Holocene scraper reduction, technological organization and landuse at Ingaladdi rockshelter, Northern Australia.
This paper proposes a reduction sequence for `scrapers' found at Ingaladdi rocksheiter, Northern Territory. The sequence is based on the proposal that distinctive `types' represent stages in a continuum and hence may be transformed from one to another as retouching continues. Examining changes in scraper reduction along with raw material selection and core reduction at Ingaladdi through time allows for identification of apparent major changes in land-use and mobility throughout the Holocene.
In a series of papers, Dibble (1984, 1987a, 1987b, 1988; 1995; Dibble and Rolland 1992; Rolland and Dibble 1990) has outlined a reduction sequence model that may account for much of the variation in scraper form observed for the Middle Paleolithic of Europe and the Near East. Many researchers (including Dibble himself) have since begun to test this model of scraper reduction and to explore reduction models for assemblages in other parts of the world (Barton 1988; Close 1991; Dibble and Holdaway 1993; Gordon 1993; Hiscock 1996; Holdaway 1991; Holdaway et al. 1996; Kuhn 1992; McPherron 1994; Neeley and Barton 1994).
Despite a wealth of information collected on typological variation in Australia over many years, reduction sequence models for Australian retouched implements are still few in number (but see Hiscock 1993, 1994a; Hiscock and Attenbrow In Press; Hiscock and Veth 1991). This is despite the great potential that reanalysis of older typological data may offer in developing regional models of stone tool manufacture, use and discard. In many cases, reexamination of this existing database may circumvent the need for time-consuming reanalysis of entire assemblages, and may also offer alternative explanations for assemblage variability at sites that have been central to the construction of Australian spatio-temporal industries.
In this paper, the unpublished data from Sanders' (1975) MA Thesis on scraper variation at Ingaladdi rockshelter is reexamined. The analysis develops a model of Holocene scraper reduction for the site that may be later tested against other sites in the region (Clarkson 2001). Using a number of variables, the analysis examines whether increasing reduction correlates to a consistent progression of morphological changes in 513 retouched artefacts classified into eleven scraper classes. Scrapers are found throughout the Ingaladdi sequence, dated by Mulvaney (1976) to a maximum age of around 7000 years BP.
Placing changing levels of scraper reduction in the context of broader technological changes at Ingaladdi, as documented by Cundy (1990), also illustrates the potential of reduction sequence models to add to our understanding of changing mobility patterns and intensity of site use through time.
Methods of ranking stone artefact reduction
Developing reduction sequence models for retouched implement types requires robust measures of retouch intensity that are independent of blank size and shape. Kuhn's (1990) geometric index of unifacial reduction provides one such technique that is suited to the measurement of the marginal unifacial retouch typically found on Ingaladdi scrapers. A version of this index can be calculated for each of Sanders' scraper classes by dividing the mean height of retouch by the mean thickness of artefacts. The resulting ratio ranges between 0 (unretouched) and 1 (extensively retouched) and measures the changing geometry of the cross-section of flakes as retouch removes mass from their edges (Figure 1). As the index used here is different to Kuhn's published technique in so far as it uses group means rather than individual artefact measurements, it will be referred to as the `average index of unifacial retouch' (AIUR). This index provides a means of tracking changes in aspects of flake morphology that are sensitive to retouch intensity.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Sanders' scraper classes
Sanders defined scrapers as `tools' possessing more than three adjacent retouch flake scars and that were not points, blades, reused points or burins. As Sanders aimed to explore the relationship between tool form and function, classes were set up around combinations of attributes that she believed should reflect the suitability of particular forms to performing certain functions. Her second aim was to test these morpho-functional classes via usewear analysis.
From a review of the ethnographic and experimental literature, Sanders arrived at edge angle and size as two primary variables underpinning optimal tool function. Small tools with low edge angles were argued to be best suited to delicate cutting or slicing tasks, whereas small tools with higher edge angles were better suited to delicate scraping, planing and adzing, or use as hafted tools. Larger tools were argued to be better suited to heavy-duty chopping tasks (Sanders 1975:21). The way in which Sanders combined size and edge angle to form a variety of scraper classes is depicted in Figure 2.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Sanders also classified scrapers according to a number of secondary variables, such as the type and shape of retouch, to try and identify hafting and the types of materials worked. For example, artefacts with undercut, step flaked edges were inferred to reflect use as hafted wood working implements and were classified as `adzes' (Sanders 1975:74). Artefacts with concave edges, on the other hand, were argued to have likely functioned as `spokeshaves' (Sanders 1975:23). Concave edged forms were separated into those with single concavities (notches) and those with multiple overlapping concavities forming a distinctive `nose' (concave/nosed scrapers).
Sanders also used the names `casual' and `deliberate' to distinguish between artefacts believed to represent expedient retouch and discard and those that seemed better designed and executed. `Deliberate' forms, for instance, were considered more likely to have been hafted, shaped into desired forms, manufactured from `quarried' stone, widely transported and to have served longer use-lives (Sanders 1975:91).
Notably, Sanders' use-wear analysis did not reveal distinctive patterns of use-wear for each scraper class (see Anderson-Gerfaud  and Beyries  for a similarly poor form-function correlation for European scraper assemblages). In fact, 95% of all use-wear found on retouched artefacts consisted of edge-rounding, a type of wear Sanders followed Kamminga (1971:83) in attributing to the action of `scraping'. The non-patterning of use-wear traces has important implications for this paper, as it means that variation in retouched implement form must be better accounted for by factors other than tool function.
Sanders was herself aware that resharpening of a tool edge could drastically alter its form throughout its use-life (Sanders 1975:23). Unfortunately, reliable methods for the measurement of retouch intensity did not exist at that time. In the next section the proposition that variation in scraper morphology at Ingaladdi could be partly explained in terms of the amount of retouch a specimen has received is examined.
Reduction intensity as a partial determinant of scraper morphology
It is possible to develop a reduction sequence model for Ingaladdi scrapers by observing changes in four of the attributes Sanders used to classify scrapers as the average index of unifacial retouch increases. These are edge angle, edge shape, retouch perimeter, and retouch type (Table 1). Demonstrating a consistent progression of changes in each of these variables allows each class to be ordered into its relative position in a hypothetical reduction sequence. To begin the analysis the relationship between the AIUR and edge angle is examined.
Edge Angle. A number of researchers (Hiscock 1982; Wilmsen 1968:160) have drawn attention to the likelihood of a relationship between edge angle and retouch intensity for unifacially retouched flakes. This is because unifacial retouching may reduce the width of a flake without reducing its thickness, in effect bringing the margins closer to the central or thickest plane of the artefact, and causing an overall increase in the angle of the retouched edge (Figure 1). To test whether such a relationship holds for the Ingaladdi scrapers, a Spearmans' Rho rank-order correlation was performed between the AIUR and the median edge angle of each scraper class. As seen in Table 2, the result is strong and significant and indicates that edge angle does in fact increase as retouch intensity increases.
Step Terminated Retouch. Sanders also classified scrapers according to the type of retouch present on the margins of flakes, and noted that those with the most "deliberate" retouch often had extensively stepped edges. As the angle of the edge has been shown to increase with retouch, it is expected that step terminations would accrue with increasing frequency as force requirements change and terminations become more difficult to control (Dibble and Pelcin 1995; Pelcin 1997, 1998). A Spearman's Rho test was conducted to determine whether the percentage of artefacts with step terminated retouch correlates with the AIUR for each class. The poor results for this test are shown in Table 2, and are attributable to a single outlier (concave/nosed scrapers) that exhibits low frequencies of step terminated edges, but quite a high retouch index. Removing this outlier returns a strong and significant result (Table 2). The low frequency of step terminated retouch for the concave/nosed class does, however, warrant some explanation.
White (1969:23) and Lenoir (1986) have both noted that heavily retouched and stepped edges can at times be rejuvenated by removing deep retouch flakes from the edge. The incidence of deep and adjacent concavities that define the concave/nosed class could then represent such an attempt to return a heavily stepped edge to its pristine state. While speculative, this hypothesis could explain both the plan shape of edges and the low incidence of stepped retouch scars in this scraper class. Individual artefacts must be examined in more detail to test this proposition.
Perimeter of Retouch. The proportion of the worked perimeter of an artefact might also be expected to increase if new and adjacent edges are used and resharpened as existing ones are exhausted. As seen in Table 2, a Spearman's Rho test again confirms a significant positive correlation between the AIUR and the median percentage of edges retouched in each scraper class.
Edge Curvature. Sanders observed that retouch on the edges of scrapers ranged in shape from very concave through to very convex, and partly classified scrapers according to differences in edge shape. As retouch perimeter is observed to increase with retouch intensity, it might also be expected that the retouched edge would become increasingly curved as more of the perimeter is worked. Sanders recorded the number of flakes in each class that exhibited one of five edge shapes. As each of these categories was illustrated in Sanders' thesis, they can be converted into an index of edge curvature by dividing the depth of the illustrated curve by its diameter (Figure 3). Using this technique, concave edges result in a negative index while convex edges have a positive index. The results for each edge shape are: very concave (-0.42), concave (-0.18), straight (0), convex (0.18) and very convex (0.42). Because Sanders recorded the number of artefacts with different edge shapes in each scraper class, a mean index of edge curvature can be calculated for each class (Table 1).
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
A Spearman's Rho test of the association between the AIUR and edge curvature proves significant (Table 2), and indicates that edges become increasingly curved as the average index of unifacial retouch increases.
Notches are the only class to show a negative (or concave) mean index of edge curvature. Sanders noted that notches were most often represented by a single deep retouch flake scar. It is therefore likely that notches represent early stages in the reduction process rather than a separate reduction sequence. Sanders' (1975:44, 107) use-wear study also revealed a total absence of wear within these edge concavities, but noted its occurrence along portions of the adjacent margins. This supports the idea that `notches' represent early stages of edge rejuvenation rather than functionally specific forms.
Summary of the effects of reduction intensity on scraper morphology. From the preceding tests it is clear that retouch intensity constitutes an important determinant of scraper morphology at Ingaladdi rockshelter. The morphological changes noted so far appear to take place in a consistent sequence that reflects the steady increase in reduction from relatively unworked through to relatively `exhausted' forms. This sequence can be illustrated as a hypothetical reduction diagram, as seen in Figure 4, and depicts changes to the extent, angle and shape of retouched edges as retouch increases. `Notching' and `nosing' are portrayed as early and late stages in the sequence respectively, although as mentioned above, the relationship between edge concavities and reduction stage warrants further investigation.
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
Weight as a measure of reduction
Artefact weight was another primary variable employed by Sanders in the construction of scraper classes. Unfortunately, it is not possible to meaningfully examine the relationship between weight and the AIUR for the Ingaladdi scrapers. This is because Sanders' weight statistics combined both chert and quartzite artefacts, despite noting differences in the size of artefacts made from each of these raw materials.
The difference Sanders observed in the mean size of chert and quartzite scrapers is confirmed by a Spearman's Rho test of the relationship between mean weight and the proportion of chert artefacts in each scraper group. The results indicate that classes with high proportions of chert artefacts are much lighter on average than those with high proportions of quartzite artefacts (Table 2). Hence weight differences between material types likely disguise any that result from different levels of reduction within raw material types. It is however possible to determine whether mean weight might reflect differences in reduction intensity between raw materials.
Differential raw material reduction
Differences in the relative reduction of raw materials may be explored by investigating the frequency with which types representing different stages of reduction are manufactured from either chert or quartzite. Figure 5 plots the number of each raw material type in classes arranged from left to right in order of increasing AIUR. It appears from this graph that quartzite scrapers commonly represent the middle to lower end of the reduction spectrum, while chert scrapers mainly comprise the upper end.
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
A number of studies (Byrne 1980; Clarkson 2002, Hiscock 1988) have demonstrated that raw materials are often more intensively retouched as they are transported away from a stone source. It is conceivable that distance to stone source may therefore be one factor creating variation in the relative degree to which chert and quartzite scrapers are reduced. Cundy (1990:120-1) has noted that quartzite is local to Ingaladdi rockshelter with large quarries located within 4km of the site. Good sources of chert, on the other hand, are available no closer than about 25km away. It is therefore likely that at least some of the variability in reduction intensity between raw materials relates to the increased maintenance and conservation of stone artefacts as they are transported further from the source and as replacement materials become more difficult to obtain.
Changes in reduction intensity through time
It is also possible to assess changes in relative intensity of reduction through time. Figure 6 plots the frequency of scrapers representing different relative stages of reduction (arranged left to right in order of increasing reduction index) found in the upper and lower units at Ingaladdi. This graph indicates that higher levels of reduction tend to be present in the upper unit (post 2800 BP) than in the lower unit (pre 2800 BP). This trend is primarily driven by larger numbers of adzes in the upper unit and an abundance of large casual scrapers in the lower unit. As adzes are predominantly manufactured from chert (99%) and large casual scrapers from quartzite (73%), this trend may also indicate the increased use and reduction of higher quality chert materials in the upper assemblage.
Changes in the organization of technology, mobility and landuse
Changes to the intensity of scraper reduction and raw material use could reflect significant changes to the over-all organization of technology at Ingaladdi, and perhaps throughout the region more generally. Understanding changes to the intensity of scraper reduction may therefore be enriched by considering technological changes documented by Cundy (1990) at Ingaladdi over the past 7000 years or so.
Cundy's analysis revealed a rise in flake to core ratios between about 7000 and 2800 years ago, as well as extended reduction of cores through rotation, increased concern for platform morphology, prolonged reduction of small heavily curated cores, increased importation of chert, and greater percentages of retouched artefacts through time. Accompanying these changes was an increased use of what Cundy terms the `standing reserve'--or the transported supply of material held in reserve for times or places of reduced availability (Cundy 1990:319).
Changes in the upper assemblage after c.2800 years ago represented a continuation of these trends, but most significantly took the form of a shift in the location of primary core reduction from on-site to off-site locations. Accompanying the rise in reduction intensity therefore was an overall decrease in the provisioning of the site with raw materials in the form of cores, which are virtually absent after about 2800 years ago.
Off-site reduction after c.2800 BP typically took place at large quarries and targeted the production of large numbers of standardized, light-weight lancet flakes that could be incorporated directly into the standing reserve. Lancet flakes were typically retouched into either highly formalized unifacial and bifacial points through invasive retouching, or into more expedient forms through marginal `scalar' retouching.
Cundy argued that these long-term changes reflected a shift in settlement and land use patterns. This took the form of a shift from frequent, longer occupation episodes, where residents had time to `map-on' to local lithic resources (Binford 1979), to low frequency, short duration occupations in which there was little time to obtain local resources, and hence more emphasis placed on `logistic' procurement of standardized blank forms that served as the mainstay of a portable and maintainable toolkit (Cundy 1990:320; Bleed 1986; Kelly 1988; Kuhn 1995).
Changes in landuse were argued to likely reflect a shift in the structuring of economic activities (such as might be caused by changes to resource breadth or by climatic or environmental change) and could have created a disjunction between daily routine and lithic distribution, creating time-stress (Torrence 1983, 1989), or difficulties in the scheduling of various activities. The mechanism driving technological change might therefore have been increasing unpredictability in the timing and location of subsistence activities and a related increase in residential mobility.
The increased reduction of scrapers in the upper assemblage and the change to off-site core reduction might therefore reflect the increased use of a more intensively maintained and `curated' toolkit that maximized the efficient use of raw materials (Bamforth 1986; Binford 1979; Parry and Kelly 1987; Shott 1986). The increased manufacture of scrapers from higher quality chert, at the expense of locally available quartzite, might also reflect the need for a more reliable toolkit in the face of greater uncertainty over access to replacement raw materials (Bleed 1986). Higher-quality materials probably proved more durable (Gould and Saggers 1985:131) and are typically more conducive to sustained resharpening (Goodyear 1989).
Cundy identified the likely effects that incorporation within the standing reserve would have on the morphology of scrapers. He stated that the "more highly structured and extended reduction of material in the standing reserve [produced] ... a formal convergence consistent with the pseudo-typological regularity seen, for example, in Australian scraper classifications" (Cundy 1990:341). This `convergence' of form has been demonstrated in this paper to result from the progression of changes to the shape, angle, extent and type of retouch found on scrapers as a factor of retouch intensity.
Overall, the rise in the intensity of scraper reduction through time probably represents one facet of a broader solution to the increasing problem of maintaining a supply of tools and tool making potential in the face of increased mobility and/or unpredictable access to raw materials. The nature of technological changes at Ingaladdi therefore appear to fit well with Hiscock's (1994b) argument that the increased use of standardized retouched toolkits in the mid-Holocene served as a `risk reduction' strategy.
Examination of Sanders' thesis data has allowed the construction of a hypothetical reduction model for the Ingaladdi scrapers. While this model is derived from fairly low resolution data collected for different purposes, it is nevertheless sufficient to identify the existence of the underlying reduction process as an important factor creating variation in retouched implements at the site. The explanation tentatively proposed for changes in stone technology and intensity of scraper reduction emphasizes the operation of ecological and economic processes taking place over many millennia, and suggests that technological changes could result from an increase in mobility and unpredictability of resource availability through time.
While the analysis has proven effective in modeling a reduction sequence for Ingaladdi scrapers, it is not yet possible to state with certainty whether all Ingaladdi scrapers fit within a single reduction sequence. A reanalysis of the individual artefacts would, however, help determine whether this is the case. Finally, while many researchers may be reluctant to make use of older typological data, this paper demonstrates that in at least some cases it may provide a valuable source of data for hypotheses that may be tested against new or original assemblages
Table 1: Summary statistics by scraper class. N AIUR Median % Mean Edge Perimeter Edge Type Angle Retouched Curvature Small Casual 44 0.20 56 31 0.01 Low Angled 58 0.22 34 36 0.09 Large Casual 119 0.33 73 31 0.03 Small Deliberate 33 0.38 60 54 0.09 Notched 69 0.41 68 27 -0.22 Large Deliberate 47 0.50 77 56 0.15 Steep Edged 40 0.50 98 41 0.20 Adzes 101 0.55 70 56 0.16 Concave/Nosed 50 0.61 71 49 -- Snall High Domed 42 0.75 81 54 0.30 % % Mean Step Chert Weight Type Retouch Small Casual 16.7 73.8 6.3 Low Angled 0.0 57.4 13.5 Large Casual 22.7 27.5 33.5 Small Deliberate 16.1 83.8 5.3 Notched 34.7 53.7 12.2 Large Deliberate 34.1 21.9 51.1 Steep Edged 87.5 62.0 48.6 Adzes 53.4 98.6 4.1 Concave/Nosed 8.0 29.1 33.9 Snall High Domed 54.8 95.9 5.5 Table 2: Spearman's Rho rank correlation results for Ingaladdi Scrapers. Correlation Spearman's Rho Coefficient p AIUR vs Edge Angle .68 .03 AIUR vs % Stepped Retouch .525 .12 AIUR vs % Stepped Retouch .72 .03 (excluding concave/nosed scrapers) AIUR vs % Perimeter Retouched .67 .04 AIUR vs Edge Curvature Index .71 .03
Peter Hiscock, Barry Cundy, John Mulvaney, Boone Law, Alex Mackay, Ed Clarke, Anne Clarke, Brit Asmussen, Matthew Leavesly, Oliver MacGregor and Rachel Bekessy have all read versions of this paper and their comments have helped me enormously. Winifred Mumford offered helpful advice on the artefact illustrations. I would also like to thank the editor and reviewers for their advice and encouragement throughout revisions of this paper.
Anderson-Gerfaud, P. 1990 Aspects of behaviour in the Middle Paleolithic: functional analysis of stone tools from Southwest France. In P. Mellars (ed.), The Emergence of Modern Humans: An Archaeological Perspective. pp. 389-418. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Bamforth, D.B. 1986 Technological efficiency and tool curation. American Antiquity 51:38-50.
Barton, C.M. 1988 Lithic Variability and Middle Paleolithic Behaviour: New evidence from the Iberian Peninsula. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.
Beyries, S. 1988 Functional variability of lithic sets in the Middle Paleolithic. In H. Dibble and A. Montet-White (eds), Upper Pleistocene Prehistory of Western Eurasia. pp. 213-223. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Museum.
Binford, L.R. 1979 Organizational and formation processes: looking at curated technologies. Journal of Anthropological Research 35:255-273.
Bleed, P. 1986 The optimal design of hunting weapons: maintainability or reliability. American Antiquity 51:737-747.
Byrne, D. 1980 Dynamics of Dispersion: The place of silcrete in archaeological assemblages from the Lower Murchison, Western Australia. Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania 15:110-19.
Clarkson, C. 2001 Technological Change in Wardaman Country, Northern Australia: Report on the 1999 Field Season. Australian Aboriginal Studies 2001/1:63-68.
Clarkson, C. 2002 An index of invasiveness for the measurement of unifacial and bifacial retouch: a theoretical, experimental and archaeological verification. Journal of Archaeological Science 29: 65-76.
Close, A. 1991 On the validity of Middle Paleolithic tool types: a test case from the eastern Sahara. Journal of Field Archaeology 18:256-269.
Cundy, B.J. 1990 An Analysis of the Ingaladdi Assemblage: critique of the understanding of lithic technology. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis: Australian National University.
Dibble, H. 1984 Interpreting typological variation of Middle Paleolithic scrapers: function, style, or sequence of reduction? Journal of Field Archaeology 11:431-436.
Dibble, H. 1987a The interpretation of Middle Paleolithic scraper morphology. American Antiquity 52:109-117.
Dibble, H. 1987b Reduction sequences in the manufacture of Mousterian implements of France. In O. Soffer (ed.), The Pleistocene Old World Regional Perspectives. pp. 33-45. New York: Plenum Press.
Dibble, H. 1988 Typological aspects of reduction and intensity of utilization of lithic resources in the French Mousterian. In H. Dibble and A. Montet-White (eds.), Upper Pleistocene Prehistory of Western Eurasia. pp. 181-198. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
Dibble, H. 1989 The implications of stone tool types for the presence of language during the Lower and Middle Paleolithic. In P. Mellars and C. Stringer (eds.), The Human Revolution: Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origins of Modern Humans. pp. 415-432. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Dibble, H. 1995 Middle Paleolithic scraper reduction: background, clarification, and review of evidence to date. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 2:299-368.
Dibble, H. and A. Pelcin 1995 The effect of hammer mass and velocity on flake mass. Journal of Archaeological Science 22:429-439.
Dibble, H. and S. Holdaway 1993 The Middle Paleolithic of Warwasi Rockshelter. In D. Olszewski and H.L. Dibble (eds.) The Paleolithic Prehistory of the Zagros-Taurus. pp. 75-99. The University Museum Press, University of Pennsylvania.
Dibble, H. and N. Rolland 1992 On assemblage variability in the Middle Paleolithic of Western Europe: history, perspectives and a new synthesis. H. Dibble and P. Mellars (eds.) The Middle Paleolithic: Adaptation, Behavior and Variability. Pp. 1-28. Philadelphia: The University museum, University of Pennsylvania.
Goodyear, A.C. 1989 A hypothesis for the use of crypto-crystalline raw materials among Paleoindian groups of North America. In C.G. Ellis and J.C. Lothrop (eds.), Eastern Paleoindian Lithic Resource Use. pp. 1-9. Boulder (Co): Westview Press.
Gordon, D. 1993 Mousterian tool selection, reduction, and discard at Ghar, Israel. Journal of Field Archaeology 20.205-218.
Gould, R.A. and S. Saggers 1985 Lithic procurement in Central Australia: a closer look at Binford's idea of embeddedness in archaeology. American Antiquity 50.117-136.
Hiscock, P. 1982 The Meaning of Edge Angles. Australian Archaeology 14:79-85.
Hiscock, P. 1988 Prehistoric Settlement Patterns and Artefact Manufacture at Lawn Hill, Northwest Queensland. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis: University of Queensland.
Hiscock, P. 1993 Bondaian technology in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales. Archaeology in Oceania 28:64-75.
Hiscock, P. 1994a The end of points. In M. Sullivan, S. Brockwell and A. Webb (eds.), Archaeology in the North. pp.72-83. Darwin: Australian National University (NARU).
Hiscock, P. 1994b Technological responses to risk in Holocene Australia. Journal of World Prehistory 8:267-292.
Hiscock, P. 1996 Transformations of Upper Palaeolithic implements in the Dabba industry from Haua Fteah (Libya). Antiquity 70:657-664.
Hiscock, P. and V. Attenbrow In Press Early Australian implement variation: a reduction model. Journal of Archaeological Science.
Hiscock, P. and P. Veth 1991 Change in the Australian Desert Culture: a reanalysis of tulas from Puntutjarpa. World Archaeology 22:332-345.
Holdaway, S. 1991 Resharpening Reduction and Lithic Assemblage Variability Across the Middle to Upper Paleolithic Transition. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis: University of Pennsylvania.
Holdaway, S., S. McPherron and B. Roth 1996 Notched tool reuse and raw material availability in French Middle Paleolithic sites. American Antiquity 61:377-387.
Kamminga, J. 1971 Microscopic and experimental study of Australian Aboriginal stone tools. Unpublished BA (Hons) Thesis, Sydney University.
Kelly, R.L. 1988 The three sides of a biface. American Antiquity 53:717-734.
Kuhn, S. 1990 A geometric index of reduction for unifacial stone tools. Journal of Archaeological Science 17:585-593.
Kuhn, S.L. 1992 Blank form and reduction as determinants of Mousterian scraper morphology. American Antiquity 57:115-128.
Kuhn, S.L. 1995 Mousterian Lithic Technology. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Lenoir, M. 1986 Un mode d'obtention de la retouche "Quina" dans la Mousterian de Combe Grenal (Domme, Dordogne). Bulletin de la Societe Anthropologique de la Sud Ouest 21:153-160.
McPherron, S.P. 1994 A reduction model for variability in Acheulian biface morphology. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis: University of Pennsylvania.
Mulvaney, D.J. 1976 The Prehistory of Australia. London: Thames and Hudson.
Neeley, M.P. and C.M. Barton 1994 A new approach to interpreting late Pleistocene microlith industries in southwest Asia. Antiquity 68:275-288.
Parry, W.J. and R.L. Kelly 1987 Expedient core technology and sedentism. In J.K. Johnson and C.A. Morrow (eds.), The Organization of Core Technology. pp. 285-304. Boulder: Westview Press.
Pelcin, A.W. 1997 The effect of core surface morphology on flake attributes: evidence from a controlled experiment. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:749-756.
Pelcin, A.W. 1998 The threshold effect of platform width: a reply to Davis and Shea. Journal of Archaeological Science 25:615-620
Rolland, N. and H. Dibble 1990 A new synthesis of Middle Paleolithic Variability. American Antiquity 55:480-499.
Sanders, B. 1975 Scrapers from Ingaladdi. Unpublished M.A. (Qual.) Thesis: Australian National University.
Shott, M.J. 1986 Technological organization and settlement mobility: an ethnographic examination. Journal of Anthropological Research 42:15-51.
Torrence, R. 1983 Time budgeting and hunter-gatherer technology. In G. Bailey (ed.), Hunter-Gatherer Economy in Prehistory. pp. 11-22. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Torrence, R. 1989 Re-Tooling: towards a behavioral theory of stone tools. In R. Torrence (ed.), Time, Energy and Stone Tools. pp. 57-66. Cambridge: University of Cambridge.
Wilmsen, E.N. 1968 Functional analysis of flaked stone artefacts. American Antiquity 33:156-161.
White, J.P. 1969 Typologies for some prehistoric flaked stone artefacts of the Australian New Guinea Highlands. Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania 4:18-46.
Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, Australian National University, ACT 0200. email: email@example.com
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Publication:||Archaeology in Oceania|
|Article Type:||Statistical Data Included|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2002|
|Previous Article:||Avifaunal extinctions, vegetation change, and Polynesian impacts in prehistoric Hawai`i.|
|Next Article:||Prehistoric settlement at Anaho Bay, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands: preliminary observations. (Research Reports).|