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Hommage a l'homme de la contre-hegemonie.

Pauline : Puisque je suis l'ainee des chercheuses de cette troika--je suis arrivee seulement un an avant Diane Tye dans la discipline de l'ethnologie et dix-neuf ans avant Holly Everett, en commencant ma maitrise a Memorial en 1977 -, je veux partager mon premier souvenir de Peter Narriez en tant qu'enseignant. Kenny Goldstein, alors directeur du departement de folklore, enseignait le cours de base pour les etudiants gradues. Il nous expliqua qu'il ne comprenait pas ce qu'etait le structuralisme et que, donc, le theoricien du departement, Peter, allait venir en classe nous l'exposer. Je me souviens de la peur que nous inspirait la theorie et du sentiment d'admiration et de respect pour celui qui la comprenait. Sentiments que je percois souvent chez mes propres etudiants encore aujourd'hui. Et je me souviens que le cours de Peter fut ma premiere introduction a une position theorique qui a profondement influence mon propre travail (j'en suis parfois meme un peu genee : c'est tellement retro a present).

Je me souviens egalement que Peter representait le meilleur exemple du genre de chercheur que l'on nous donnait en exemple : quelqu'un qui etait intellectuellement immerge dans la discipline, mais qui respectait egalement profondement les gens avec lesquels il travaillait et qui etait, en effet, un participant ainsi qu'un observateur de la culture traditionnelle. Je n'en avais pas conscience a l'epoque, mais les origines de Peter, son appartenance a un groupe ethnique marginalise aux Etats-Unis, a probablement ete une pierre de touche cruciale a sa profonde comprehension de l'economie politique de Terre-Neuve et de la culture canadienne. Il fut le premier parmi les professeurs qui enseignaient a Terre-Neuve lorsque j'etais etudiante a reconnaitre que j'etais devenue une collegue. C'est un plaisir et un privilege de faire partie du groupe qui lui offre ce modeste present.

Diane: En tant qu'etudiante graduee, je fus egalement inspiree par la passion de Peter pour le folklore. Sa maitrise impressionnante des bases theoriques de la discipline a contribue a renforcer les assises de mon propre travail. C'etait un professeur tres pointilleux mais aussi tres genereux et si ce furent ses grandes exigences qui me firent aller de l'avant en tant qu'etudiante, c'est de sa gentillesse dont j'ai le plus fort souvenir en tant que collegue. A mon arrivee au departement de folklore en tant que professeure en 1995, je fus immediatement frappee par la generosite de Peter. Invariablement, c'etait Peter qui prenait la parole pour prendre la defense d'un etudiant qui avait besoin d'un peu plus d'aide et sa compassion modifia la tournure de plusieurs discussions entre professeurs. C'etait egalement un collegue tres genereux. Je me souviens precisement de sa reaction envers une directrice de departement nouvellement promue, inquiete quant a sa capacite a satisfaire aux exigences du poste pendant les trois annees qui allaient suivre. Les mots de reconfort de Peter furent immediats, meme si quelque peu surprenants venant de la part de ce fervent militant syndical, puisqu'il pariait au nom de ses collegues enseignants : << Ca va aller. Nous serons la pour vous aider>>. J'ai pu tres vite voir comment ses gestes de gentillesse quotidiens changerent la vie des gens--certains d'entre eux n'avaient meme pas conscience qu'ils avaient beneficie de son aide--et combien ces gestes les ont enormement guides.

Holly : A Memorial, au debut de chaque annee universitaire, le directeur du departement de folklore et le conseiller aux etudes superieures rencontrent les nouveaux etudiants gradues. L'annee ou j'ai commence ma maitrise, Peter occupait le poste de conseiller aux etudes. Notre rencontre commenca par quelques mots d'encouragement, que Peter formula devant une douzaine d'etudiants inquiets et impatients a la fois. Allons-nous reussir ? nous demandions-nous tous. Du moins, c'est ce que je me demandais. Peter disait alors, << Les etudes superieures ne sont pas pour tout le monde >>. Lisait-il dans nos pensees ? << Si vous decidez que ce n'est pas pour vous >> poursuivait-il, << s'il vous plait, venez m'en parler. Si vous voulez que nos discussions concernant les etudes superieures ou le folklore s'arretent la, on peut parler d'autre chose, comme de baseball!" N'importe qui se trouvant derriere la porte a ce moment-la aurait pu entendre un soupir de soulagement collectif. On venait de nous donner une carte << Sortez de prison >> et de nous rappeler que nous etions libres et que plusieurs avenirs etaient possibles, ce dont j'essaie de me souvenir lorsque je travaille avec des etudiants inquiets et dont les priorites different parfois considerablement des miennes.

Peu de temps apres, un etudiant gradue de la promotion anterieure a la mienne attira mon attention sur une affiche au centre-ville. Peter allait jouer au Ship Pub ce soir-la. << On devrait absolument y aller >>, dit-il d'un ton enthousiaste. << Peter est un musicien fantastique >>. Je n'avais jamais vu un professeur jouer dans un bar, pas a ma connaissance en tout cas. Je pensais aux professeurs que j'avais eus au premier cycle et je ne pouvais simplement pas imaginer la scene. J'allais bientot m'apercevoir que beaucoup d'ethnologues se produisent en public, un fait qui me ferait d'autant plus apprecier la discipline et sa philosophie.

La connaissance detaillee que Peter possede de Terre-Neuve et du Labrador--ainsi que sa profonde affection pour la province--m'a egalement impressionne. La maigre connaissance que j'avais de la province avant mon arrivee s'est amelioree de facon significative pendant les cours de Peter. Ses cours magistraux sur le folklore et la culture de Terre-Neuve ont enrichi non seulement mes recherches mais egalement ma vie au-dela du campus universitaire.

Toutes: Ce numero special rend hommage aux nombreuses contributions de Peter a l'ethnologie au Canada. Lorsqu'il recut le prix Marius Barbeau1 en 2006 (dont le texte figure dans ce numero), Peter decrit ses trente annees de carriere en ethnologie comme << un processus de communication et de documentation des comportements expressifs traditionnels des cultures de la classe ouvriere >>. Mais, ainsi que les articles de ce numero special le demontrent, cette modeste caracterisation minimise de beaucoup l'impact considerable de son oeuvre a la fois sur la construction de la theorie a un niveau interdisciplinaire et sur la comprehension des genres specifiques a l'ethnologie, depuis la musique et l'ethnologie du travail, jusqu'aux coutumes et aux croyances.

Pendant plus de trente ans, de 1974 a 2005, date ou il partit a la retraite, Peter Narvaez fut une piece maitresse du departement de folklore a l'Universite Memorial. Son enthousiasme a attire un nombre incalculable d'etudiants vers la discipline. Ses grandes exigences academiques, doublees d'une capacite a soutenir les etudiants comme professeur et mentor, inciterent les etudiants a atteindre des niveaux d'excellence et en firent un professeur, un directeur de these extremement sollicite. Quelques-uns des nombreux etudiants qu'il a influences ont contribue a ce volume : Kelly Best, Ian Brodie, Pat Byrne, Martin Laba, Ronald Labelle, Richard MacKinnon, James Moreira et Jodi McDavid, ainsi que les redactrices de ce numero. D'autres, comme Joy Fraser ou Michael MacDonald, representent la deuxieme generation d'une genealogie academique, a qui les eleves de Peter ont enseigne et/ ou qui ont ete influences par les ecrits de ce dernier.

Dans ses cours, Peter presentait l'erudition sous la forme d'un dialogue continu. Ses etudiants se souviennent de son enthousiasme pour sa matiere, de sa perspective critique et de ses modestes traits d'esprit. Un exemple de ce sens de l'humour, dont Holly a fait la premiere fois l'experience lors de l'intervention d'un conferencier dans le cadre d'un cours de methodes de recherche, se retrouve dans le discours qu'il fit a l'occasion de la remise du prix Barbeau. Aucun de ceux qui ont entendu Peter parler de la nuit qu'il a passee avec Ralph n'omet de reserver a l'avance un endroit ou dormir pendant ses enquetes de terrain.

Les contributions animees de Peter aux echanges interdisciplinaires ne se limitent pas aux genres ou aux barrieres entre disciplines. En gros, son travail est le reflet de ce qui serait actuellement appele les etudes culturelles, non seulement par ses sujets de recherche, mais aussi par sa definition critique et progressiste de la culture traditionnelle et populaire comme faisant front contre l'hegemonie. Ses interets sont tres vastes ; il a mis en place et/ou enseigne une vingtaine de cours differents durant sa carriere a Memorial. Il s'est aussi positionne par rapport a certains genres et champs fondamentaux de la discipline. Il fut considere comme l'expert du departement en theorie folkloristique, de la culture populaire, de l'ethnologie du travail, ainsi que de ses specialites de recherche : les chansons et la musique populaires, essentiellement le blues. Les collections qu'il a publiees refletent cet eclectisme, depuis Media Sense. The Folklore-Popular Culture Continuum (avec Martin Laba, 1986) en passant par The Good People. New Fairylore Essays (1991), jusqu'a Of Corpse. Death and Humor in Folklore and Popular Culture (2003). La longue liste de ses communications savantes, des conferences et cours magistraux qu'il a donnes en tant que professeur invite ainsi que ses nombreux articles couvrent une gamme encore plus large. Plusieurs de ses travaux temoignent de son interet predominant pour la musique populaire et le blues, alors que d'autres explorent des aspects de la culture terre-neuvienne, au carrefour de la musique et de la chanson populaires, des coutumes et des croyances, du recit, de la culture populaire et de l'ethnologie du travail.

Suivant l'exemple remarquable de Peter, les articles de ce numero special remettent en question les frontieres et les definitions disciplinaires et permettent egalement de comprendre un ensemble d'expressions culturelles vernaculaires, incluant la chanson de contestation, la broadside, le festival, le mummering, la legende, la croyance aux sorcieres, le monologue humoristique et la parodie. Au cours de leurs analyses, les auteurs reprennent beaucoup de questions de recherche et de dynamiques qui sous-tendent l'oeuvre de Peter et que ce dernier a mises en valeur. Nous considerons ce numero special comme une contribution a un dialogue entre chercheurs autour des sujets fondamentaux dont Peter a influence la reflexion, entre autres la tradition, l'appartenance et le pouvoir.

Avec des auteurs appartenant a divers champs incluant l'anthropologie, les etudes communautaires, les etudes acadiennes, l'archivistique, les etudes en communication, la litterature anglaise, l'ethnomusicologie, le patrimoine et la culture, ainsi que l'ethnologie, le caractere eclectique de ce numero fait echo aux propres travaux de Peter. Tout au long de sa carriere, il n'a cesse de partager des perspectives propres a l'ethnologie avec des chercheurs en etudes culturelles et en ethnomusicologie et de s'inspirer des leurs. Il fut egalement un membre actif de l'International Association for the Study of Popular Music. A Memorial, il joua un role particulierement decisif dans la creation d'une chaire de recherche en musique traditionnelle/ethnomusicologie et par la suite d'un programme d'etudes superieures en ethnomusicologie.

Ceci dit, l'ethnologie est la patrie intellectuelle de Peter et a l'inverse de ces folkloristes pour qui le mot << folklore >> est une grossierete, Peter l'utilise avec fierte. Il a ete un defenseur acharne des etudes en folklore et en ethnologie au Canada et ses efforts ont permis d'instituer et de donner par la suite de nouvelles orientations a la discipline au Canada anglais. Reconnaissant cette contribution, Jack Santino, qui en etait alors le redacteur en chef, lui proposa de publier un numero special du Journal of American Folklore consacre a l'ethnologie canadienne. Parce que Peter a toujours ete sensible a la politique de l'identite, tout en restant raisonnablement critique de ses preceptes, il sentit qu'il serait pertinent, etant lui-meme ne aux Etats-Unis, de demander a une chercheure en etudes canadiennes nee au Canada de se joindre a lui ; il en resulta le travail de Pauline comme coredactrice pour ce projet (2002). Peter est un membre de longue date de l'Association canadienne d'ethnologie et de folklore, dont il fut le president en 20012002. Son profond engagement pour la folkloristique au Canada et dans le monde fait de la revue Ethnologies un lieu particulierement approprie pour rendre hommage a l'oeuvre de Peter Narvaez, d'autant plus que cet hommage coincide avec le trentieme numero de la revue.

Faisant echo aux interets de Peter, trois des articles de ce numero special (MacDonald, MacKinnon et Moirera) analysent plusieurs dimensions de la chanson traditionnelle. En depit de son large champ d'interet, c'est vers la chanson traditionnelle que Peter s'est le plus souvent tourne, ayant ainsi publie plus de trente articles sur la question; c'est egalement le genre qu'il a explore le plus en profondeur au cours des dernieres annees. Dans << Protest Song and Verse in Cape Breton Island >>, Richard MacKinnon decrit Peter comme un pionnier de l'etude de l'ethnologie du travail et de la chanson de protestation. La these de doctorat de Peter, qui portait sur les chansons de contestation d'un syndicat en greve a Buchans (Terre-Neuve), fut le point de depart de plusieurs articles et engendra ulterieurement d'autres analyses, incluant une analyse de la chanson vernaculaire qui fit suite au moratorium sur la morue a Terre-Neuve. Richard MacKinnon et Michael MacDonald explorent les croisements de la chanson et du changement social. MacKinnon analyse le role qu'ont joue la chanson et la poesie de contestation dans les luttes des travailleurs a l'ile du Cap-Breton dans les annees 1920, tandis que Michael MacDonald s'interesse, dans << The Best Laid Plans of Marx and Men >>, au Winnipeg Folk Festival comme point de rencontre entre ses convictions politiques trotskistes et sa passion pour la musique traditionnelle de Michael Podolak, figure de la renaissance de la musique traditionnelle canadienne. L'article de James Moirera, << Fictional Landscapes and Social Relations in Nineteenth-Century Broadside Ballads >>, situe dans le contexte de la vie des travailleurs ruraux, s'attache aux questions liees a la chanson en relation au changement technique et a la modernite, une extension d'une partie du travail de Peter sur le Premier ministre de Terre-Neuve Joseph R. Smallwood et l'utilisation qu'il faisait du folklore dans son emission radiophonique << The Barrelman >>.

Cinq articles font echo a l'interet de Peter pour la narration. Dans << The Fiddle Burning Priest of Mabou >>, Jodi McDavid offre plusieurs versions d'une legende, mettant en scene un cure qui brulait des violons, qui agit comme moyen non seulement de negociation de pouvoir entre les catholiques et le clerge, mais aussi des tensions entre la culture vernaculaire et la culture officielle. L'article de Ronald Labelle, << Native Witchcraft Beliefs in Acadian, Maritime, and Newfoundland Folklore >>, s'interesse aux legendes et aux croyances acadiennes liees a la sorcellerie comme indicateurs de comportements reciproques et d'echanges avec les Mi'kmaq. Dans << Stand-up Comedy as a Genre of Intimacy >>, Ian Brodie repousse les definitions conventionnelles de la legende pour inclure le monologue humoristique qui, affirme-t-il, est un moyen d'expression resultant d'une collaboration, qui est interprete, developpe et qui prend forme grace a la reaction du public. Joy Fraser et Pat Byrne explorent des recits recontextualises--de genres certes differents en examinant les sens originaux que prennent des expressions vernaculaires dans de nouveaux contextes. Fraser deconstruit une comedie faisant partie du souper de Robert Burns dans << Performing Tradition and Ethnicity at the Newfoundland St Andrew's Society Burns Supper >>, alors que la preoccupation de Byrne pour << The Ambivalence of Tradition in the Short Stories of Alistair MacLeod >> vise la culture traditionnelle au travers de l'oeuvre de fiction d'un des meilleurs ecrivains canadiens.

Deux autres articles repondent a des preoccupations theoriques influencees par la politique cheres a Peter. Dans son article << "Making Cool Things Hot Again" : Blackface and Newfoundland Mummering >>, Kelly Best adopte le type d'analyse culturelle que Peter appliquait aux rites funeraires et aux croyances liees aux fees en mettant a jour les dynamiques raciales sous-jacentes au mummering quand la culture populaire rencontre la tradition vernaculaire au travers de la blackface. Dans << Parsing the Popular >>, Martin Laba poursuit sa collaboration ulterieure avec Peter dans Media Sense, en explorant les dimensions d'actions communicatives de l'expression traditionnelle comme moyen de creer et de maintenir des espaces sociaux partages. En insistant sur la fluidite du folklore et de la culture populaire, Laba, de meme que Best, Fraser et Byrne, problematisent le concept de tradition, tout comme Laba, Best, Brodie, Fraser et MacKinnon, Moreira et MacDonald encouragent les ethnologues et leurs collegues issus d'autres disciplines a reflechir aux dynamiques du changement et a la capacite du mode d'expression vernaculaire non seulement a s'adapter au changement mais aussi a le produire.

Il n'est pas surprenant que la plupart des articles de ce recueil s'interessent aux marges plutot qu'au centre, car ce sont ces zones, et le marginal plutot que le dominant, qui ont motive les interets de recherche de Peter. Situe aux limites des espaces disciplinaires (Laba et Brodie), des espaces ruraux (Moreira, Byrne et McDavid), de la culture ouvriere (MacKinnon), de la politique (MacDonald) ou encore de la race et de l'ethnicite (Labelle, Best et Fraser), la tonalite d'ensemble fait echo a la thematique centrale des travaux de Peter. En ouvrant des espaces de resistance, ces articles mettent en lumiere le pouvoir de l'ethnologie en tant que moyen d'expression contre-hegemonique ou, selon les termes de Martin Laba, sa << capacite considerable a s'opposer >>. Tel est en realite l'espoir de Martin Laba pour la discipline de l'ethnologie dans son ensemble: qu'elle soit un catalyseur du changement, quand il decrit son potentiel << a contribuer de facon substantielle a l'analyse critique des medias, de la culture populaire et de la communication >>. En explorant les tensions entre la tradition et le changement social ainsi que celles liees a la tradition en tant que changement social, les articles de ce numero revelent le pouvoir de la chanson, du recit, des coutumes, du theatre et de l'humour vernaculaires a faire la difference.

Dans le discours qu'il prononca lors de la remise de la Medaille Barbeau, Peter parle de la nature transformative du travail. Ce numero d'Ethnologies temoigne de la nature transformative de son propre travail et des nombreuses facons par lesquelles son savoir et les cours qu'il a donnes en ont inspire d'autres et ont permis aux etudes ethnologiques canadiennes de prendre forme.

Pauline Greenhill

Universite de Winnipeg

Diane Tye

Universite Memorial

Holly Everett

Universite Memorial

In honour of counterhegemony man

Pauline: As the senior scholar in this troika--I preceded Diane Tye's 1978 entrance into the discipline of folklore/ethnology by one year and Holly Everett's by nineteen, starting my MA at Memorial in 1977--I want to reflect on my first memory of Peter Narvaez as a teacher. Kenny Goldstein, then Head of the Folklore Department, was teaching the graduate fundamentals course. He explained to us that he didn't understand structuralism, and so the theorist of the Department, Peter, was going to come into the class and teach it. I remember the fear of theory, and the awe of someone who understands it, that I see so often in my own students even today, and I remember that Peter's lecture was my first introduction to a theoretical position that has profoundly influenced my own work (sometimes to my own embarrassment, because it's just so retro now).

I also remember that Peter epitomized the very best of the kind of scholar we were taught to emulate: someone who was intellectually immersed in the discipline, but who also profoundly respected those he worked with, and indeed, was a participant as well as observer of traditional culture. I wouldn't have realised it at the time, but Peter's background as a member of an ethnically marginalized group in the United States probably served as a crucial touchstone for his profound understanding of the political economy of Newfoundland and Canadian culture. He was the first of those who were professors at Memorial when I was a student to recognise that I had become a colleague. It's a pleasure and a privilege to be part of the gang offering this modest gift.

Diane: As a graduate student I was also inspired by Peter's passion for folklore. His impressive command of the discipline's theoretical underpinnings helped to strengthen the foundation of my own work. He was an exacting, yet generous, teacher and while it was his high standards that drove me as a student, it was his kindness that I remember most as a colleague. When I joined the Folklore Department as a faculty member in 1995, I was immediately struck by Peter's generous spirit. Invariably it was Peter who first spoke up in defense of a student who needed a little extra support, and his compassion changed the course of many a faculty discussion. He was also a very generous colleague. I remember clearly his response to an incoming department head worried about their ability to meet the demands of the next three years. Peter's reassurance was instant if not completely predictable for such a strong union supporter as he spoke for his fellow faculty members: "You'll be fine. We'll be here to help you." I saw early on how his everyday kindnesses made differences in people's lives--some of whom were unaware they had benefited from his help--and how it was important mentoring.

Holly: At the beginning of each academic year at Memorial, the Head of the Department of Folklore and the Graduate Advisor meet with the incoming graduate students. The year that I started the MA programme, Peter was acting Graduate Advisor. Our meeting began with a pep talk, which Peter delivered to about a dozen nervous, but eager individuals. Can we do this, we all wondered. At least, that's what I was wondering. Then Peter said, "Graduate school isn't for everyone." Was he reading our minds? "If you decide that it isn't for you," he continued, "please come and talk to me about it. If you don't want to talk about grad school or folklore beyond that, we can talk about something else - like baseball!" Anyone standing outside the door at that moment might have heard a collective sigh of relief. We had all just been given a "get out of jail free" card, and a reminder that there were many possible futures, something I try to remember when working with harried students whose priorities may be very different from my own.

Soon afterwards a graduate student a year ahead of me drew my attention to a flyer posted downtown. Peter would be performing at the Ship Pub that night. "We should definitely go," he said enthusiastically. "Peter is a fantastic musician." I had never seen a professor perform in a bar, at least to my knowledge. I thought of my undergraduate professors and simply could not imagine it. Soon I would realize that many folklorists/ethnologists were also performers, a circumstance that would further endear the discipline and its ethos to me.

Peter's detailed knowledge about--and profound affection for Newfoundland and Labrador also impressed me. The little I knew about the province before I arrived was significantly augmented in Peter's classes. His lectures about Newfoundland folklore and culture enriched both my research and my life beyond the university campus.

All: This special issue honours the many contributions of Peter Narvaez to Canadian folklore/ethnology. In his acceptance of the Marius Barbeau Award (1) in 2006 (printed here), Peter describes his over thirty year career in folklore/ethnology as "the work of communicating and documenting the traditional expressive behaviours of working-class cultures." But, as the articles in this special issue show, this modest characterization seriously understates his impact both on interdisciplinary theory making, and on the understanding of specific folklore/ethnology genres, from music and occupational folklife to custom and belief.

For over three decades, from 1974 to 2005 when he retired, Peter Narvaez was an integral part of the Department of Folklore at Memorial University. His enthusiasm attracted countless students to the discipline. His high academic standards, combined with remarkable support as a teacher and mentor, pushed students to achieve levels of excellence and made him a highly sought-after teacher, supervisor, and thesis examiner. A few of the many former students whose lives he touched contributed to this volume: Kelly Best, Ian Brodie, Pat Byrne, Martin Laba, Ronald Labelle, Richard MacKinnon, James Moreira, and Jodi McDavid, as well as the editors of this issue. Others, like Joy Fraser and Michael MacDonald, represent a second generation in an academic genealogy, taught by Peter's students and/or influenced by his writing.

In his classes, Peter presented scholarship as an ongoing dialogue. His students recall his enthusiasm for the subject, his critical perspective, and his self-effacing wit. An example of this humour, which Holly first heard during a guest lecture on field recording in a research methods course, is included in his Marius Barbeau award acceptance speech. No one who has learned about Peter's night with Ralph forgets to call ahead to arrange accommodation during fieldwork.

Peter's own lively contributions to interdisciplinary conversations have not been restricted by genres or disciplinary boundaries. Broadly speaking, his work reflects what would now be seen as cultural studies, not only in terms of its subjects but also because of his progressive, critical account of traditional and popular culture as resistant to hegemony. His interests are wide ranging; he developed and/or taught approximately twenty different courses during his years at Memorial. But he also located himself in terms of some of the central genres and areas of the discipline; he was regarded as the departmental expert in folkloristic theory, popular culture, and occupational folklife, as well as in his specialties of folksong and folk music, especially blues. His edited collections reflect this eclecticism, from Media Sense: The Folklore-Popular Culture Continuum (with Martin Laba, 1986) to The Good People: New Fairylore Essays (1991) to Of Corpse: Death and Humor in Folklore and Popular Culture (2003). His long list of conference papers, invited lectures, and articles cover an even wider gamut. Many pieces reflect his central interest in folk music and blues, while others explore aspects of Newfoundland culture, cutting across folk music and folksong, custom and belief, narrative, popular culture, and occupational folklife.

Following Peter's sterling example, the explorations in this special issue offer challenges to disciplinary boundaries and definitions, as well as to understandings of a range of vernacular cultural expressions, including protest song, broadside, festival, mummering, legend, witchcraft belief, stand-up comedy and parody. In their analyses, the authors take up many of the issues and dynamics that underline Peter's own scholarship, and that he has helped to illuminate. We see this special issue as a contribution to scholarly dialogue about crucial subjects around which Peter has influenced thinking, among them tradition, belonging, and power.

With authors positioned in fields including anthropology and community studies, Acadian studies, archives, communication studies, English, ethnomusicology, and heritage and culture as well as folklore/ ethnology, this special issue's eclecticism parallels Peter's own work.

Throughout his career, he has continually offered the perspectives of folklore to scholars in cultural studies and ethnomusicology, as well as drawing on their viewpoints. He has been an active member of the International Association for the Study of Popular Music. At Memorial, he was instrumental in the creation of a Canada Research Chair in Traditional Music/Ethnomusicology, then a graduate program in Ethnomusicology.

That said, folklore/ethnology is Peter's intellectual home, and unlike folklorists for whom folklore is an "f' word, Peter uses it proudly. He has been a tireless advocate for Canadian folklore/ethnology scholarship and his efforts helped found and then direct the discipline in English Canada. Recognising this work, then editor Jack Santino invited him to edit a special issue of the Journal of American Folklore devoted to folklore/ethnology in Canada. Because Peter has always been sensitive to identity politics, while being appropriately critical of its precepts, he felt it apt as an American-born Canadianist scholar to ask a Canadianborn Canadianist scholar to join him; thus the result was Pauline's co-editorial work on this project (2002). Peter is a long-time member of the Folklore Studies Association of Canada/Association canadienne d'ethnologie et de folklore, serving as its President in 1991-1992. Given his deep commitment to Canadian as well as international folkloristics, this thirtieth anniversary volume of Ethnologies is a particularly fitting venue for a tribute to Peter Narvaez's work.

Reflecting Peter's own interests, three of the articles in this special issue (MacDonald, MacKinnon, and Moreira) examine dimensions of folksong. Despite his wide ranging pursuits, it is to folksong that Peter has returned most often, having published over thirty articles in the field, and it is the genre he has explored most deeply in recent years. In "Protest Song and Verse in Cape Breton Island," Richard MacKinnon describes Peter as a pioneer in the study of labour and protest song. Peter's PhD dissertation on the protest songs of a labour union on strike in Buchans, Newfoundland was the basis of several articles and sparked later examinations, including an analysis of vernacular song response to Newfoundland's cod moratorium. Both Richard MacKinnon and Michael MacDonald probe intersections of song and social change. MacKinnon analyzes the role of protest song and verse in Cape Breton Island's labour struggles of the 1920s; while in "The Best Laid Plans of Marx and Men," Michael MacDonald examines the merging of major Canadian folk music revival figure Mitch Podolak's Trotskyist politics with his love for folk music in the creation of the Winnipeg Folk Festival.

James Moreira's "Fictional Landscapes and Social Relations in Nineteenth-Century Broadside Ballads," based in the context of rural workers' lives, takes up issues of song in connection to technological change and modernity, an extension of some of Peter's work on Newfoundland premier Joseph R. Smallwood's use of folklore on his radio program, "The Barrelman."

Five articles share Peter's interest in narrative. In "The Fiddle Burning Priest of Mabou," Jodi McDavid presents versions of a legend of a priest who burned fiddles as a form not just for the negotiation of power between Catholics and clergy, but also of tensions between vernacular and official culture. Ronald Labelle's essay, "Native Witchcraft Beliefs in Acadian, Maritime, and Newfoundland Folklore," examines Acadian legends and beliefs concerning witchcraft as an indicator of intergroup attitudes and exchange with the Mi'kmaq. Ian Brodie's paper, "Standup Comedy as a Genre of Intimacy," pushes conventional definitions of legend to include stand-up comedy, which he argues is a collaborative expression, interpreted, developed and shaped by audience response. Joy Fraser and Pat Byrne explore recontextualized narratives--albeit of very different types--as they examine novel meanings taken on by vernacular expressions in new settings. Fraser deconstructs a comedic performance that formed part of a Robert Burns supper in "Performing Tradition and Ethnicity at the Newfoundland St. Andrew's Society Burns Supper," while Byrne's consideration of "The Ambivalence of Tradition in the Short Stories of Alistair MacLeod" analyses traditional culture in the fiction of one of Canada's finest writers.

An additional two articles attend to Peter's politicised theoretical concerns. Kelly Best's "'Making Cool Things Hot Again': Blackface and Newfoundland Mummering" adopts the kind of cultural analysis Peter applied to death customs and fairy belief as she reveals the racialized power underlying mummering when popular culture and vernacular tradition intersect in blackface. In "Parsing the Popular," Martin Laba extends earlier collaborative work with Peter in Media Sense, in an exploration of the communicative action dimensions of folkloric expression as a means of creating and sustaining shared social spaces.

In highlighting the fluidity of folklore and popular culture, Laba also problematises tradition, as do Best, Fraser, and Byrne. Also like Laba, Best, Brodie, Fraser, MacKinnon, Moreira, and MacDonald encourage folklorists/ethnologists and their colleagues in other disciplines to reflect on dynamics of change and the capacity of vernacular expression not only to accommodate change but also to introduce it.

Not surprisingly, most of the pieces in this collection focus on the margins rather than the centre, for it has always been those locations, and the marginal rather than the powerful, that have captivated Peter's scholarly interest. Positioned on the edges of disciplinary spaces (Laba and Brodie), rural spaces (Moreira, Byrne, and McDavid), workers' culture (MacKinnon), politics (MacDonald) or race and ethnicity (Labelle, Best, and Fraser), the emphasis echoes a central theme in Peter's own work. In opening up spaces of resistance, the articles highlight folklore/ethnology's power as a counterhegemonic expression or, as Martin Laba writes, its "considerable capacity to oppose." In fact it is Laba's hope for the discipline of folklore/ethnology as a whole to be a catalyst of change when he writes of its potential "to contribute substantially to critical analyses of media, popular culture, and communication." In exploring tensions between tradition and social change, and tradition as social change, the articles in this volume reveal the power of vernacular song, story, drama and custom, as well as humor, to make a difference.

In his acceptance of the Barbeau Medal, Peter speaks of the transformative nature of work. This issue of Ethnologies is a testament to the transformative nature of his own work and to some of the many ways Peter Narvaez's scholarship and teaching have inspired others and helped shape Canadian folkloristics.

Pauline Greenhill

University of Winnipeg

Diane Tye

Memorial University

Holly Everett

Memorial University

(1.) Since 1978, the Folklore Studies Association of Canada (FSAC) has given an award to recognise remarkable contributions to folklore/ethnology. In 1985, this accolade was renamed the Marius Barbeau Medal in honour of one of the most distinguished Canadians to contribute to the field internationally.
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Author:Greenhill, Pauline; Tye, Diane; Everett, Holly
Publication:Ethnologies
Date:Sep 22, 2008
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