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Holocaust education in Austria in the light of the Frankfurt School.

This article examines Holocaust Education in Austria, employing a Frankfurt School approach. It raises the question of what Holocaust Education can learn from Critical Theory as presented by Theodor W. Adorno. First, I outline the research design of a qualitative interview-study of Holocaust Education in Austria. Second, I explain the theoretical underpinnings, above all the ideals and goals of education and some concrete suggestions for education about the past from a Frankfurt School perspective. Then, I give a brief overview of the history and development of Holocaust Education in Austria. Finally, the findings of the qualitative interview-study are presented.

Research Design

In 2010 I conducted a study into how the subjects of National Socialism and the Shoah are presented to school pupils in Austria (1) My central objective was to determine the nature--the self-conception, content and pedagogical approaches--of what is known as "Holocaust Education" in Austria. I asked whether it made a contribution to the development of critical and mature subjects as defined by Critical Theory (2), as described by Adorno (3) To this end, I outlined the principles of education after Auschwitz as defined within the framework of Critical Theory and, on this basis, conducted ten qualitative, problem-centered interviews (4) with a variety of stakeholders in Holocaust Education in Austria: representatives of the Austrian Ministry of Education, personnel of the Austrian Interior Ministry (which is responsible for the Mauthausen Memorial) and members of several NGOs that organize educational activities related to National Socialism and the Shoah for students. Furthermore the findings of the qualitative content analysis of these interviews were contextualized by a document analysis of school curricula, programmatic texts and scholarly literature. (5)

Theoretical Background

The theoretical foundations of my study were as follows. In the first place, I examined the position of education within the thought of the Frankfurt School (in particular in the work of Adorno). I analyzed and argued why and how education after Auschwitz should be pursued. I also investigated how education could contribute to combatting anti-Semitism. Then I compared and contrasted these findings with the term and concept of "Holocaust Education".

Adorno does not offer a specific theory of education. Nonetheless, a variety of pedagogical considerations play a role in his work. Moreover, much of relevance to the subject of education can be found in his nonexplicitly educational writings--above all, as regards the social, political and economic conditions for education. Education is the central topic of a number of lectures and discussions from the 1950's and 60's, including "Education to maturity" (1970), "Education after Auschwitz" (ibid.), "Education for debarbarization" (ibid.), "Education--what for?" (ibid.), "Taboos about the teaching profession" (ibid.) etc.

In these writings, Adorno links education to the effort to shape mature and more or less autonomous subjects in order to prevent a relapse into barbarism. But, in his view, education cannot be understood in a social vacuum or as a cure-all for social and economic inequality. The potential of education is therefore seen as limited. However, Adorno also noted that: "Since the possibility of changing the objective--namely societal and political--conditions is extremely limited today, attempts to work against the repetition of Auschwitz are necessarily restricted to the subjective dimension." (6) He concluded from this that education and the turn to the subject (defined below) were destined to play an important role in preventing attempts to repeat Auschwitz. So Adorno's categorical imperative is: "The premier demand upon all education is that Auschwitz not happen again." (7) In the light of this imperative, the goals of education are seen as the following (8):

* Education for maturity (understood as independent and conscious decision-making);

* Education towards critical self-reflection;

* Education towards a strengthening of the ego (in the Freudian sense);

* Strengthening of resistance rather than strengthening of adaptation;

* Autonomy, understood as the power of reflection, self-determination and non-conformity;

* Encouragement of individuality and prevention of blind identification with the collective;

* Education for the ability to experience;

* Education for imagination;

* Education for disgust or shame about violence (without denying the necessity of violence for the purposes of anti-barbarism);

* Education for the ability to recognize ideology as such.

These goals also include the rejection of educational ideas which promote order, authority, collectives, adaptation and toughness represented above all by notions of masculinity.

Adorno also provides some suggestions about how to achieve these goals:

* Education means a turn to the subject, but, besides the concentration on individual education, great importance is given a to the enlightenment of society as a whole in order to create an intellectual, cultural and social climate in which a recurrence of Auschwitz would no longer be possible.

* The turn to the subject means seeking to understand the mechanisms that render people capable of atrocities, explaining these mechanisms to people and awakening a general awareness of them.

* One has to start with education in early childhood since this is when the foundations are laid for the development either of autonomous and reflective characters able to experience or, on the other hand, of authoritarian characters. This means minimizing the role of authority which is not understandable to the child and minimizing coldness and hardness. Adorno knew that you cannot preach love, but you can gain an insight into the conditions that determine coldness and attempt to combat them.

* Adorno highlights the importance of pre-school education in order to respond to signs of ethnocentric reactions from the children.

* The second focus is on political education. This is understood as sociology, meaning education about social dynamics (the relationship between the state--or society as a whole--and the individual).

* Moreover, Adorno calls for an education in an ability to be critical towards the culture industry.

These are Adorno's ideals and suggestions as regards education at a general level. He also provides some further suggestions which can be very useful for education about the past (or in more specific terms, about National Socialism and the Shoah). Let me mentionjust some of them:

* According to Adorno, you should not appeal to values (over which those who are capable of atrocities merely shrug their shoulders).

* He says that you should not stop at the accusation, but confront the horror.

* He problematizes the approach of personalized Holocaust Education. (9)

* He also indicates the risk of personal encounters in situations where participants are unable to put aside their prejudices and allow human experiences. He notes that the idea that personal encounters with Jews could prevent antisemitism is bound up with the assumption that antisemitism has something to do with the Jews. For the same reason, you should also not refer to the assumed positive attributes of the victims. Adorno does not believe that enlightenment about positive qualities possessed by persecuted minorities would be of much use.

* So one of his most important ideas is that the roots must be sought in the persecutors and not the victims.

* Therefore, as previously mentioned, Adorno emphasizes the importance of awareness of the subjective mechanisms that enabled Auschwitz and education about them.

* According to him, the first requirement is the education of the educators and also reflection by them about their profession and their role--and I would add, the institution they are working in too.

To summarize: Education happens under definite social, political and economic conditions. Therefore its possibilities are limited. The Frankfurt School does not believe in education as a cure-all for social injustice, but that it can play an important role in the process of debarbarization. The categorical imperative for all education is to work against the recurrence of Auschwitz. The general goals of education are maturity, individuality, critical self-reflection, strengthening of the ego and so on. Adorno highlights not only early-childhood education, but also political education understood as sociology. In addition, he gives a lot of thought to antisemitism, offers proposals for combating it, and identifies some of the risks of the different approaches.

Now, let's look at what is known today as Holocaust Education. What similarities and differences can we find between the conception of Education after and also about Auschwitz as indicated by Adorno and contemporary theories of Holocaust Education?

Holocaust Education is the contemporary term for teaching and learning about National Socialism and the Shoah. It is not only a practice, but also a pedagogical discourse about the conveyance not only of knowledge about the Shoah, but also of values (10)

Education after Auschwitz, in Adorno's eyes, is more than education about Auschwitz or Holocaust Education. Nonetheless both conceptions share the concern to enlighten people about Auschwitz and both share an ethically based imperative. Holocaust Education (in most conceptions) does not only embrace the transfer of knowledge but also of certain values. These include the promotion of democratic behaviors, and the reduction of prejudice, aggression, and so on. So, we can already see that the conceptions of "Education after Auschwitz" and of "Holocaust Education" have quite a bit in common (especially as regards the goals), but later we will see that there are also a lot of differences and that there are some things Holocaust Education could learn from the Frankfurt School.

History and Development of Holocaust Education in Austria

Immediately after the war the Austrian educational system was in a very bad way. Most school buildings had been damaged and, most significantly, there was a lack of non-Nazi teachers. National Socialism had been well-established in public education: overall, around 80% of grade school teachers were members of the NSDAP. So, while after the liberation of Austria many teachers were suspended, most were soon re-engaged. (11) Re-education did not really work in Austria. (12)

Moreover, the myth of Austria as the first victim of the German aggressor was soon established and as a result Austrians were not held responsible for all the atrocities. (13)

From the 1960's onwards, National Socialism was mentioned in the official curriculum for Austrian schools. However, in practice, National Socialism and the Shoah were often not taught in the classroom--and when they were, it was from the point of view of the victim-myth with a focus on conservative or social-democratic resistance movements and fighters.

The 1970's saw a couple of changes. The Mauthausen Memorial Museum was opened, the Ministry of Education established a service that provided contemporary witnesses for schools and Political Education became a so-called 'teaching principle' (14)

Starting in the 1980's, Hermann Langbein, a Holocaust survivor, organized seminars about National Socialism for teachers. In the same decade, because of the Waldheim affair, the victim-myth also began to crack and Austria began to take some responsibility. (15)

As a consequence, in the 1990's, several initiatives and NGOs were founded and a number of museums opened or reopened their doors (the "Judische Museum Hohenems", the "Mauthausen Komitee Osterreich", the "Verein Gedenkdienst", and others). At the end of the 1990's "" was founded. This is a platform financed by the Austrian Ministry of Education that offers teachers further training in the field of National Socialism. (16)

Since 2000, one or two groups of teachers have been sent each year to Yad Vashem for further training. In 2001, Austria joined the "Task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance and Research" (ITF) (now called the "International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance l. In 2007, the Mauthausen Memorial established an educational department. And more and more NGOs working with school classes were also founded.

What really happened in schools during all these years, of course, we don't know. One of my interviewees even called it a "black hole".

Contemporary Holocaust Education

Today Holocaust Education mostly takes place during history classes or in school projects in 8th grade, at the age of about 14. The curriculum suggests 5 to 10 class hours of teaching on this subject. If young people continue general education they will learn about National Socialism and the Shoah again at the age of about 17. This does not, however, apply to those young people who start to work right after compulsory school or who attend vocational school.

Teachers learn how to teach about National Socialism and the Shoah at a teacher training college or university. The Ministry of Education has a big influence on the colleges where grade school and secondary modem school teachers are educated and is currently trying to expand training in teaching about National Socialism. The university courses allow students to choose whether they want to learn about Auschwitz: future teachers have to take two classes in contemporary history, but none of them has to be about National Socialism or the Shoah (17) If teachers want to learn more about teaching these topics they can attend workshops, for instance those offered by the platform, but this is not compulsory either.

So, we have a very patchy situation: There are some very well trained and motivated teachers involved in teaching about National Socialism. There are others who have not even learnt about teaching National Socialism at university and who don't want to attend voluntary advanced training. Some schools organize time-intensive projects and others provide some hours of not very well informed teacher-centered teaching about the Shoah. Many of them send their pupils quite unprepared to a former concentration camp (18) and believe that this will provide effective immunization against racism, antisemitism, right wing extremism, or whatever. So, it is very hard to describe the reality of Holocaust Education in Austria, as it is extremely diverse.

For my study (19), I conducted interviews with leading or highly motivated people active in the field of Holocaust Education in Austria. I asked them about:

* their own definition of Holocaust Education;

* why and to what ends they promote Holocaust Education;

* the relevance of societal, political and economic conditions for the teaching of the Shoah in Austria;

* the content they consider important within Holocaust Education, as regards perpetrators and victims; antisemitism; and National Socialism as a political, economic and social system, and, finally;

* how teaching and learning about National Socialism and the Shoah should be conducted.

The answers from my interview partners were as diverse as the general situation.

Concerning the Definition of Holocaust Education

Their definitions differed, but nearly all of them said that it meant not only learning about but also learning from the Holocaust. Some of them rejected the term Holocaust Education to describe their work, preferring the term "historical-political education". None of them referred to "Education after Auschwitz" as described by Adorno.

Concerning the Goals of Holocaust Education

Here, there were three different fields: First, the transfer of knowledge about National Socialism and the Shoah. Second, the formation of character attributes to enhance the capacity for empathy and third, democracy and human rights education. Most, but not all, mentioned all three fields. All in all, it became apparent that in most cases the goals for Holocaust Education are as ambitious as the goals for education after Auschwitz described by Adorno.

Concerning the Relationship between

Holocaust Education and Social Structures

I asked my interview partners about the effect of social structures on the opportunities for and effectiveness of Holocaust Education and about the specifics of Holocaust Education within a post-National-Socialist society Most interview partners said that Holocaust Education is seen by society as something like a fire brigade to be called after antisemitic or racist incidents. They themselves see Holocaust Education more as a learning opportunity than as a magic bullet even though their goals are very ambitious. One interview partner (representing the NGO Gedenkdienst) said that a critique of society ought to be an explicit requirement of Holocaust Education. On the other hand, two interview partners (representing the NGOs "March of Remembrance and Hope" and "A Letter to the Stars") were very optimistic about reaching their goals. One even said that pupils would extract a lot of humanity from the big Holocaust Education events that his NGO organizes. Most did not mention the need for a critique of society.

The same line of divide was also apparent in relation to the specifics of Holocaust Education in a post-National-Socialist-society: Some of the interview partners adopt a universalistic approach, seeing Holocaust Education as a matter of humanity, tolerance and civil courage, while others emphasized the importance of regional history and the specifics of Holocaust Education in Austria. One interview partner (the representative of "") criticized the dehistorization of the Shoah and claimed to follow a "history & presence-principle" that maintained a constant focus on the history of National Socialism and its contemporary relevance.

Concerning the Content of Holocaust Education

Most of my interview partners said that, especially in the 1990's, educators had become aware of the importance of making greater use of the stories of the victims. Perpetrator issues, they said, ought to play a subordinate role, but school books still often show things from the perpetrators' point of view. Some of my interviewees insisted on the importance of incorporating the findings of perpetrator research. Others said that it was more important to present the biographies and positive qualities of the victims.

A very interesting finding of my interview-study is that the theme of antisemitism does not play an important role in Austrian Holocaust Education. Even though all my interviewees emphasized the contemporary relevance of Holocaust Education, contemporary antisemitism was not mentioned. This is also a finding of the document analysis: in school books, antisemitism is mentioned in connection with the crusades and then there is nothing until the 19th century or even the NS era. You cannot find anything about antisemitism in connection with conservative parties, Catholicism or anti-capitalism and so on. Moreover, antisemitism is not mentioned in the curricula of Austrian schools although Jewish life has been included since 2008. However, in 2012 "" published teaching materials with the title "A human being is a human being. Racism, antisemitism and you name it" which are an adaptation of teaching materials from the "Anne Frank Center Amsterdam" and the "Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights" of the OSCE. (20) But all in all, the history, presence and functions of antisemitism seem to be neglected. Likewise National Socialism as a social system seems to be subordinated to personal stories.

Concerning how to teach and learn about National Socialism and the Shoah: Holocaust Education in Austria takes place at school, in projects and on field trips. But we can also find mass events based on the idea that collective experiences are of special value. Moreover, in addition to a lot of teacher-centered learning, there are also some projects that adopt a peer-topeer-approach or use external trainers.


As regards the goals, we can find many similarities between "Education after Auschwitz" as it is described by Adorno and "Holocaust Education" in Austria. It is striking that almost all actors refer to the categorical imperative of Adorno but hardly at all to the Frankfurt School's other assumptions and findings.

While Adorno views "Education after Auschwitz" as a project beginning with early-childhood education and in terms of the enlightenment of society as a whole, Holocaust Education lasts for periods ranging from a few hours to a semester. Nevertheless, Adorno sees more limits at the level of goals than many actors in the field of Holocaust Education.

All but two of the interviewees affirmed the effectiveness of Holocaust Education as a tool for human rights and democracy education. They believed that democratic values could be learned through studying National Socialism and the Shoah. In the light of the Frankfurt School's ideas, I would be very skeptical that Holocaust Education is really the right tool for this. In my opinion, you cannot leam much about democracy from studying National Socialism. Human rights and civil courage are better learned in early childhood, when the foundations of prejudices are laid, and perhaps through Civic Education. These issues need to be addressed independently and cannot be replaced by Holocaust Education.

What is clearly discussed too little in Holocaust Education is antisemitism, especially its mechanisms and functions. Antisemitism is often addressed as a subform of racism, rather than seen in its uniqueness, and is often taught as if of solely historical interest. Taking historical as well as contemporary antisemitism seriously, sensitizing the youth to it so that they can identify it within themselves, political debates and the media would be an important lesson from the Shoah and a goal which could be realistically achieved.

The same applies to National Socialism as a social system and notably the school system under National Socialism. These topics are clearly underrepresented although they would provide plenty of connecting factors with the present and the student's everyday life. It would also sensitize students to long-term effects and continuities and therefore promote a more critical perspective on Austrian society, politics, and institutions.

Concerning the education of the educators: There is education of the educators concerning the Shoah, but at university level it is voluntary. Further training is offered but that too is voluntary. Education of the educators should be intensified in the two above-mentioned areas--antisemitism and National Socialism as a social system.

What the comparison of "Education after Auschwitz" and "Holocaust Education" shows is that the Shoah should not be taught in order to make young people better democrats but because it happened. In view of what happened, there should be no need for further reasons or justifications. Some of the goals connected with Holocaust Education are simply not within reach, so it should not be overloaded or played off against other, also necessary approaches and topics (such as human rights education). Also the environment of Holocaust Education should be considered more seriously. It is paradoxical to teach disobedience within a strongly hierarchical school system. In order to reach at least some of the ambitious goals it is necessary to reflect on the education system and the social climate as a whole. In the light of the Frankfurt School's insights, Holocaust Education appears as a useful but limited effort. It is just one part of what Adorno called "Education after Auschwitz".


Adorno, Theodor W. 1951. Minima Moralia: Reflexionen aus dem Beschddigten Leben. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.

--. 1970. Erziehung zur Mundigkeit: Vortrage u. Gesprache mit Hellmut Becker 1959-69. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.

--. 1973. Studien zum Autoritdren Charakter. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.

--. 1986a. "Schuld und Abwehr. Eine Qualitative Analyse zum

Gruppenexperiment." In Gesammelte Schriften Bd. 9. Edited by TheodorW. Adorno. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 122-324.

--. 1986b. "Zur Bekampfung des Antisemitismus Heute." In Vermischte Schriften II. Gesellschaft, Unterricht, Politik, Gesammelte Schriften Bd. 20. Edited by Theodor W. Adorno. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 360-384.

--. 2003. "Education after Auschwitz." In Can One Live after Auschwitz?: A Philosophical Reader. Edited by Rolf Tiedemann. Stanford: StanfordUniversityPress, 19-36.

Austrian Federal Ministry for Education, Arts and Culture. 2015. Nationalsozialismus und Holocaust: Gedachtnis und Gegenwart. Accessed July 10, 2015.

Beniston, Judith 2003. " 'Hitler's First Victim'?--Memory and Representation in Post-War Austria: Introduction." Austrian Studies 11: 1-13.

Bergmann, Werner, Rainer Erb, and Albert Lichtblau. 1995. Schwieriges Erbe: Der Umgang mit Nationalsozialismus und Antisemitismus in Osterreich, der DDR und der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Frankfurt am Main: Campus.

Dreier, Werner, Maria Ecker, and Albert Lichtblau. 2012. "A Human Being is a Human Being. Racism, Anti-Semitism and you Name it, Austrian Federal Ministry for Education, Arts and Culture," Accessed July 10, 2015, human-being-racism-anti-semitism-and-you-name-it../ 13_layout_erinnem_endkorrektur_englisch_screen.pdf.

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Uhl, Heidemarie. 1997. "The Politics of Memory: Austria's Perception of the Second World War and the National Socialist Peridod." In Austrian Historical Memory & National Identity. Edited by Gunter Bischof and Anton Pelinka. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 64-94.

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(1.) Elke Rajal. 2010. "Erziehung nach/uber Auschwitz. Holocaust Education in Osterreich vor dem Hintergrund Kritischer Theorie", University of Vienna. Accessed July 13th, 2015.

(2.) I use the terms "Critical Theory" (in German "Kritische Theorie") and "Frankfurt School" synonymously to mean a specific tradition of understanding society following Adorno, Horkheimer and other scholars of the Institute for Social Research. In this paper I mostly refer to Theodor W. Adorno.

(3.) E.g. Theodor w- Adorno. Minima Moralia. Reflexionen aus dem Beschadigten Leben (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1951); Erziehung zur Mundigkeit. Vortrage und Gesprache mit Hellmut Becker 1959-1969 (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1970); Studien zum autoritaren Charakter (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1973); "Schuld und Abwehr. Eine qualitative Analyse zum Gruppenexperiment", in Gesammelte Schriften Bd. 9, ed. Theodor w- Adorno (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1986a), 122-324; "Zur Bekampfung des Antisemitismus heute", in Vermischte Schriften II. Gesellschaft, Unterricht, Politik, Gesammelte Schriften Bd. 20, ed. Theodor w- Adorno (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1986b), 360-384.

(4.) Jochen Glaser and Grit Laudel. Experteninterviews und Qualitative Inhaltsanalyse als Instrumente Rekonstruierender Untersuchungen (Wiesbaden: Vs Verlag fur Sozialwissenschaften, 2004).

(5.) For this paper I have updated my research findings to include more recent documents and texts.

(6.) Theodor W. Adorno. "Education after Auschwitz", in Can One Live after Auschwitz? A Philosophical Reader, ed. Theodor W. Adorno and Rolf Tiedemann (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003), 20.

(7.) Ibid., 19. The essay "Erziehung nach Auschwitz" was only translated into English in 1997. For further information see: Matthias Heyl. 1999. " 'Holocaust Education': Internationale Tendenzen im padagogischen Umgang mit der Geschichte des Holocaust", Forschungs- und Arbeitsstelle "Erziehung nach/uber AuschwitzAccessed July 10, 2015.

(8.) For a more detailed treatment of the goals of education about the past see: Andreas Peham and Elke Rajal. "Erziehung wozu? Holocaust und Rechtsextremismus in der Schule", in Jahrbuch 2010. Schwerpunkt: Vermittlungsarbeit mit Jugendlichen und Erwachsenen, ed. Dokumentationsarchiv des osterreichischen Widerstands (Vienna: DOW, 2010), 38-65.

(9.) Adorno cites the example of a woman who, after having seen a play about Anne Frank, said that they should have spared this one. See: Theodor W. Adorno, Erziehung zur Mundigkeit (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1970), 26.

(10.) Angela Kuhner, Phil C. Langer and Robert Sigel. "Ausgewahlte Studienergebnisse im Uberblick", in Einsichten und Perspektiven. Bayrische Zeitschrift fur Politik und Geschichte, Themenheft 01/2008, Holocaust Education. Wie Schuler und Lehrer den Unterricht zum Thema Nationalsozialismus und Holocaust Erleben, ed. Bayrische Landeszentrale fur Politische Bildungsarbeit (Wurzburg: Bayerische Landeszentrale fur politische Bildungsarbeit, 2008), 76.

(11.) Dieter Stiefel. Entnazifizierung in Osterreich (Wien/Munchen/Zurich: Europaverlag, 1981), 161f.

(12.) The term 're-education' refers to the educational activities of the Allies in post-war Germany and Austria aimed at building democratic societies. In Austria these attempts were soon dropped in the course of the establishment of the victim myth. For the differences between Austria and Germany see: Werner Bergmann, Rainer Erb and Albert Lichtblau, Schwieriges Erbe. Der Umgang mit Nationalsozialismus und Antisemitismus in Osterreich und der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Frankfurt am Main: Campus, 1995). For postwar education in Austria see: Peter Utgaard, Remembering and Forgetting Nazism. Education, National Identity, and the Victim Myth in Postwar Austria (New York/Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2003).

(13.) Heidemarie Uhl. "The Politics of Memory: Austria's Perception of the Second World War and the National Socialist Period", in Austrian Historical Memory & National Identity, ed. Gunter Bischof and Anton Pelinka (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1997), 64-94. Or: Judith Beniston, "'Hitler's First Victim?' Memory and Representation in Post-War Austria: Introduction," Austrian Studies 11, (2003): 1-13.

(14.) This means that it is not a teaching subject in itself but appears within several different subjects.

(15.) Regarding the Waldheim debate and its consequences also see Uhl, H. "The Politics of Memory: Austria's Perception of the Second World War and the National Socialist Period", in Austrian Historical Memory & National Identity, ed. Gunter Bischof and Anton Pelinka (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1997), 64-94. 80ff.

(16.) Austrian Federal Ministry for Education, Arts and Culture. 2015. Nationalsozialismus und Holocaust: Gedachtnis und Gegenwart. Accessed July 10, 2015.

(17.) Linda Erker, "Holcaust und Offentlichkeit: Zur Wissensvermittlung in Osterreich", in Der Holocaust in der Deutschsprachigen Geschichtswissenschaft. Bilanz und Perspektiven, ed. Michael Brenner and Maximilian Stmad (Gottingen: Wallstein Verlag, 2012), 145-161.

(18.) According to a study of school field trips by students of Vienna University's Institute for Communication Science from 2009, 57% of pupils involved were totally or almost unprepared when they came to Mauthausen. See: Gundula Sackl. 2008. "Projektbericht. Mauthausen Memorial--Auswertung der Besucherlnnenbefragung Dezember 2008--Janner 2009", Mauthausen Memorial. Accessed July 10, 2015. httn://www.mauthausen Mauthausen Memorial Evaluation7567.pdf?id=137.

(19.) Rajal, Erziehung nach/uber Auschwitz.

(20.) Werner Dreier, Maria Ecker and Albert Lichtblau. "A human being is a human being. Racism, anti-Semitism and you name it", Austrian Federal Ministry for Education, Arts and Culture. 2012. Accessed July 10, 2015, bibliothek/methodik-didaktikfremsprachenunterricht/a-human-being-is- a-human-being-racism-anti-semitism-and-vou- name-it../13 layout erinnem endkorrektur englisch screen.pdf.

Elke Rajal, Elke Rajal holds degrees from the University of Vienna and University of Granada. She is a member of the Instititute for Conflict Research (http://
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Date:Dec 1, 2015
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