How do I cite thee? Let me count the ways.
Is the reference shown in the text by a superscript number, or by the author's last name plus date in parentheses? What about punctuation? Reference librarians become bibliographic style gurus and soon know which handbook might help a particular patron. The idiosyncracies of a given journal may be such that you will find it easiest to copy the format from an article in a recent issue of the journal and not ask any questions. After all, you want to be published.
So you master the bibliographical style of journal A only to have the editor reject your manuscript? What now? You can send the manuscript to journal B, but that editor sees you are not serious about publishing in that journal because you are not following its current style. There's nothing for it but to retype your entire manuscript in journal B's prescribed form.
Computers to the Rescue Personal computers have simplified your work as an author. Using a word processing program, you can quickly copy and change the text. You make changes only where necessary, for example removing the superscript number and inserting an author's name and date. Then you can move to the list of references and alter each citation as necessary. How should the author's name appear? In inverted form with the last name first? With the author's given name represented only by an initial? Where does the date go? Following the author or the publisher? Details, details, details.
Bibliography Programs Word processing programs simplify the inputting of text; programs for the preparation of bibliographic references speed preparation of citations. After all, a bibliography is nothing more than a database and the individual citations records in that file. Each element in a citation (author's name, tithe, date, etc.) is one field in the record. So long as you can keep the fields discrete and separate from one another, you can arrange them in almost any order.
The first major bibliographic preparation program for the Macintosh was the Professional Bibliographic System-, now transformed into Pro-Cite for the Macintosh-.' Pro-Cite is a sophisticated program with many special attributes, and requires time and skill to be used with ease. In contrast to Pro-Cite, another program, Publish or Perish-, is much simpler and less expensive, but it is limited in what it can do.
A recent entrant, EndNote, follows a middle road. Published by Niles & Associates, Emeryville, California, this program is described as "a reference database and bibliography maker." Using it, you build a set of bibliographic citations (called a library). To insert a reference as you work on your manuscript, you call up that library, search for the needed reference, copy it, and insert it in your paper.
After you have finished your manuscript, you use the program to format the citations in a prescribed style and arrange them as a list of references at the end of your manuscript.
Using EndNote Paula Vincent, a librarian at the Jeffrey Star
Library, edits the library newsletter, Constellation. Partially because of that responsibility and her use of the Macintosh@ in publishing it, she has become interested in recent changes that have occurred in the editing of library periodicals. Why not discuss those changes in a journal article? Paula begins by searching the journal indexes and preparing a bibliography of the items she will consult.
EndNote is the tool she uses for entering her references. Installation of EndNote is a two-step procedure. As with most programs, you can easily move the application program to your hard disk or work with it on a floppy. But EndNote has a neat add-on, a desk accessory (DA). The desk accessory is almost the entire program in miniature, and with it installed you can use many of EndNote's features while you work in another application.
Paula uses the Font/DA mover to place the EndNote desk accessory in her system folder and onto the Apple menu. The EndNote DA is ready for her to use. She can start building her bibliography before she begins writing, and with the desk accessory she can add references while she drafts her manuscript.
Opening the EndNote program, Paula selects the New command from the Edit menu. A dialog box appears, and she enters the name of her bibliography, "Editing Bible," which serves as the name for this library of citations. When she clicks the Save button, a new window appears on the screen with the name of the library at the top and a statement of the number of items entered in it-at this point none.
To enter bibliographical references into this empty library, Paula selects the Add command from the References menu. An empty edit window appears on the screen. The reference type (i.e., journal article, book, thesis, etc.) appears in a box at the top of the screen, and the screen is divided into sections for each item needed for a reference of that type.
Figure 1 shows a screen display for a journal article entered into the library. The reference tm, Journal Article, is the default choice. If Paula wishes to enter a book or another type of publication, she clicks on the box following Reference Type, and a pop-up list of all fifteen types of references appears. She clicks on the one she wishes to use, and the fields are reformatted for that type of entry.
If she is entering fields for one type of entry and realizes belatedly that her reference is not, for example, a journal article but an article in a book, she can click on the box for that different reference type (book section). The fields are immediately reformatted, and she has lost none of the data already entered. She finds it simple to enter the information needed in each field, using the tab key or the mouse to move from field to field. She quickly learns some conventions for entry of authors' names so that EndNote can format them correctly in a list of references either with the last name first or given name first.
If none of the reference types suits her specific needs, she can edit an existing one or use the "generic reference type" as a last resort. She can also import references created in another bibliography program, for example, Professional Bibliographic System.
When she completes the fields for one reference, she closes the edit window, and the library window appears showing the references in her library - with one line devoted to each item. Figure 2 shows a screen display of the library window that includes the seventy- two items in Paula's bibliography. If she needs to edit the information in any reference, she clicks on that item in the library window, and the edit window for that reference appears. She changes the information, closes the window, and the list of references is updated.
Adding References As she drafts her manuscript, she can insert references at appropriate points. To do this, while using her word processor (Microsoft@ Word), Paula calls upon the EndNote desk accessory. She opens the desk accessory and chooses the bibliography from the dialog box; the library window for her bibliography appears on the screen.
To find the reference she wishes to insert, Paula uses the DA's Find command. hi a search dialog box, Paula specifies the author's name, year of publication, or words from the text of the citation (either singly or in combination) and clicks the OK button. EndNote quickly searches the bibliography and then highlights the appropriate citation in the library window.
Paula copies the highlighted citation to the Macintosh clipboard, returns to the word processor, and then pastes the citation into her manuscript. Figure 3 shows a screen display of a portion of her manuscript after a citation has been added. The information inserted by the program within the brackets is not the complete citation but rather a marker for it. Later the program will match this marker with the full citation to prepare the manuseript's bibliography.
To speed her work as she inserts citations, Paula adjusts the size of the word processing window so that a portion of the desk accessory's library window can show to one side (see Figure 3). When she wishes to check the library window, she clicks on that portion and the library window is placed in front. Just as at her desk, Paula can arrange the order of papers in a pile in front of her. Clicking back and forth between the word processor and library windows, Paula adds citations to her bibliography.
Of course, as Paula writes she becomes aware of new publications she wants to cite. She need not quit the word processor. Instead, she opens the desk accessory. A new heading, EndNote, appears in the menu bar, and using a command there, she inserts new entries or edits existing citations.
Preparing the Reference List With the manuscript finished and all the citations markers in place, Paula is ready to use EndNote to compile and format the Est of references. EndNote is able to scan and rewrite documents that are prepared in several of the principal word processors for the Mac: MacWrite@, WriteNow-, and Microsoft Word. In addition, it can handle Interchange (RichText) format as well as plain text files. (Version 1.1 of the program also handles WordPerfect-.)
To begin this next operation, Paula saves her document and quits the word processor. She opens the EndNote application (not the desk accessory). and chooses Open from the File menu. Next she selects the library of references "Editing Bibl." she has created and from EndNote's Paper menu selects the Open Paper command and opens her manuscript. EndNote then scans the manuscript and lists all the references it has located and compiles a list of them as shown in Figure 4. Correct matches have been made, as shown by the number one in the first column. The list of references is now ready.
Formatting the Paper With the reference list finished, EndNote is ready to make a copy of the manuscript. In doing so, it will also fromat symbols or text for in-text citations and prepare a list of references at the end.
Paula now must make a choice of the format she wishes the citations and references to follow. The Styles menu is her principal tool. From it she can select one of several basic forms: APA (American Psychological Association), author-date, MLA (Modem Language Association), Chicago, Nature, Vancouver (medical), or numbered style. If none of these styles meets her immediate needs, she can create a new style or edit one of the existing styles.
Paula selects the APA style, a method followed by many social science periodicals. To use it, she selects the Format command from the Paper menu. A dialog box appears asking the name of the document under which she will save it. She may wish to use the original manuscript in a different format at a later date, and so she gives the manuscript a different name, "Edit. Ms - APA."
She clicks the Save button, and EndNote proceeds to format the manuscript following the APA style. When the work is completed, Paula quits EndNote and opens the document (under its new name) in Microsoft Word. There she sees the completed document. References are indicated in the text by the author's name and date in parentheses. The list of references following the manuscript is arranged in alphabetical order following the style.
Figure 5 shows a split-screen display of the manuscript. In the top half is the portion of the text in which John Budd's article is cited, and the bottom half shows the portion of the bibliogra- phy where the reference is given in full. In her final editing, she can make any needed minor stylistic changes.
Having prepared the manuscript and employed EndNote, Paula can send her manuscript off to a journal editor. She knows that if she receives the dreaded letter of rejection her changes in bibliographic formating will be minimal because EndNote can take care of that detailed operation.
EndNote and a Scholar's
The upper limit on the size of an EndNote library is 32,000 references, and Paula realizes this is a wonderful way to save her bibliographical citations for much of her writing, regardless of subject. When she prepares a manuscript, she will use the EndNote desk accessory to input and save her citations. Then when she needs to insert one in a manuscript, she win use the program's search capability to find it. Although it will be a bit more work, she can also enter her references into multiple libraries.
The program manual is realistic in pointing out some of the program's limitations - for example, handling items for which no author is given or inserting nonbibliographic notes in the same sequence with citations. But even with those minor considerations, the program's ease of use and good performance impress Paula Vincent very much. She recommends this new program to college faculty and students who are using the Macintosh computer for preparation of papers and articles that require scholarly documentation.
1. For descriptions of Professional Bibliographic System, see Harriett and Richard Johnson, Mac the Bibliographer," Small Computers in Libraries 6 (February 1986): 24-29; and Mac's Card Game," Small Computers in Libraries 7 June 1987): 28-32. For a description of Pro-Cite, see the authors' The Macintosh Press: Desktop Publishing-for Libraries (Westport, CT: Meckler Corp., 1989), pp. 85-90.
2. For a description of Publish or Perish, see Harriett and Richard Johnson, "Half a Loaf," Small Computers in Libraries 8 (April 1988): 33-36. Version 3.0 of Publish or Perish with several enhancements has recently been published.
Acknowledgment The text example and references given in this article are adapted from an article by Richard Johnson that appeared in Library Trends, Spring 1988.
Product Discussed EndNote, Version 1.0
(Version 1.1 has recently
been published) Niles & Associates 2200 Powell Suite 765 Emeryville, CA 94608-9899 415-655-6666
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|Author:||Johnson, Harriett; Johnson, Richard|
|Publication:||Computers in Libraries|
|Date:||Jun 1, 1989|
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