Hittie Etymological Dictionary, vol. 3: Words Beginning with H.
As in previous volumes, the passages cited are grouped together by grammatical form, rather than by meaning or usage, i.e., for verbs sg. 1 exx. (active, then middle!!) then the sg. 2 exx., etc. This makes it tedious to find the justification for the often large number of meanings and/or usages cited by the author in the lemma (e.g., sixteen English words translate Hittite halzai-). Special meanings such as with preverb + verb are not separated out. Thus there are twenty-nine different words given to translate huet- and huet- + preverb, the justification for which requires plowing through eight pages of translations organized only by grammatical form. For instance, at the top of page 344, because they use separate forms, two nearly identical passages involving "plucking" with animal hair (one act. 2nd and one mid. 2nd) are separated by a passage where huittiya- act. 2nd + preverb para is translated "temporize."
Words or families of words derived from other words are listed under the lemma of the most basic word. However, these are not cross-referenced. Nor are unusual forms that are by-forms of more common words, e.g., hai(n)k- for henk-. Separation of e and i makes it difficult to decide where to look (is it henk- or hink-?), and again there are no cross-references. The glide -ia-, correctly transliterated -y- in this English-speaking dictionary is inconsistently alphabetized, sometimes as -ia- as the CHD does, (hiyarra- is followed by hiqqar), but sometimes in the position of Engl. -y-, (hariya- comes after hariuzi).
A list of rare words beginning with h, that were omitted by J. Tischler's Hethitisch-Deutsches Worterverzeichnis . . . [Innsbruck: Institut fur Sprachwissenschaft, 1982], was published in a review by Ahmet Unal, JNES 49 (1990): 357-59; most of them have also been omitted from Puhvel. For ha- to hant- a more complete dictionary, A. Kammenhuber's reworking of J. Friedrich's Hethitisches Worterbuch [[HW.sup.2]] (Heidelberg: Winter), appeared almost simultaneously with the work under review. What follows are remarks on individual entries.
hahhima-: not "withering of vegetation caused by summer drought" but rather "frost" following H. Hoffner, Hittite Myths (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1990), 14, and F. Pecchioli Daddi and A. Polvani, La mitologia ittita (Brescia: Paideia, 1990), 59 n. 14. hahhima- has the verb "to get cold, freeze" in the same line: [...] [(ha-ah-hi-m)a . . . -]ta e-ku-na-i in KUB 45.20 i 8 and dupl. KUB 23.121 ii 7.
halanta: the lexical text which equates halanta with Akk. resu "head" has in its Sumerian column GU "neck." The Hittite scribe could have been translating either.
hallanniya-: since the object of this rare verb is grass and crop land (apparently the enemy's foot is involved in one instance) it seems that [HW.sup.2]'s more specific translations "zertreten" and "niedertreten" are to be preferred to Puhvel's more general "lay waste, ruin, savage, ravage."
halanza: Puhvel's suggestion "threw herself at me(?)" and his understanding of the Asertu passage has merit. [HW.sup.2] has "wutend werden."
halhalzana-: see discussion in R. Beal and B. J. Collins, "Hittite pankur, a new suggestion," AoF 23 (1996): 311, [section]11, w. n. 20.
hali-: if hali- means simply "portion, ration" why does the Hittite word occur only with breads and fish and not with beverages? If it is equivalent to Sum. HA.LA, why are breads never written with this Sumerogram or with the Akk. ZITTU?
haliya-: A v. Puhvel follows other authors in translating the term as "to kneel." But the Akkadogram for haliyattat is IMQUT (see [HW.sup.2], 3: 35a, 37a) "he threw himself to the ground" (see CAD, M/1: s.v. maqatu 1 c 2[prime]). n = as = mu GIR.MES-as kattan haliyattat (KUB 14.15 iv 28-29) is "she fell down at my feet" (CHD, P/2: 232b), not with Puhvel "knelt down at my feet." H. Hoffner (personal communication) notes n = as nahta n = as A[NA dISTAR] ginuwas kattan GISHASHUR GIM-an ha-l[i-ya-at] "(Mt. Pisaisa) was afraid and he fell down at [ISTAR'S] knees like an apple" (KUB 33.108 rt. col. 13-14). He notes that apples (and apple trees) do not "kneel" but "fall."
halkestaru- is considered by [HW.sup.2], 3: 51, to be a ghostword.
haluka-: the translation of KUB 7.58 i 6-8 here implies that egattaru is transitive, while in HED, E: 257 all examples are correctly considered to be intransitive. egattaru in line 12 of the same text is translated on E: 257 intransitively, "may it become paralyzed." Lines i 6-8 are probably to be translated: "May your (sg.) troops' manhood, your (pl.) battle and your (pl.) renown likewise grow cold and be extinguished." The translation "renown" for haluka- seems to grow naturally from "news" and seems preferable to Neu's, StBoT 5: 68, equally derived "Erkundungsfahigkeit" or Puhvel's combining of zahhais=mis halukas=mis as "battle-message."
haluganili: "in messenger-fashion" (following E. Laroche, Onom. 107). But messenger is halugatalla-, so "in messenger-fashion" should be *halugatallili or the like. Rather the sentence should read: "the troops move in the manner of news" that is, "the troops move as fast as news (travels)." Our first point has recently also been made by A. Kammenhuber in the [HW.sup.2], 3: 83, who then translates haluganili as "auf Kommando," following Friedrich, HW, 48.
hantiyara- should be added. A. Unal, JNES 49 (1990): 358, gave "a place in the river bed where the fish can live" perhaps "backwater," but the term now appears in HKM 66:14 in connection with horses. See Alp's discussion, Hethitische Briefe aus Masat-Hoyuk [HBM] (Ankara: Turk Tarih Kurumu, 1991), 339.
[hapa-.sup.MUSEN]: see J. Tischler's review of KUB 58 in AfO 36-37 (1989-90): 175a.
happutri-: see happu-. To happutri- add HKM 8: 8. Crediting Hoffner, A. Unal, JNES 49 (1990): 358 (s.v. hapkiri-) cites an example of happutri in IBoT 1.29 obv. 37, but it is mistransliterated; it should read: ha-ap-ut-ri (personal communication from Hoffner). Hoffner would add that happutri (< happ-) is certainly the same formation as wassutri (< wass- "to wear").
harp-: for a different interpretation of KBo 19.90 + KBo 3.53 obv. 9-10, w. dupl. KBo 3.46 obv. 39-41, see R. Beal, Hittite Military Organisation, THeth 20 (Heidelberg: Winter, 1992), 108f. w. n. 397.
harsiyalla-. "breadbox" with NINDA determinative should be added from M. Popko, "Bezeichnungen fur Brotbehalter im Hethitischen," AoF 23 (1996): 98-99.
hartakka-: Puhvel's sexual understanding of the passage KUB 29.1 i 28-30 is disputable; B. J. Collins, "The Representation of Wild Animals in Hittite Texts" (Ph.D. diss., Yale, 1989), 51f., 95-102, esp. p. 97, translates this passage: "You (the trees) spread out under the sky. The lion rested beneath y<ou>, the leopard rested beneath you, but the bear climbed up in you." She refers to sara ark- "to climb" in A. Unal, "You Should Build for Eternity," JCS 40 (1988): 106.
harzazu-: for another opinion, see C. Watkins, "Some Anatolian words and forms," in Indogermanica et Italica: Festschrift fur Helmut Rix, ed. J. Bendahaman et al., IBS 72 (Innsbruck: Inst. fur Sprachwissenschaft, 1993), 471-77.
harziyal(l)a-: C. Watkins' translation "snail" (in Bono Homini Donum, Kerns Memorial [Amsterdam, 1981], 345-48) is followed by Puhvel but is rejected by B. J. Collins, Ph.D. diss. (1989), 265-68. She rather convincingly argues for J. Siegelova's "Molch" = "Salamander" (Appu-Marchen und Hedammu-Mythus, StBoT 14 [Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1971], 40f., 72f.). Siegelova's opinion should be cited by Puhvel, even when he disagrees with it.
has-: "ashes" p. 212. [hasuwai.sup.(SAR)] probably is "soapwort" whether it is Saponaria officinalis, which today grows on Turkey's Black Sea coast, or Saponaria vaccaria, which is found now throughout Turkey. In Hittite analogic-magical passages in which hasuwai is used, it is merely crushed without mention of burning. Soapwort, contra Puhvel, is not one of the alkaline plants used to produce soap by mixing its ashes with tallow. Instead, it produces lather when its crushed stems and leaves are rubbed. GISkarssani-, which is frequently burned, may be the soda-plant.
has(s)-: "to open." Puhvel's translation of KBo 3.34 ii 29 on p. 220 makes no sense, perhaps because he assumes that hashas- must be related to has(s)- and so must have a meaning related to "open." Here etymology before philology seems to have led him astray. For my interpretation see THeth 20: 535f., with discussion on 550-52.
hask- is found in HKM 18: 27. Alp gives various suggestions concerning it in HBM 313.
hasmusalli(ya?)- should be added as stated by A. Unal, JNES 49: 359. However, Unal's entry omits part of the equation in the lexical text KBo 13.1 i 51. Read: (Sum.) [O?] SILA DIS = (Akk.) qu nunna ti = (Hitt.) hasmusalliyas gapanza. See MSL 17: 104 and CAD, N/2: 336.
GIShatalkesna-: a different etymology is suggested by C. Watkins, "Another Thorny Problem," Linguistica 33 (1993): 343-48.
hattar: = GU.TUR "lentil." See C. Watkins, "Indo-European *-[k.sup.w]e 'and' in Hittite," Sprachwissenschaftliche Forschungen: Festschrift fur Johann Knobloch, ed. H. M. Oelberg, IBK 23 (Innsbruck, 1985), 494f.
LUhazinirtalla-: "lyre player?" KUB 41.28 ii 7 restored by F. Pecchioli Daddi, Mestieri, Professioni e Dignita nell'Anatolia ittita (Rome: Ateneo, 1982): 235 > Hattic zinir "lyre" + Hittite -talla-, professional suffix. Cf. M. Popko, Zippalanda, THeth 21 (Heidelberg, Winter, 1994), 81, 266.
[hazzipara-.sup.MUSEN]: (a type of bird), should be added; see J. Tischler, AfO 36-37 (1989-90): 175a.
LUheyalla-: should be added from KUB 58.51 ii 17; see J. Tischler, AfO 36-37 (1989-90): 175a.
heshi: should be added from Bo 87/5a ii 19; see H. Otten, "Tiergefasse im Kult der spaten Hethitischen Grossreichszeit," Anatolia and the Ancient Near East: Studies in Honor of Tahsin Ozguc, ed. K. Emre et al. (Ankara: Turk Tarih Kurumu, 1989), 366-68.
hila-, section on hilammi-, hilammatta-: although derived from the Hittite word for courtyard, this is certainly not a "courtier" but a "temple employee," that is "one with access to the courtyard typical of Hittite temple architecture," as was already seen by F. Hrozny, Die Sprache der Hethiter, BoSt 1 (Leipzig: Heinrichs'sche, 1917), 7, and subsequently followed by most Hittitologists.
hirun-/hirut-: "oath" should be added. It is a loanword from Luwian, see Watkins, FsRix, 469-70.
huet-: for a different translation of pankur + huittiya- in the passage KBo 21.10 i 4-5 (on p. 344), see R. Beal and B. J. Collins, AoF 23 (1996): 311.
huhupal is not "cymbal." Cymbals are metallic and this has a determinative GIS "wood." H. G. Guterbock, "Reflections on the Musical Instruments . . .," Studio Historiae Ardens (Fs Houwink ten Cate), PIHANS 74 (Leiden: Dutch History-Archaeology Institute, Istanbul, 1995), 61-71 suggests a meaning "drum."
hulus-, used with appa parza 'backwards," should be added from KUB 22.37 rev. 5.
huppai-: another verb hup-/huppie- needs to be separated out for the passage involving musical instruments, see H. C. Melchert, "Luwian Lexical Notes," KZ 101 (1988): 232 and H. G. Guterbock, Fs. Houwink ten Cate, 71. It is probably onomatapoetic and related to the word GIShuhupal.
hurutai- should be added from KUB 16.34 i 14, ed. in CHD P, 1: 108.
husk-, under huskiwant-: the sentence from KBo 1.11 rev.! 14 is misdivided, see G. Beckman, "The Siege of Ursu . . .," JCS 47 (1995): 25-26.
huwai-, huinu-: the meaning of peran huinu- "to put (someone) in charge of" should be added. HKM 13, HKM 89: 9-13, see R. Beal, THeth 20, 516 and n. 1909. There is no mention or attempted translation of the usage of huinu- with -za. These passages from well-known texts were listed together by H. Hoffner, "Akkadian summa immeru Texts and Their Hurro-Hittite Counterparts," in The Tablet and the Scroll (Fs. Hallo) (Bethesda: CDL, 1993), 118a, subsequent to Puhvel. In the passage from the "bed" oracle: EGIR-ann = a = za ZAG-an huinut "He (the ram) huinu-d the right-hand one to the back of/for himself" KUB 18.11 rev. 4 ("bed" oracle), the only antecedent for ZAG-an is sasta-; also rev. 13. [[GUB-lan=za.sup.KUS]]E.SIR ZAG-az h[uinut ZAG-an=za KUSE.SIR] GUB-laz huinut "He huinu-d the left shoe on the right; he huinu-d the right shoe on the left" KBo 13.86 obv. (3)-5 (myth). nu = ssi TUGhupiki appezzi [(peran huinut)] hantezzi=ma = za appezziaz [(huinut)] "She [huinu-d the back hupiki-garment in front of herself and she huinu-d the front one in back of herself" KUB 33.67 i 30-31, w. dupl. KUB 33.36 ii 2-3. Hoffner translates these huinu-s as "to reverse the direction of something, cause something to go in a different direction." However, it is difficult to arrive at "to reverse the direction of something" from a base meaning "to make run." The verb only needs to mean "to move (something from/to its place)," which is a simple extension from the basic meaning; the reversal of direction is clear from the context in the two myths and need not be included in the verb. Note that a passage parallel to KBo 13.86 obv. (3)-5, namely KUB 33.67 i 27-28, replaces = za huinu- (obj. a shoe) with = za sarku- "to put on (shoes)" without any loss of meaning.
piran huyatalla-: not "head marcher, helper," but "leader." See R. Beal, THeth 20, 513-18, w. n. 1911.
huwanhuessar: see R. Beal, "Kule and Related Words," Or, n.s., 57 (1988): 175-77.
huwapp-: for sakuwa katta huwapp- in KBo 20.67 ii 60-61 "hurling (bread) down face down" (on top of the other bread) makes better sense than HED's "disfiguring (bread) downright."
In summary, this is a useful, indeed indispensable, tool for the Hittite philologist, for the student of ancient cultures, no less than for the Indo-europeanists. We certainly look forward to the appearance of volume K.
RICHARD H. BEAL UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO
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|Author:||Beal, Richard H.|
|Publication:||The Journal of the American Oriental Society|
|Article Type:||Book Review|
|Date:||Jan 1, 1998|
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