Host specificity of Anthonomus elutus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a potential biological control agent of wetland nightshade (Solanaceae) in Florida.
Wetland-nightshade is native to southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize (Gentry & Standley 1974), the Caribbean region (Sauget & Liogier 1957), Nicaragua, Costa Rica (Medal personal observation), and probably has also spread into other regions including the northern part of South America. This plant has enormous reproductive potential through vegetative parts (sections of stems) as well as seed production. A single plant growing in an open sunny area can produce up to 8,620 seeds during an annual growing season that occurs from early spring to fall in southern Florida (Fox & Wigginton 1996b; Langeland & Burks 1998). Dispersion of the seeds may occur through wildlife feeding on the fruits as is common with other Solanum species (Medal et al. 2002; Medal & Cuda 2000). Since the mid 1990s, some initial research efforts involving state agencies have focused mainly on chemical weed control along with a few studies on the biology and ecology of the weed (Fox & Wigginton 1996a, b).
Currently, recommended management practices for wetland-nightshade in Florida wetlands are based on herbicide applications (Langeland & Stocker 1997). Herbicide treatment of this species is labor intensive, expensive, and may result in damage to non-target species. Many of the infested areas are not accessible by boat or other equipment, which makes herbicide applications even more difficult. Biological control research efforts with insects and nematodes against wetland-nightshade were initiated by University of Florida researchers who included this plant in the host-specificity tests against tropical soda apple, Solanum uiarum Dunal, a highly invasive terrestrial congener of wetland-nightshade native to the southern part of South America (Cuda et al. 1998, 2002a; Medal et al. 1999). Several leaf-feeding insects were tested, including 3 chrysomelid beetles (Metriona elatior Klug, Gratiana boliuiana Spaeth, and Platyphora sp.) that were found feeding on tropical soda apple in South America (Medal et al. 1996, 2003, 2007). Quarantine-laboratory screening tests with these insects indicated only minor feeding damage and no larval development on wetland-nightshade (Medal et al. 1999, 2002; Medal et al. unpublished data). Host-feeding tests were also conducted from 1995 to 1997 with a foliar and stem-galling nematode Ditylenchus phyllobius (Thorne) Filipje, and two leaf-beetles Leptinotarsa texana Schaeffer and Leptinotarsa defecta Stal from Texas (Cuda et al. 1998, 2002b). Although the nematode and the 2 Leptinotarsa leaf-beetles caused significant damage to silverleaf nightshade Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (their preferred host plant), they were unable to survive on wetland-nightshade in starvation tests. We initiated a classical biological control project against this exotic weed in the fall of 2005 because importation of specialized natural enemies that attack wetland-nightshade in its native range, Mexico-Central America-Caribbean region, may prevent or reduce the spread of this weed. Field surveys of potential biocontrol agents in the native range of wetland-nightshade, and host-specificity tests with the selected agents were conducted in southern Mexico and Central America, and at the Gainesville quarantine facility during a 3-year period.
Wetland-nightshade can grow up to 5 m tall sometimes forming dense stands mainly in swamps/wetland areas or along river margins. Stems and leaf veins are densely covered with short (0.5 cm long) recurved or straight spines. Leaves alternate in pairs or individually with a petiole up to 3 cm long. Leaf blades are longer (5.5-16 cm) than wide (2.2-5.5 cm) with lobed or indented margins. The corolla is white with anthers up to 4 mm long. Fruits are relatively small (up to 1 cm in diameter), and rounded, forming small clusters. Fruits are initially green, turning orange and finally red when ripe. Each fruit contains 10-60 yellowish, flat round seeds 2-2.5 mm long. Seeds can be viable for at least 12 months. Wetland-nightshade can reproduce by forming new stems from the stem base or regrowing from crowns. It is shade tolerant but will grow in full sun (Fox & Wigginton 1996b; Gentry & Standley 1974; Langeland & Burks 1998).
The flower-bud weevil, Anthonomus elutus Clark (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was tested as a biological control agent of wetland nightshade in Florida. This insect was first found and collected on wetland nightshade in Monterrico, Departamento Santa Rosa, Guatemala (N:13[degrees]54' 50.7", W.90[degrees]32' 26. 1") in Feb 2006. The identity of A. elutus was confirmed by Drs. Wayne Clark (Auburn University, AL) and Germano Rosado Neto (Universidade Federal do Parana in Curitiba, Brazil). Voucher specimens of A. elutus are deposited at Auburn University, Alabama, at the Universidade Federal do Parana- Curitiba campus, Brazil, at the Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, at the Ministerio de Agricultura in San Jose, Costa Rica, and at the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of Plant Industry in Gainesville, Florida. This species does not have a common name in Central America. The only known host plant of A. elutus in Central America is S. tampicense. The distribution of A. elutus in southern Mexico and Central America is not well known.
In this paper we report the results of the host-specificity tests conducted at the Florida Department of Agriculture-Division of Plant Industry Quarantine facility in Gainesville with the flower-bud weevil A. elutus as a potential biological control agent of the non-native weed wetland-nightshade.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Host-specificity tests with A. elutus adults were conducted from Feb 2006 to Nov 2008 at the quarantine facility in Gainesville, Florida. Adults were first collected Feb 2006 on S. tampicense plants in Alajuela Province, Costa Rica, and Santa Rosa, Guatemala, and introduced into quarantine in Florida where they were placed with S. tampicense clusters of leaves/flower-buds in screened plastic containers. These field-collected adults and their offspring born in quarantine were used for host-specificity testing. Multiple-Choice Feeding and Oviposition Tests Eighty-seven plant species in 17 families were included in the feeding and oviposition preference tests in Gainesville-quarantine (Table 1). The plants tested included 62 species in the family of the target weed (Solanaceae) of which 33 were from the genus Solanum and 29 from 15 other genera that include plants of agricultural and/or ecological importance. Eight species representing 3 families (Boraginaceae, Convolvulaceae, Polemoniaceae) related phyllogenetically very closely to the Solanaceae, in the same order Polemoniales (according to Heywood 1993), or in the Solanales (based on the most recent classification made by Chase 2003) were also included. Twenty-five plant species representing 16 families, most of them with an economic and/or environmental value in North America, were tested. The major target weed (S. tampicense) and other 9 plant species in the Solanaceae were tested at least 3times. They include Solanum donianum Walpers that is in the list of Florida threatened plants (Coile 1998); 2 non-native invasive weeds (Solanum viarum Dunal, Solanum torvum Sw.); and the 6 major cultivated Solanaceae Capsicum annuum L. (bell-pepper), Capsicum frutescens L. (chile), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato), Nicotiana tabacum L. (tobacco), Solanum melongena L. (eggplant), and Solanum tuberosum L. (potato).
The plant species tested were obtained from local nurseries, from fields were they grew naturally, or were grown from seeds obtained from a commercial nursery. All plants were grown before testing in 1-gallon pots with a mixture of 2/3 parts top soil and 1/3 part sand. The plants were maintained out-of-door in a screened area (50% shade), provided with water as needed, and fertilized every 2-3 months. Cut branches or bouquets (10-15 cm) with foliage/flower buds from the potted plants were healthy, not fed upon by herbivorous, and had approximately similar amounts of foliage and numbers of flower buds (5-10) for each plant species in a given test. The cut branches or bouquets of the test plants were placed in 30-mL clear plastic cups filled with water. The top of the cup was covered with a plastic lid that had a small hole punched in the middle to insert the bouquet. The water cups with bouquets were placed individually on each cell of an egg-carton to keep the plant bouquet erect. Eight to 10 plant species randomly selected, including always the target weed, were simultaneously exposed to 20-26 A. elutus (approximately 50% male, 50% female) in clear plastic round containers (26 cm diameter by 9 cm height, with four 4-7 cm diameter vents drilled along the sides of the container to allow for air circulation). At the beginning of each test, the insects were placed at the bottom center of each container to observe their orientation to the tested plants. Plant species in each test were replicated 3-4 times (1 replication of tested plants in each separate container). Plants tested were exposed to A. elutus adults over a period of 10 to 14 d. Observations of oviposition and feeding were made twice a week. Plant bouquets containing darkened or loosened flower-buds were replaced as needed, and dissected to observe possible oviposition. The flower-bud and leaf area consumed was visually estimated based upon a scale from 0 to 5 (0 = no feeding, 1 = probing or 5% of area consumed, 2 = light feeding or 5-20% of the area, 3 = moderate feeding or 21-40%, 4 = heavy feeding, and 5 = intense feeding or >60 of the area consumed).
No-Choice Adult Feeding Tests
No-choice host specificity tests were also conducted with A. elutus adults at the Gainesville-quarantine facility with potted plants (20-60 cm height) in cages. Anthonomus elutus adults were exposed to 30 plant species in 3 families including S. donianum in the list of Florida threatened plants, and all major cultivated Solanaceae (Table 2). Five to 6 plant species were individually tested each time due to limitation in cage numbers. Ten A. elutus adults (5 males, 5 females) per replication (3 replications) were exposed to plants for 2 weeks. Cages were made of clear-plastic cylinders (15 cm diameter, 50-60 cm height), with a mesh screen at the top and covering 6-circular holes (6 cm diameter) located in pairs at the bottom, middle, and upper part of the cylinder to allow for air circulation. Adults tested originated from F2- F3 generations reared in quarantine from adults collected on wetland-nightshade plants in Costa Rica and Guatemala. The adults tested were young (2-3-week old). Plants were replaced as needed. At the end of the testing periods, feeding and oviposition were recorded.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Multiple-Choice Feeding and Oviposition Tests In the Florida-quarantine multiple-choice tests (Table 1), Anthonomus elutus adults fed heavily to intensively (41-100% of the area offered) on the target weed wetland-nightshade. A minor or exploratory feeding (<5% of the area offered) was observed on the non-natives Solanum capsicoides, Solanum mammosum, Solanum sisymbriifolium, and Solanum torvum. No feeding was observed on any of the other 82 plant species that were tested. Anthonomus elutus laid from 3 to 10 eggs per female inside the wetland-nightshade flower-buds during the duration of the test (Table 1). No eggs were deposited on any of the other 86 plant species tested. Results indicated that this potential biocontrol agent fed and laid eggs only on the target weed wetland-nightshade.
No-Choice Adult Feeding Tests
The no-choice host specificity tests with A. elutus adults exposed to individual potted plants (30 species in 3 families) in cages at the Gainesville-quarantine facility (Table 2) indicated that the insects fed and laid eggs (range: 3-6, average: 5 eggs per female) only on wetland-nightshade. Feeding on wetland-nightshade was moderate (21-40% of the area offered) compared to a probing or exploratory feeding (<5%) observed on S. elaeagnifolium and on S. toruum. No eggs were laid on any of the 29 non-target plant species tested including the 3 eggplant cultivars (Black Beauty, Market, Asian Long Purple).
The high specificity showed by this weevil in the host-range tests feeding and development only on the target weed in the Micrantha section, indicated no adverse impacts would be expected on the 6 solanaceous species that were not tested and are listed as threatened or endangered in Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Indirect beneficial effects on wildlife populations associated with release and establishment of A. elutus may be expected due to recolonization by native plants that have been displaced by the rapidly growing and highly competitive wetland-nightshade plants.
The host-specificity tests at the Gainesville quarantine indicated that A. elutus is safe to release. Occasional temporary feeding might occur on some close related Solanum species. These species are the non-native weeds S. toruum (in the Federal Noxious Weed list, introduced from Central/South America (Kissman & Groth 1995), S. capsicoides, S. sisymbriifolium, and S. jamaicense. Noticeable damage to economic/native Solanaceae plants is unlikely to occur based on our host tests. The lack of records as a crop pest in the native range of the weevils support our findings on the specificity and safety of A. elutus as a biocontrol agent of wetland-nightshade in Florida.
One of the strongest arguments in favor of releasing A. elutus against wetland-nightshade in Florida was the inability of this weevil to feed, oviposit, or develop on eggplant, tomato, potato, bell-pepper, chile, native Solanaceae plants, and other economic crops in the no-choice and choice experiments. These findings suggest that a host range expansion of A. elutus to include any of the tested non-target plants is highly unlikely. The quarantine feeding-oviposition tests exposing A. elutus to 87 plant species in 17 families indicated that this weevil is nearly a monophagous herbivore which feeds on a few Solanum species, including S. toruum which is an exotic weed of increasing concern in Florida due to its potential to invade wildlife areas and displace native vegetation. The primary goal of this biological control program is to bring down the wetland-nightshade population density below a threshold that does not cause economic or ecological damage. We do not consider eradication of an invasive plant that has already been established to be a realistic goal. However, if local eradication were observed (e.g., as a consequence of herbicide/intense mowing applications), and occasional feeding on a non-target plant occurred, the evidence accumulated indicates that the possibility of A. elutus becoming a problem on a non-target plant is remote.
Based on the specificity of A. elutus feeding and developing only on the target weed in the Micrantha section, we consider this weevil safe for field release against wetland-nightshade. Therefore, a petition to release the Mexican-Central-American flower-bud weevil A. elutus for the control of wetland- nightshade in Florida was submitted to the USDA-APHIS-PPQ Technical Advisory Group (TAG) members on Dec 2008.
We thank Howard Frank (University of Florida), and Julieta Brambila (United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) for reviewing the manuscript. We thank Wayne Clark (Auburn University) for identification of Anthonomus elutus. This research was funded by Florida Fish and Wildlife.
Agee, H. R. 1964. Characters for determination of sex of the boll weevil. J. Econ. Entomol. 57: 500-501.
Bailey, L. H., and Bailey, E. Z. 1976. Hortus Third: A Concise Dictionary of Plants Cultivated in the United States and Canada. Macmillan Publisher, New York. 253 p.
Borror, D. J., De Long, D. M., and Triplehorn, C. A. 1981. An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 5th edition. Saunders College Publishing. 827 p.
Borror, D. J., Triplehorn, C. A., and Jonson, N. F. 1989. An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 6th edition. Saunders College Publishing. Philadelphia. 875 p.
Busby, J. R. 1991. Bioclim, a bioclimatic analysis and prediction system, pp. 64-69 In C. R. Margules and M. P Austin [eds.], Nature Conservation: Cost Effective Biological Surveys and Data Analysis. CSIRO. Canberra, Australia.
Chase, M. W 2003. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group Classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical J. Linnean Soc. 141: 399-436.
Clark, W. E., and Burle, H. R. 1996. The species of Anthonomus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) associated with plants in the family Solanaceae. Southwestern Entomol. Supplement 19. College Station, Tx. 114 pp.
Coile, N.C. 1993. Tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum Dunal: The Plant from Hell. Florida Dept. Agric. and Consumer Ser., Div. Plant Ind. Botany Circular No. 27, 4 pp.
Coile, N. C. 1998. Notes on Florida's Endangered and Threatened Plants. Florida Dept. Agric. and Consumer Ser., Bureau of Entomol., Nematol. and Plant Pathol. Botany Section Contribution No.38, 2"a edition. 119 pp.
Cuda, J. P., Parker, P. E., Goodson, R. A. And Gillmore, J. L. 1998. Evaluation of Ditylenchus phyllobius as a biological control agent for Solanum viarum and Solanum tampicense (Solanaceae). Nematropica 28:107-11.
Cuda, J. P., Gandolofo, D., Medal, J. C., Charudattan, R., and Mullahey, J. J. 2002a. Tropical soda apple, wetland nightshade, and turkey berry, Solanum spp. (Solanaceae), pp. 293-309 In R. G. Van Driesche, S. Lyon, B. Blossey, M. Hoddle, and R. Reardon [eds.], Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the Eastern United States. U.S. Forest Service, Morgantown, WV
Cuda, J. P., Parker, P. E., Coon, B. R., Vasquez, F. E., and Harrinton, J. M. 2002b. Evaluation of exotic Solanum spp. (Solanales: Solanaceae) in Florida as host plants for the leaf beetles Leptinotarsa defecta and L. texana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Florida Entomol. 85: 599-610.
Duan, J. J., Weber, D. C., Hirs, B. A., and Dorn, S. 1999. A new character for sex differentiation of adults of Anthonomus pomorum L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J. Applied Entomol. 123: 319.
Fox, A., and Wigginton, A. 1996a. Please help us find aquatic soda apple. Aquatics 18 (1): 10-13.
Fox, A., and Wigginton, A. 1996b. Biology and control of aquatic soda apple (Solanum tampicense Dunal), pp. 23-28 In Proc. Tropical Soda Apple Symp. University of Florida-IFAS, Bartow, Florida.
Fox, A. M., and Bryson, C. T. 1998. Wetland-nightshade (Solanum tampicense): a threat to wetlands in the United States. Weed Technol. 12: 410-413.
Gentry, Jr. J., and Standley, P. C. 1974. Flora of Guatemala. Field Museum of Natural History. Fieldiana: Botany, Vol. 24, part x, number 1 and 2, pp. 122-123.
Heywood, V H. 1993. Flowering Plants of the World. Oxford University Press, New York.
Humans, R. J., Guario L., Jarvis, A. Brien, R. O. Mathur, P. Bussink, C., Cruz, M., Barrantes, I., and Rojas, E. 2005. DIVA-GIS Version 5.2 Manual.
KARTESZ, J. T.1994. A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Timber Press. Portland, Oregon.
Kissmann, K. G., and D. Groth. 1995. Plantas infestantes e nocivas. BASF. Sa6 Paulo, Brasil. 683 pp.
LANGELAND, K. A., AND STOCKER, R. K. 1997. Control of Non-native Plants in Natural Areas of Florida. University of Florida-IFAS-CES. SP 242. 38 pp.
Langeland, K. A., and Burns, K. C. [EDS.]. 1998. Identification & biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas. University of Florida. Gainesville, FL., pp. 130-131.
Long, R. W., and Lakela, O. 1971. A Flora of Tropical Florida: A Manual of the Seed Plants and Ferns of Southern Peninsular Florida. University of Miami Press. Coral Gables, Florida, 752-760.
Medal, J. C., Charudatan, R., Mullahey, J. J., and Pitelli, R. A. 1996. An exploratory insect survey of tropical soda apple in Brazil and Paraguay. Florida Entomol. 79(1): 70-73.
Medal, J. C., pitelli, R. A., Santana, A., Gandolfo, D., Gravena, R., and Habeck, D. H. 1999. Host specificity of Metriona elatior, a potential biological control agent of tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum Dunal, in the USA. BioContro144: 1-16.
Medal, J. C., and Cuda, J. P. 2000. Biological control of some exotic weeds by means of insects, pp. 75-82 In Proc. Caribbean Basin Administrative Group Workshop on Approaches to Mitigating the Effects of Exotic Pests on Trade and Agriculture in the Caribbean Region, 16-18 June 1999.
Medal, J. C., Sudbrink, D., Gandolofo, D., Ohashi, D., and Cuda, J. P. 2002. Gratiana boliviana, a potential biocontrol agent of Solanum viarum: Quarantine host-specificity testing in Florida and field surveys in South America. BioContro147: 445-461.
Medal, J. C., Gandolfo, D., and Cuda, J. P. 2003. Biology of Gratiana boliviana, the first Biocontrol Agent Released to Control Tropical Soda Apple in the USA. University of Florida-IFAS Extension Circular EN Y- 3p.
Medal, J., Overholt, W., Stansly, P., Roda, A., Osborne, L., Hibbard, K., Gaskalla, R., Burns, E., Chong, J., Sellers, B., Hight, S., Cuda, J. P., Vitorino, M., Bredow, E., Pedrosa-Macedo, J., and Wikler, C. 2008. Establishment, spread, and initial impacts of Gratiana boliviana (Chrysomelidae) on Solanum viarum in Florida, pp. 591-596, In R. Sforza, M. C. Bon, H. C. Evans, P. E. Hatcher, H. Z. Hinz and B. G. Rector [eds.], Proc. XII Intl. Symp. Biol. Control of Weeds. La Grande Motte, France.
Nee, M. 1991. Sypnosis of Solanum section Acanthophora: A group of interest for glyco-alkaloides, pp. 258-266 In J. G. Hawkes, R. N. Lester, M. Nee, N. Estrada [eds.], Solanaceae III: Taxonomy, Chemistry, Evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. Richmond, Surrey, UK.
Sauget, J. S., and Liogier, E. E. 1957. Flora de Cuba. Imprenta P Fernandez y Cia. La Habana. Vol. IV, No. 16, pp. 358-359.
Schilling, E. E. 1981. Systematics of Solanum sect. Solanum (Solanaceae) in North America. Systematic Botany 6: 172-185.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1997. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants. U.S Government Printing Office. 52 pp.
White, R. E. 1983. A Field Guide to Beetles of North America. Boston Houghton Mifflin Co.
J. Medal (1), N. Bustamante (1), J. Barrera (2), O. Avila (3), J. Monzon (4) and J. Luda (1)
(1) University of Florida, Department of Entomology and Nematology, Gainesville, FL 32611
(2) Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Tapachulas, Chiapas, Mexico
(3) Ministerio de Agricultura, San Jose, Costa Rica
(4) Museo de Entomologia, Guatemala, Guatemala
TABLE 1. HOST RANGE, ADULT FEEDING, AND OVIPOSITION TEST WITH ANTHONOMUS ELUTUS IN FLORIDA. Plant Family Common Names (* Eggs indicates No. No. Feeding Laid native of of Score per Species Solanum Tests Insects (1) Female species) Category 1. Genetic types of the target weed species found in North America SOLANACEAE Tribe Solaneae Genus Solanum Subgenus Leptostemonum Section Micracantha Solanum Wetland tampicense Dunal nightshade 7 420 4-5 3-10 Category 2. Species in the same genus as the target weed, divided by subgenera (if applicable) Tribe Solaneae Genus Solanum Subgenus Leptostemonum Section Acantophora Solanum Red soda capsicoides All. apple 2 120 1 0 Solanum mammosum L. Nipplefruit 1 80 1 0 Solanum Tropical viarum Dunal soda apple 3 180 0 0 Section Lasiocarpum Solanum quitoense Lam. Naranjilla 2 140 0 0 Solanum pseudolulo Heise Falso lulo 2 140 0 0 Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal Nightshade 2 140 0 0 Section Micracantha Solanum Jamaican jamaicense Mill. nightshade 2 140 0 0 Section Melongena Subsection Androceras Solanum citrullifolium Watermelon A. Braun nightshade 1 80 0 0 Solanum Melonleaf heterodoxum Dunal nightshade 1 80 0 0 Solanum Buffalobur rostratrum Dunal nightshade 1 80 0 0 Solanum sisymbriifolium Sticky Lam. nightshade 2 140 1 0 Subsection Lathyrocarpum Solanum Horse carolinense L. nettle * 2 140 0 0 Solanum Western dimidiatum horsenettle Raf. * 2 140 0 0 Solanum elaeagnifolium Silverleaf Cav. nightshade 2 140 0 0 Subsection Melongena Solanum Bahama bahamense nightshade 1 80 0 0 Solanum melongena L. Eggplant 5 360 0 Solanum torvum Sw. Turkeyberry 3 200 1 0 Solanum Mullein verbascifolium nightshade L. * 2 120 0 0 Subgenus Solanum Solanum American americanum nightshade Mill. * 2 140 0 0 Solanum Two-leaf diphyllum nightshade L. * 2 140 0 0 Solanum Potato erianthum Don. tree * 2 140 0 0 Solanum White jasminoides Paxt. potato vine 2 140 0 0 Solanum Earleaf mauritianum Scop. nightshade 2 140 0 0 Solanum Divine nigrescesns nightshade Mart. & Gal * 2 160 0 0 Solanum Black nigrum nightshade L. * 2 140 0 0 Solanum Parish parishii nightshade heller * 2 160 0 0 Solanum Wonder ptycanthum Dunal berry * 2 160 0 0 Solanum Rock pumillum outcrop Dunal Solanum 1 80 0 0 Solanum retroflexum Dunal Wonderberry 1 80 0 0 Solanum Garden scabrum Mill. huckleberry 1 80 0 0 Solanum seaforthianum Brazilian Andr. nightshade 2 160 0 0 Solanum tuberosum L. Potato 5 400 0 0 Category 3. Species in other genera in the same family as the target weed, divided by subfamily (if applicable) Genus Acnistus Acnistus australe (Griseb.) Griseb. Acnistus 2 160 0 0 Genus Iochroma Iochroma sp. Iochroma 2 120 0 0 Genus Physalis Physalis Cutleaf angulata Ground- L. Cherry 2 120 0 0 Physalis arenicola Kearney Cypresshead 2 120 0 0 Physalis Ground- crassifolia Benth Cherry 2 120 0 0 Physalis Ground- gigantea L. cherry 2 120 0 0 Physalis ixocarpa Brot. Tomatillo 2 140 0 0 Physalis Strawberry pubescens L tomato 2 120 0 0 Tribe Daturae Genus Brugmansia Brugmansia sanguinea Red (Ruiz & Pav.) Don floripontio 2 120 0 0 Genus Datura Datura iscolour Angels' Bernh trumpet 2 120 0 0 Datura Downy metel L. thorn apple 2 120 0 0 Datura meteloides D. Datura 2 120 0 0 Datura stramonium L. Jimson weed 2 120 0 0 Tribe Lycieae Genus Lycium Lycium carolinianum Christmas Walt. berry 2 120 0 0 Lycium fremontii Gray. Lycium 2 120 0 0 Genus Lycopersicon Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Tomato 5 400 0 0 Tribe: Nicandreae Genus: Nicandra Nicandra physaloides Apple of (L.) Gaertn. Peru 2 120 0 0 Tribe Nicotianae Genus Nicotiana Nicotiana tabacum L. Tobacco 5 400 0 0 Nicotiana Wild rustica L. tobacco 2 140 0 0 Nicotiana sylvestris Speg. & Comes Tobacco 2 120 0 0 Genus Nierembergia Nierembergia scoparia Sendtri Cupflower 2 120 0 0 Genus Petunia Petunia x Garden- hybrida petunia 2 120 0 0 Tribe Salpiglossidae Genus Salpiglossis Salpiglossis sinuata Painted Ruiz & Pav tongue 2 120 0 0 Genus Schizanthus Schizanthus Butterfly spp. flower 2 120 0 0 Tribe Solandeae Genus Solandra Solandra glandiflora Chalice Swartz vine 2 120 0 0 Category 4. Threatened and endangered species in the same family as the target weed divided by subgenus, genus, and subfamily Section Torva Solanum Mullein donianum nightshade Walpers * 5 400 0 0 Category 5. Species in other families in the same order that have some phylogenetic, morphological, or biochemical similarities to the target weed BORAGINACEAE Heliotrope sp. Heliotrope 1 60 0 0 Myosotis alpestris Forget-Me- Schmidt Not 1 60 0 0 CONVOLVULACEAE Convolvulus purpurea L. Convolvulus 2 120 0 0 Ipomoea Sweet- batata (L.) Lam. potato 2 120 0 0 Evolvulus muttallianus Evolvulus 2 120 0 0 EHRETIACEAE Cordia sebestena L. Geiger tree 1 60 0 0 NOLANACEAE Nolana Chilean paradoxa Lindl. bellflower 1 60 0 0 POLEMONIACEAE Cobaea scandens Cav. Cobaea 1 60 0 0 Gilia tricolor Benth Bird's-eyes 1 60 0 0 Phlox panuculata L. Phlox 1 60 0 0 Category 6. Species in other orders that have some morphological or biochemical similarities to the target weed or that share the same habitat ANACARDIACEAE Anacardium occidentale L. Cashew 1 60 0 0 Mangifera indica L. Mango 1 60 0 0 Pistacia Cultivated vera L. pistachio 1 60 0 0 APIACEAE Daucus carota L. Carrot 1 60 0 0 ASTERACEAE Helianthus Annual annuus L. sunflower 1 60 0 0 Lactuca sativa L. Lettuce 1 60 0 0 CAMPANULACEAE Campanula persicifolia L Bell flower 1 60 0 0 CARICACEAE Carica papaya L. Papaya 1 60 0 0 CRUCIFERAE Brassica oleracea L. var. Botrytis Broccoli 1 60 0 0 MALVACEAE Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench Okra 1 60 0 0 ROSACEAE Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne Strawberry 1 60 0 0 RUTACEAE Citrus sinensis Sweet (L.) Osbeck orange 1 60 0 0 Citrus paradise Mcfady Grapefruit 1 60 0 0 Category 7. Any plant on which close relatives of the biological control agent (within the same genus) have been found or recorded to feed/or reproduce MALVACEAE Gossypium hirsutum L. Cotton 3 200 0 0 SOLANACEAE Genus Capsicum Capsicum annuum L. Bell pepper 5 400 0 0 Capsicum frutescens L. Chile 5 380 0 0 Each test 3-4 replications with 20-26 adults (50% males, 50% females) per rep. * 0 = No feeding, 1 = Probing (<5% of flower bud-leaf area), 2 = Light (5-20%), 3 = Moderate (21-40%), 4 = Heavy (41-60%), 5 = Intense (>60% area). TABLE 2. HOST RANGE OF ANTHONOMUS ELUTUS ADULTS IN NO-CHOICE FEEDING TESTS IN FLORIDA QUARANTINE. Plant family / Species Common names Feeding Eggs/ Score * Female SOLANACEAE Capsicum annuum Bell pepper 0 0 Capsicum frutescens Chile 0 0 Lycopersicon esculentum Tomato 0 0 Nicotiana tabacum Tobacco 0 0 Nierembergia scoparia Cupflower 0 0 Physalis crassifolia Ground-cherry 0 0 Physalis pubescens L. Strawberry tomato 0 0 Solanum americanum American nightshade 0 0 Solanum carolinense Horse nettle 0 0 Solanum citrullifolium Watermelon nightshade 0 0 Solanum dimidiatum Western horsenettle 0 0 Solanum diphillum Two-leaf nightshade 0 0 Solanum donianum Mullein nightshade 0 0 Solanum elaeagnifolium Silverleaf nightshade 1 0 Solanum jamaicense Jamaican nightshade 0 0 Solanum jasminoides White potato vine 0 0 Solanum melongena Eggplant cv Black Beauty 0 0 cv Market 0 0 cv Asian Long Purple 0 0 Solanum nigrescens Black nightshade 0 0 Solanum pumilum Rock-outcrop 0 0 Solanum ptycanthum Wonder berry 0 0 Solanum retroflexum Sunberry 0 0 Solanum scabrum Garden huckleberry 0 0 Solanum tampicense Wetland nightshade 3 3-6 Solanum torvum Turkeyberry 1 0 Solanum tuberosum Potato 0 0 Solanum viarum Tropical soda apple 0 0 CONVOLVULACEAE Ipomoea batata (L.) Lam. Sweet-potato 0 0 Each test included 3-4 replications with 10 adults (5 females, 5 males) per replication. * 0 = No feeding, 1 = Probing (<5% of leaf/flower bud area), 2 = Light feeding (5-20%), 3 = Moderate feeding (21-40%), 4 = Heavy feeding (41-60%), 5 = Intense feeding (>60% of the area).
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Medal, J.; Bustamante, N.; Barrera, J.; Avila, O.; Monzon, J.; Cuda, J.|
|Date:||Sep 1, 2009|
|Previous Article:||Releases, distribution and abundance of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum...|
|Next Article:||A new genus and new species of the subtribe Cicadina (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadini).|