecting production figures, QUICK FROZEN FOODS begins a comprehensive survey of all packers and estimates seem to indicate a 45% increase in frozen food output in 1939.

Ice cream law blocks frozen. Laws passed many years earlier to keep any other products out of ice cream cabinets on a state-by-state basis effectively slow down the distribution of frozen foods, even though the ice cream companies intended them only to keep butter and other dairy products out of their cabinets. The long-range effect will be good, because it forces distributors to place frozen food cabinets in their customers' stores.

American Medical Association votes to consider placing frozen foods on list of acceptable foods with high nutritive value, predominantly due to the research papers of Clarence Birdseye, J. G. Woodroof, Donald K. Tressler, H. C. Diehl, M. A. Joslyn and C. F. Evers--all the papers published in trade magazines and all regular contributors to QUICK FROZEN FOODS. The first product cleared is Birds Eye peas, given the seal of acceptance by The Council on Foods of The American Medical Association.


The Eastern Frosted Foods Association makes an arrangement with Carrier Corp., exhibiting refrigeration at the New York World's Fair, to exhibit retail frozen foods. The only cost to participating members is the salary of an attendee and the product displayed. They also arrange a retail Frozen Food Week promotion.

Iceland. The Federation of Iceland Cooperative Societies, Reykjavik, Iceland, opens an office in New York City, feeling there might be a market for its frozen fish in this country.


Snider Packing, Rochester, N.Y., has entered frozen under its own label, made famous by ketchup, with peas, asparagus and spinach.

Booth Fisheries. A net income of $153,502.57 for that firm's fiscal year, $100,000 more than the previous year, is announced by president R.P. Fletcher Jr.


Low-temperature cabinets. Sales increasing at 100% annually, with 12,000 cabinets now thought to be in stores. Retail voluntaries and cooperatives lead the field in rate of cabinet installation, whereas corporate chains hold back.

Self-serve cabinets. Schaefer offers center aisle or wall cabinets, with sliding glass doors of thermopane, so the consumer can select own package. Automatic elevator lifts move a new package to the height of the one removed. A major advance in FF merchandising.

Thaw-pack orange juice made available by Citrifrost Corp., Pico, Calif., in a quart-size pliofilm bag that could remain five days in the refrigerator after thawing. The juice is whole juice.

Brand names. QUICK FROZEN FOODS begins the world's first directory of frozen brand names in its August 1940 issue.

Flowers. A Mobile, Ala., cold storage warehouse manager, A. A. Richards, of Alabama State Docks, announces that he has successfully frozen peonies and gladiolis. They keep indefinitely, and when thawed out are like fresh-picked.

Cooked foods. The brand name "Magic Meals" registered by California Consumers Corp., Los Angeles, preparatory to marketing cooked frozen products including roast turkey, halibut steak, vegetable soup and a barbecue sauce.

Distributors. Lists of distributors from all over the country who want to buy frozen food from packers published in QUICK FROZEN FOODS. For example, in October 1940: "Mercantile, Inc., Milbank, S.D., are interested in distributing a complete line of quick frozen foods. They have a fleet of refrigerated trucks and cover thirteen counties in South Dakota and nine counties in Minnesota." That distributor is still in the frozen food business, both retail and institutional, and may have gotten its start in frozen from that notice.


Clarence Birdseye, currently with Gravity Froster Corporation, Boston, Mass., in one of a number of feature articles especially written for QUICK FROZEN FOODS, offers chapter and verse on quality control. For example, fresh-caught pollock left on a dock in the summer will be "sunburned" in six hours, and in the winter will begin to slow freeze, but if immediately iced will stay in good condition for five days.

Pel-freez was registered by H. F. Pelphrey & Son, Los Angeles, on July 15, 1940, as a trade name for frozen California domestic rabbits.

A & P registered "Polestar" as a trade name for its private label frozen fish fillets, on July 2, 1940.


Home freezers. Initially promoted hard by Deepfreeze Division of Motor Products Corporation to packers and distributors for placement in stores, these units are round with a single cover on top and compressor attached. The company opened a show room in Detroit, with 45 operating units on display, stuffed with frozen foods.

First all-frozen-food store: the Frostar Market, White Plains, N.Y., with 23 Deepfreeze cabinets lining a wall, with signs in back of each telling what products are in them. The reason the store uses home-freezer-type units for display is that it is also the authorized agency for their sale. The food prices are criticized as "unnecessarily low" by other food stores in the area, because vegetables are 15 to 33 cents a package. Average sale is 80 cents, and the store is serving 150 customers a day.



Individually Quick Frozen or IQF products, called "loose pack," gaining interest.


Baked goods. Quick frozen cakes, pies, biscuits, cookies, batters, yeast rolls all practical, Purdue University experimenters report. Why doesn't someone do it?

First National Frozen Food Convention and Exhibition, sponsored by QUICK FROZEN FOODS magazine, is held at the Auditorium Hotel, Chicago, ill., Jan. 21-24, 1941. There are 1,500 people in attendance and 21 frozen food exhibits. Among the exhibitors: Honor Brand, Armour, Swift, Booth, Priebe, Snider, BobWhite, Deepfreeze and Cedergreen. There were 200 at the Annual Frozen Food Luncheon. Among the speakers, Dr. J. G. Woodroof, of the Georgia Experiment Station of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, said: "The vitamins in frozen products are really higher than those in the fresh products, that is, out-of-season products.... Vitamins in frozen products, particularly A and C, are the highest vitamins that you can get of any obtainable source out-of-season." Hotel rates were $2.50 with bath, $1.50 without.


Quick Frozen Foods and The Locker Plant becomes the name of the magazine; the locker plants are the margin of survival for the publication.

Tin cans are becoming scarce, and it is predicted that frozen foods which could be marketed in paper might benefit as a result.

Frozen ground coffee packed for BobWhite, home delivery frozen food company. Freezing prevents oils in coffee from turning rancid, thereby providing better flavor.

Frick freezer. A "Blizzard Freezer" announced by Frick. This box-like affair has doors for carts of products to be frozen. Inside, air is circulated at 40 to 50 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The freezer has a capacity of 6,000 pounds a day.


Refrigerated trucks. An estimated 5,000 trucks capable of transporting frozen foods are in use.


Institutional distributors. Twenty-four are recorded by QUICK FROZEN FOODS as adding retail sizes of frozen products, where previously they had not done that type of business.


Self-service frozen foods are fitting into super markets through use of transparent, sliding glass-top cabinets. High-Low Food Markets, Chicago, has installed them in 25 stores.


R. H. Macy, New York, triples the space for frozen foods in its store.



War and frozen foods: "It may well be the literal making of the frozen foods industry. Shortages which may become apparent in domestic distribution of fruits and vegetables can be supplied by quick frozen foods. The industry may make greater strides in the next two years than it has made in the entire time since its inception."--Editorial.

National Association of Frozen Food Packers. Under leadership of E. T. Gibson, Birds Eye head, leading processors of frozen foods assembled January 25, 1942, at the Blackstone Hotel, Chicago, and in four hours formed a national association with Gibson as president; Ralph O. Dulany, John H. Dulany & Son, vice president; John N. Seaman, Bozeman Canning Co., vice president; and A. E. Stevens, Birds Eye, temporary secretary. The meeting was held the day before The Second National Quick Frozen Foods Exposition at the La Salle Hotel, Chicago, Jan. 26-29, 1942, sponsored by QUICK FROZEN FOODS magazine.

The Second National Convention. There were 1,300 visitors and 35 exhibitors. Announcement of the formation of the National Association of Frozen Food Packers was made by Gibson at the Frozen Food Forum Luncheon on Jan. 27 to an attendance of 400: "We recognized the need in Washington for accurate information about the frozen foods industry and the need in behalf of the industry itself of having a spokesman who could speak, not for individual companies, but for the producing side of the industry, particularly, which is what Washington is interested in today."


Mechanical refrigeration of trucks. Truckers on the West Coast had been discouraged because dry ice could not hold the products properly. However, increasing use of mechanical refrigeration is bringing truckers into favor again. One trucker claimed transporting 25 million pounds in nine Western states during a single year.

Jewel Tea, Chicago retail food chain, is installing FF cabinets in all of its 150 stores.

Hors d'oeuvres are frozen with 10 different fillings by Dover D'oeuvres, New York, N.Y. They are prepared in rolls which are thawed and sliced.

Home freezers. DeepFreeze Company is employing door-to-door salesmen to sell home freezers, trying everything from supplying food themselves to linking up with the customer's favorite store, but it is tough going.


FF men to government: A.E. Stevens, Birds Eye vice president, goes to Washington, D.C., as Administrator of the Fruit & Vegetable section of the Office of Price Administration. Many other important frozen food people move into permanent and consultantancy government posts.

Dog food. Rolled dog food in pound sizes is being packed by Herbert A. Nieman Co., Thiensville, Wis. Shortage of tin is moving some dog food packers into frozen.


Macy's in New York City advertises home freezers manufactured by Schaefer, Inc., at $259, and is willing to extend credit for payment.


Price ceilings. Through the efforts of the National Association of Frozen Food Packers, very fair price ceilings for packer, distributor and retailer of frozen foods--with the option to pass price increases along--are promulgated by the government. This ensures profitability in frozen foods for all handling them.

Larry Martin elected secretary of the National Association of Frozen Food Packers. Martin had been in charge of the Quick-Frozen Foods Division of the U.S. Office of Price Administration (OPA). He replaces temporary officer Edgar M. Burns, Oregon packer.


Prepared Foods. Chicken a la king, roast turkey, lobster a la Newburg and halibut a la king all marketed by Frost-Cooked Foods, Inc., Boston.

F.G. Lamb & Co., Freewater, Ore., has undertaken to freeze four million pounds of peas for the Campbell Soup Co.

Baked beans in frozen form introduced by Birds Eye.


Corn beef hash in frozen form marketed by National Frosted Foods, New York City distributor. The product is frozen in Argentina in one pound blocks.

Ocean Garden brand granted to Marine Products Company, San Diego, Calif., for frozen shrimp. (Trademark was applied for in 1939.)

The Locker Plant, a separate section which literally splits the magazine in two, is started. All editorial and advertising matter related to locker plants is included in this section, which is frequently half the size of the total magazine.


100% production increase is requested of the frozen food industry by the government, which states that it will issue priorities for obtaining equipment. The biggest problem is not obtaining equipment, but labor.

The Pennsylvania Railroad says frozen foods are a godsend for their dining cars, because of indeterminate number of people who may eat dinner.

Mixed vegetables, five vegetables in one package, are going over strong for Birds Eye.

Circulation of QFF now guaranteed at 8,000, including 416 copies to packers, 1,719 to wholesale distributors of quick frozen foods, 1,241 to ice cream companies, dairies & creameries and 4,428 to refrigerated locker plants.


Pack figures issued by the National Association of Frozen Food Packers for 1941: 107 million pounds of frozen fruits and 97 million pounds of frozen vegetables.


Dehydration. Government urging frozen food packers to go into dehydrated foods, wanting 400 million pounds in 1943, and making it very easy for them to get equipment. Some are responding.

National Frozen Food Packers Association sponsors session at Food Processors Conference, at the Palmer House. Chicago, Dec. 16, 1942, in which WPB (War Production Board) officials told the food industry what would be expected of them. There were 300 present, and they learned that four million pounds of metal had been allocated for the frozen food industry, primarily for equipment. No tin at all for cans. No priorities will be needed for paper packaging. Small packers can submit proposals for expansion. Draft deferments were available for essential agricultural workers, and there could be shifting of workers from nonessential crops, special training of workers and student and volunteer work. The industry suggested Mexican labor, woman and child labor and Army recruit labor. A packer could borrow up to 25% against amount to be supplied Army.

War Production Board tells the FF industry it will need 7 million additional pounds of frozen vegetables and fruits during 1943 to feed the Armed Forces. The 21 largest packers are producing 97% of all frozen fruits and vegetables. That includes everyone who packed more than 1.3 million pounds.



Government purchases. Virtually all the government demands of the frozen foods fruit and vegetable packers for 71 million pounds of product is offered. "This is indeed a momentous achievement for so young an industry," wrote QFF, "It bespeaks efficiency, organization, and willingness to aid in the war effort."

Rationing. The government puts many frozen foods under point rationing; however, the number of points needed to buy a package of frozen foods was far less than that needed for identical canned foods. For example, equivalent weight of peas were 10 points for frozen and 16 for canned, so the consumer could buy more food by switching to frozen. Every newspaper in America, and every retail food store handling frozen, printed or posted signs indicating the points needed. It was an incredible advertisement for frozen foods and at a time when they had a rationing advantage.


Institutional sales halt. The Eastern Frosted Foods Association sends a committee of institutional distributors to Washington, D.C., on March 16 to appeal for relief, because lack of points and specific regulation prevent buying existing stocks in warehouses. The meeting is held with James Stout of the OPA. Some distributors report no sales in containers under 10 pounds in three weeks.

Ice cream. Government order limiting ice cream industry to only 65% of milk fat and milk solids offered opportunity to up the fruit content and increase the total supply by as much as 10%. This fruit could be supplied in frozen form since tin was unavailable.

Preserves. Any extra cost involved in buying frozen fruits for use in jams and jellies can be passed on to the customer, the government rules.

Price supports. The government agrees to buy peas, corn, lima beans, snap beans and some fruits from farmers at 1943 support prices and to resell them to freezers at 1942 lower prices, providing a subsidy and limiting inflationary impact.

Points reduced. Because frozen food inventories are piling up in the warehouses, the government reduces requirements four points a pound.

Institutional sales dropped from 42% to 65% as a rationing point system was awaited.

Army transport. The 71 million pounds of frozen vegetables purchased by the Army will be moved in 2,500 carloads from May through December 1943.

Dehydration section. The move to dehydration, encouraged by the government, is so precipitous that QFF puts in a special section to run monthly.

Prepared foods. Many prepared foods have no ration points put on them at all, so many small companies begin to freeze them. Among them, Red-E-Foods, Inc., Rochester, N.Y., has fish and clam chowder, chicken chili among other items.


Point pick-up. Sales of retail frozen foods increased 48%, and institutional, 27%, the two weeks following drop in points required to buy them. Up to then, 4.6% of consumers' points were spent for retail frozen. In the last two weeks, 8% of available points spent for frozen.

General Foods buys Snider, and a new Snider division is formed. Since General Foods owns Birds Eye, the frozen part of Snider's business is merged into that label.


"Bible of the Industry." That phrase, which has today become standard regarding QUICK FROZEN FOODS, first used.

Distributor relief. A ruling anticipated for July will allow institutional distributors a 29% markup on frozen foods. This will permit them to resume normal business.


Quick Frozen Foods Confidential Newsletter, a weekly mimeographed paper, is established to give readers instant information on what is happening in Washington, D.C., regarding wartime legislation on frozen foods.


Point increase. An across-the-board increase on frozen vegetables, doubling and tripling amount of points needed, causes consternation in view of a pack predicted at 100% greater. Eastern Frosted Food Association of N.Y. and Quick Frozen Foods Association of Chicago file protests to Washington. OPA also discourages packing institutional sizes in particular.


Frozen tomatoes, first blanched and then frozen whole in 30-pound containers are available from the Loughead Packing Company, Fresno, Calif.

Refrigeration Research Foundation formed as an adjunct of the National Association of Refrigerated Warehouses, November 18, 1943, in Chicago. H. C. Diehl, chief of commodity Processing Division of Western Regional Research Laboratory, Albany, Calif., has requested release from the government to act as its director.



Frozen food store. Deepfreeze Motor Products, manufacturer of home freezers, has opened an all-frozen food store in Hubbard Woods, near Chicago, delivering frozen foods to the homes of freezer owners.

Birds Eye-Snider Division formed within the General Foods organization combining processing and distribution operations under one head.

Ed White resigns as head of Honor Brand and opens brokerage in San Francisco.


Production. Out of anticipated 240 million pounds of frozen vegetables for the crop year ended June 30, 1944, the Army will take 74 million pounds.

Ralph Dulany elected president of the National Association of Frozen Food Packers.

Post-War frozen food cabinets. Two meetings were held by QUICK FROZEN FOODS in cooperation with the Eastern Frosted Foods Association and the Chicago Association on January 20th and February 15th respectively on the problem of expansion of retail cabinets after the War. The two meetings were attended by over 500.

William O. Vilter, president of the Vilter Manufacturing Co. Milwaukee, major manufacturer of ammonia compressors for freezing plants, dies at age 62.

Clarence Birdseye sees bright future (15 years off) for dehydrated foods, agrees to join technical advisory board of QUICK FROZEN FOODS.


Self-service cabinets. In survey by QUICK FROZEN FOODS of super markets, it is found that 95% prefer self-service frozen food cabinets.

Kold Kist Frozen Foods and Kermin Products are two of half-dozen new frozen prepared food companies in Los Angeles.


Whole orange juice frozen in glass under Cold Gold brand by Pure Fruit Juices of Los Angeles. Agitation of the juice while freezing leaves air space in center of container and the additional expansion of juice on freezing is inward, preventing jar from breaking under pressure.

375 foods frozen successfully are listed by QUICK FROZEN FOODS.

Governor Dewey of New York, Republican candidate for President of the United States, turns out to be a frozen food user and endorses the industry as one with a future.

Apple sauce. A flood of companies, including the largest, Birds Eye, rush into freezing it.

Orange juice concentrate. Freezing concentrated juice rather than whole juice is the only practical answer to creating a new industry, states Arthur L. Stahl of the Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Fla. Experiments with freeze concentration have produced distinctly superior results, and several other methods are available.


Distributors beg for product. Some estimated 500 wholesale distributors who want to handle frozen foods are on the waiting list of leading packers to get priority when more product is available.

British Columbia Packers Ltd., Vancouver, announces plans to go into freezing of fish, specifically fillets, as soon as the War is over.


Frozen food stores. First all-frozen food store in White Plains, N.Y., so successful that Frostar is opening up two new ones in the area. Idea has already begun to spread to other parts of the country, including a new one in Washington, D.C., by Deepfreeze.


Automatic dispensing cabinet for frozen foods--solid wail unit, with each item in a different compartment just as foods are sold in the Automat-is now being sold to stores by Refrigeration Corporation of America, New York.

Soy bean products are experimentally being frozen as possible extenders or substitutes for meat products.

Can the ice man sell FF? J. Clark Bennett in a talk before convention of the National Association of Ice Industries asked the ice men to consider possibility of door-to-door sales to people with home freezers.

Western Frozen Food Association organized November 8, 1944, at the Palace Hotel, San Francisco, with Ted Aronson of Santa Clara Frosted Foods as its first president.

L. Bamberger & Co., Newark, N.J., largest department store in the state, will process, freeze and sell a line of precooked frozen foods.

Marathon Corp. new name of Menasha Products Co., Menasha, Wis., major supplier of frozen food packaging.



Cancelled conventions. The National Association of Frozen Food Packers and the National Canners Association have cancelled their planned annual meets due to War conditions. QUICK FROZEN FOODS has cancelled its annual Frozen Food Forum Luncheon.

Brand names. There are 250 different brand names in the frozen food industry.

Vertical freezer. Prominent refrigeration engineer Van Rensselaer H. Greene invents a freezer with trays fed into the bottom and moved upward, freezing in the process of rising, and discharged at the top. The unit can hold 50 trays and freeze up to 2,000 pounds an hour including IQF. It works continuously. For his achievement Green is invited to join the QUICK FROZEN FOODS' technical staff and accepts.


Seabrook Farms is a new label, launched by The Deerfield Packing Co., Bridgeton, N.J., for its retail products. Deerfield is the largest frozen vegetable packer in America.


Frigid-Dough, freezer of raw dough products, has opened a retail store exclusively for the sale of frozen fruit pies, chicken pies, cookies, cloverleaf rolls, muffins. Products are baked off by the housewife.

The California Frozen Food Institute formed by Frank Wright Foundation in San Francisco. Aim is to promote frozen products, educate production and marketing men and coordinate efforts of California processors and allied industries.


Complete frozen dinner developed by W.L. Maxson Corp., New York. Each meal consists of meat, vegetables and potatoes in a three-compartmented round tray. All components processed to heat simultaneously and pyrex or bakeware tray are disposable. Entire output taken by the Army, which utilizes a Whirlwind oven that heats six meals simultaneously in airplanes. Typical menus include: steak, french fried potatoes and carrots; meat loaf, candied sweet potatoes and spinach, etc.


Froz-n Coff-e introduced by Cusak Coffee Company, Los Angeles, contains enough concentrate for three to five cups in a cup-shaped container, six for 30 cents.

The Story of the Frozen Foods Industry ... and the Magazine That Grew Up With It published as a brochure by QUICK FROZEN FOODS.

Ben E. Keith Company, distributor from Fort Worth, Tex., takes quarter page ad in QUICK FROZEN FOODS reading: "Exceptional Opportunity for distribution of Quality Institutional Lines of Frozen Foods. Correspondence solicited from quality packers. Largest distributors of fresh and frozen fruits and vegetables in the Southwest."


First 1945 Pocket Directory of Frozen Food Packers published by QUICK FROZEN FOODS, containing 256 pages and priced at $2.00.

Frozen pie crust developed by Mrs. Mason's Original Frosted Pie Crust, New York City. It is sold in a roll like a salami and must be thawed, rolled, placed in a pie tin and baked. It retails for 34 cents and there is also a one-pound institutional package.


Frozen meat pies, frozen dinners, frozen fruit pies offered by the Cease Commissary Service, Dunkirk, N.Y.

Dehydration "boom" collapses and QFF drops section.


Frozen Food Store special section inaugurated.

"Yellow" Section of News, Markets, Prices and People inaugurated.

QFF now has 7,800 readers, of whom 5,200 are paid subscribers.

Smedley head to visit U.S. from England to buy freezing equipment.

All War controls off freezing equipment as of October 1, 1945. Scramble for available material.


An industry convention. QUICK FROZEN FOODS editorializes that the frozen food people should have a separate convention, not connected with the canners, and that it be sponsored by the National Association of Frozen Food Packers.

Snowcrop Marketers, Inc., formed in Los Angeles, headed by J. I. Moone, former division manager of Birds Eye-Snider. Will market complete retail line of frozen fruits and vegetables.

Long Island Duck Packing Corp. to building a freezing plant with a 75 million pound a year capacity.


Clarence Birdseye tries to save the disappearing dehydration industry with a new process producing flavors superior to anything yet seen, but after testing the products QFF concluded: "They represent the greatest improvement yet made on preservation by de-hydration ... but to frozen foods, no threat."

No improvement in the quality of frozen foods for the past five years, QFF asserts, and predicts that if new research is not forthcoming the industry will have a disaster.

J. G. Woodroof, chief food technologist of the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station, joins QFF staff as Technical Editor.

Rich Products Corp., Buffalo, N.Y., has developed a nondairy product called "Whip Topping" as an alternative for war-short whipped cream. The product has a soy base and its first promotion is a quarter-page advertisement in QFF seeking distributors. The product is packed in a tapered, milk-type container.

Advertising Club. QFF, on December 20, 1945, assembled hundreds of leading advertising agency men at the Advertising Club of New York to eat an all-frozen-food luncheon and listen to Clarence Birdseye speak.

Orange juice concentrate. Freezing was begun by Florida Frozen Fruits, Inc., in March 1945. Among executives is Charles M. Henderson.



First postwar convention of frozen food packers Feb. 2-7, 1946, attended by 900.

National Wholesale Frozen Food Distributors, Inc., newly-formed organization today known as the National Frozen Food Association, represented by its second vice-president, William M. Walsh at the packers' convention. He reported his association had 75 members and asked for the formation of a committee linking the two associations.

French fried potatoes. Maxson enters the field with the first retail package of french fries.

Pasco Packing Company to build largest orange concentrate freezing plant in Florida, expected to be in full operation in Dade City sometime in 1947.

Link between associations. Burton Prince, president of the new distributors' association. appoints William Walsh of Morrison & McCluan. Pittsburgh, as chairman of the advisory committee to confer with the packers' association on cooperative action.

Donald K. Tressler, Ph.D., outstanding food technologist who helped perfect the blanching process for frozen foods, opens his own food laboratory in Westport, Conn.


Jeno's Frozen Salad Vegetables with bean sprouts, 12-ounce package, out of Duluth, Minn., first frozen venture of Jeno Paulucci.

Southeastern Frozen Foods Association organized April 19, 1945 in Macon. Ga., with H. C. Bateman of Bateman Frozen Foods as its president.

Bumble Bee brand quick frozen fish fillets in five-pound institutional pack available from Columbia River Packers Association.


The Frozen Food Critic by Laura Track begins this month. It would run until her death in 1972. She bought retail products at random and prepared them according to instructions and, as a trained home economist, told things the way she saw them. For the first time in history frozen french fries were tested. She said the taste was good but that heating instructions were too short, a crisper product would result in a slightly better flavor with longer heating.

Birdseye boil-in-bag. Clarence Birdseye says he has tested scores of products since 1932, and freezing them in a plastic pouch produced a superior product and made it possible to heat them in boiling water.

Aluminum. Dr. T. M. Hill of the Foil Division of the Aluminum Company of America suggests that there might be a wider future for aluminum in frozen foods packaging. At present there are foil laminated boxes and foil wrappers but no foil containers.

C. A. Swanson & Sons, Omaha, has gone into frozen chicken a la king, chicken fricassee, chicken salad and chicken chow mein in addition to its line of raw frozen poultry products.

Southern fried chicken is being produced by K. C. Food Products, Newark. N.J., along with a wide line of other cooked products including french fries to go with the chicken.
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Title Annotation:history of the frozen food industry
Publication:Frozen Food Digest
Date:Apr 1, 1993
Previous Article:New name.
Next Article:FMI show will help industry capitalize on major business, consumer changes.

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