Higher Education through Open and Distance Education --An Analysis of Democratization and Social Inclusiveness.
Massification of higher education is in full force in most of the developing countries (UNESCO, 2000). The massification of higher education triggered off after 1990 in most of the developing countries, and has transformed higher education from an elitist pursuit to a mass activity, both in developed as well as developing countries. Scott (1995) used the term massification in the context of higher education systems to describe the rapid increase in student enrolment in the latter part of the twentieth century. While Trow (1972) provided terms 'elite' 'mass' and 'universal' higher education for better understanding of the term massification: with 'elite' representing a national ratio up to 15 percent; 'mass' representing a ratio up to 50 percent and 'universal' a ratio in excess of 50 percent. According to Trow, a few developed countries such as Australia, Japan, New Zealand and Korea are moving towards universalization of higher education; while quite a number of developing countries such as Indonesia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand have been entering the stage of massification of higher education; and while countries like Bangladesh, Pakistan and India are facing a tough challenge of massification of higher education. Gibbons (1998) was of the view that massification has numerous consequences on the higher education system, not just in terms of the increase in student number but the accompanying changes in the composition, character and aspirations of the student population. However, customarily, massification is a process by which academic systems enroll large number and higher proportions of the relevant age-group of students in a range of academic programmes in a number of differentiated higher education institutions. Albatch (1982) said it is the most critical contemporary force pressing on universities.
The proliferation of higher education in India can be categorized in four phases: (i) the 'elite': during the Ancient, Medieval and British period, access to higher education in India was limited to a elite few and was also caste, class, clan and gender biased and can be termed as 'elite' of higher education; (ii) the 'democratization': in this phase, higher education was made accessible to all through government measures. Article 15 of the constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth, while Article 16 of the constitution lays emphasis on equal opportunities, which reads that "no citizens shall on grounds only of religion, race, caste, descent, sex, place of birth, residence or any of them be ineligible or discriminated against, in respect of employment or office of the state". This phase of democratization of higher education started after the independence in 1947; (iii)the 'massification' phase: started after 1991 and vigorously after 2000 when the globalization process got momentum in the country, and (iv) as far the 'universalization' phase is concerned, India has to go a long way to achieve universalization of higher education.
Higher education is increasingly viewed as a major engine of economic development (Albatch, et.al, 2009). The transition of higher education from elite to democratization during the globalized era has been perceived to promote economic growth and development. There is a broad positive co-relation between the GER at the higher education level and the per capita GDP of a nation (Anandakrishnan, 2006). China is one of the few countries that made the decision to increase university student enrolments with the goal of stimulating the country's economy (Yang, 2002). As far as higher education through distance education is concerned, it is argued that if properly conceived, Open and Distance Learning (ODL) could be the long-term strategy for nation renaissance and an engine of development (Pityana, 2009) and an effective means for reducing poverty in developing countries (Khan and Gul, 2006). Therefore, it is remarked that higher education is no longer a luxury; it is essential to national, social and economic development (UNESCO, 2000). Many countries with higher education systems that are at critical development phases have experienced higher rates of expansion and increase in students' enrolment than anticipated (UNESCO, 2004).
I. Democratization of Higher Education through Open Distance Education
Proponents of massification have called upon universities to be responsive to the needs of an economy (Soudien and Corneilse, 2000). Certainly, the limited resources and relatively dense population in developing countries are obstacles for the availability of on-campus education for the whole population; therefore, distance education is relatively a better solution to overcome this problem (Khan, et al, 2001). For the developing world, ODL is a promising and practical strategy to address the challenge of widening access, thus increasing participation in higher education (Pityana, 2009). Distance education reaches a broader students audience and better addresses students needs, saves money and more importantly, uses the principles of modern learning pedagogy (Fitzpatrick, 2001). It uses open learning as education patterns, approaches and strategies that permit people to learn with no barriers in respect of time, space, sex, age and previous educational background - no entry qualification, no age limit, no biases against any gender, race, tribe, state of origin, quota system, etc. (Alaezi, 2005). Croft (1992) noted that the conventional face-to- face universities find its strengths in traditional teaching, research and scholarship while dedicated distance education universities finds its strengths in their contribution to accessibility and equality. According to Juler (1990), distance education means creating educational communities in which teachers, students and others are linked in discourse wherever they may be, through networks appropriate to their circumstances. Globalization and ICT revolution has further invigorated the pace and use of distance education in the developing world. Zondiros (2008) has remarked that online and distance education can be seen as a product and producer of globalization. The number of conventional universities offering distance education and open universities offering distance education through ODL mode are on the increase worldwide. In India, 15 open universities and 76 state universities are offering distance education programmes. There are around 90 open universities in the world. In USA, a few community colleges are also offering distance education. It is not a flight of fancy, but delicately, not only the number of distance education institutions but also enrolment of students in these institutions has gone up astoundingly. To site an example, the enrolment in B.R. Ambedkar Open University, the first Open University in India has been gone up from a meager 6321 in 1983-84 to a staggering number of 1,50,474 by 2004-05. Similarly, the enrolment in Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), the first Central Open University in India, has gone up from a meager 4857 in 1987 to 2.6 million in 2011. The same massification has been noticed in many open universities worldwide. In the USA, ninety-four percent of all colleges and universities are either currently (63%) or planning to be (31%) engaged in distance and distributed learning (Twigg, 2001).
According to Schneider and Germann (1999), history of distance learning is divided into three generations given as: (i) first generation "correspondence study" where students and teachers communicate with each other through the mail; (ii) second generation "multi-media distance teaching or broadcast teleconferencing" where television and radio broadcasts are used by students and teachers for communication; and (iii) third generation "interactive, web-based instruction", where resources of the world wide web enhance communication, not only between students and teachers, but among students as well. Daniel (1999) was of the opinion that distance education has evolved by the incorporation of more media into the earlier versions of correspondence tuition and remote classroom teaching. In fact, the open and distance education is a paradigm shift from the conventional face-to-face education and it has transformed the education system from the traditional "teaching paradigm" to a more pragmatic study material and technology driven "learning paradigm". In other words, the novelty of distance education system is that it frugally uses the traditional classroom and lecture method, that too, only for counseling and is largely tilted towards self-learning material based, technology driven "learner-centered" and "open and free" teaching-learning education model. Heydinger (1997) viewed that open learning system stands in contrast to the traditional faculty-driven curriculum model and put the students squarely at the center of the equation in developing their learning plan. As Barr and Tagg (1995) put that the aim of learning paradigm is not so much to improve the quality of instruction (although that is not irrelevant) as it is to improve continuously the quality of learning for students individually and in the aggregate.
Distance education makes use of various forms of individual delivery methods ranging from self-motivated face-to-face contact session, to course materials and technology driven methods such as audio, video, internet, intranet and email to students. Some of the recent enrolment enhancement initiatives in ODL system for the massification of tertiary education are unlimited access of study materials through e-material (for example e-gyankosh of IGNOU), walk in admission, on-line admission, on-demand examination, etc. In the distance education system, students occupy prime place, where self-learning materials are progressive deliverables than the distance learning teachers and trainers. Furthermore, in distance education, counseling, guidance and doubt clearing are more important than lecturing and tutoring. The student enrolment in open universities depends veritably on the quality of self learning materials rather than quality of distance education faculty. Daniel (1999) was of the view that increasing learning productivity implies having students take more responsibility for their own learning, ensuring that curricular and time tables are more focused and purposeful and training faculty are to be mediators of learning rather than better teachers.
II. Distance Education in India and IGNOU ODL System
Approximately 24 percent of all higher education students in India are enrolled in distance education institutions, specifically in the 13 national and state open universities and the 106 institutions, mostly public, which offer both on-campus and correspondence program (Daniel, et.al 2007). While envisaging the growth of ODL (Open and Distance Learning) system in higher education, University Grant Commission of India has noted that the number of dual mode universities and institutions offering programmes through distance mode has increased astoundingly from only one single mode open universities in 1962 to 116 dual mode universities in 2010. Single mode universities offering distance education have gone up from a meager 1 during 1982 to 14 during 2010. With fresh enrolment in ODL programmes at approximately 2.4 million annually, the share of distance education in the GER (Gross Enrolment Ratio) is about 22.23%. 1 A 2007study conducted under the auspices of Common Wealth of Learning regarding the development of the Indian State Open Universities concluded the "ODL has vast potential in a country like India with millions of young aspirants eager to receive higher education and with conventional universities and colleges simply not being in a position to accommodate them. The infrastructure for the expansion of open universities is fairly good in the country, especially the mega OU, Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) willing to help the SOUs (State Open Universities) (Rajagopalan, 2007).
During the post-independence period, the Government of India inherited the legacy of educational backwardness in addition to many other backwardness (Khajapeer, 1996). The caste-based social disparities in the enrolment rate between the urban and rural sectors, between males and females; among social groups, SC's(Scheduled Castes), STs(Scheduled Tribes), and General Castes and between the poor and non-poor is observed in the stratified Indian society (Sinha and Srivastava, 2008). The GER is the lowest among the poor casual wage laborer households in the rural and urban areas; and the rate is particularly low among the poor from the same group and belonging to the SC/ST/OBCs (Thorat, 2008). Therefore distance education has become one powerful medium of obtaining degrees for large number of students who are staying at far off and remote areas and for whom accessing universities on regular basis is still a dream (ASIHE 2011-12).
The open and distance education is aimed at providing low cost higher education and assisting in the development and democratization of higher education in the highly socioeconomically stratified country like India. Indira Gandhi National Open University popularly known as "IGNOU"(in India and also abroad) is playing an important role in the promotion and proliferation of open and distance education in India and also in many other developing countries of the World. IGNOU aims to democratize higher education in India through a decentralized approach and reaching to the unreached through its regional centres and student support centres established widely across the nation. It has established regional centres in almost all the states and union territories and has study centres invariably present in almost all the districts of India. It is well documented that "the university has been registering impressive vertical and horizontal growth and has cumulative student strength of over 3 million through an impressive network of 64 Regional Centres and 2667 Learner Support Centres across the country (IGNOU, 2014)." Over a period of time, it is trying now to reach to the unreached group of learners belonging to rural areas, women, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, by offering cost effective and quality tertiary education programmes. It wants to reach to the unreached, and include the excluded groups into its fold.
The important objectives of the study are:
(i) To assess the impact of IGNOU on the enrolment of students in tertiary education in rural areas.
(ii) To study the impact of IGNOU programme on the enrolment of women in tertiary education programme; and
(iii)To assess the impact of IGNOU distance learning programme on the tertiary education status of the socio-economically disadvantaged sections such as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
In this study an attempt has been made to compare the IGNOU enrolment data of 16 major states of India with that of the tertiary education achieved through various modes including the open and distance education mode. The State having more and Scheduled Tribe population (as per census, 2011) is selected for analysis in order to assess the degree of inclusiveness in the tertiary education. The student enrolment for the year 2011 in various regional centres of IGNOU of these 16 major states have been taken into consideration in order to establish the relationship between the dependent variables and the independent variables. The all India GER has been compared with the IGNOU's enrolment in order to assess the impact of open and distance education offered through IGNOU on inclusiveness. The independent and dependent variables considered for the study are two types of data sources with variables as given in Table-1.
According to UNESCO (2003) in Asia Pacific Region, despite the rapid expansion in the enrollment, equity on access in disadvantaged groups such as women, rural population, minority ethnic groups and students from low socio-economic status group remains a big problem. Equity in higher education is arguably one of the most significant and urgent issues India is facing today, given that it is among the most unequal societies in the world (UN Women, 2012).Higher education in India is found to be urban-biased and pro-rich (Choudhary, 2014). The educational disparities between rural and urban areas are a grave concern in India where 69 percent of population still lives in rural areas. Considering the rural poverty and lack of availability of higher educational institutions in rural areas, it is felt that the open and distance education system will fulfill the higher education aspirations among the rural population. The democratization of tertiary education will be truly materialized only when the rural people are not deprived of the right to higher education because of availability, accessibility and affordability reasons. The table shows that the mean GER in rural areas of these selected States is 8.79, while the IGNOU enrolment is 42.51 percent which is four times higher. It is also seen that there is a positive and high correlation between GER of rural areas and IGNOU enrolment. It is interesting to see that rural poverty has a negative correlation with the IGNOU enrolment which means that IGNOU ODL has largely benefited the economically weaker section of the population. The analysis shows that the States having higher rural literacy rates have taken more advantage of tertiary education offered through ODL system of IGNOU compared to their counterparts. It can also be deduced that open and distance education offered by IGNOU through its decentralized mechanism is fulfilling the higher education aspiration among the rural people.
Historically, the vulnerable groups of the Indian society, namely, the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes, Other Backward Classes and women have suffered deprivation in all walks of life including education (Choudhry, 2014). Women are the most disadvantaged group across the caste and community in India. However, it is observed from the data that the mean IGNOU women enrolment is 46.42 as against the mean GER of women in this selected State which is 21.12. It is observed from the data that mean GER has a negative correlation with the IGNOU enrolment in tertiary education among women. This implies that those women who are deprived of tertiary education through the formal and private education system have availed ODL system of IGNOU to fulfill their dream of higher education. Thus, like rural enrolment, the IGNOU ODL system is supplementing and complementing the democratization of higher education in India.
The Indian social system suffers from the in flexibilities of a rigid caste system (Choudhry, 2012). In India caste has been the determinant of class position, resulting in acute inequality in the distribution of wealth and income (Mehta and Kapoor, 1994). For centuries, caste has been a determining factor and is still quite evident in education and work distribution for various sections of the society (Choudhary, 2014). The traditional deprivation kept SCs (Scheduled Castes) and STs (Scheduled Tribes) at the lower rung of the caste hierarchy and denied them access to any form of education, with the demands of a knowledge-driven society under globalization which left them out of the mainstream as social misfits and the disposable people of society because of their lack of education (Thorat, 2008). The real victims of inequality including educational inequality in India are the SCs and STs. Because of economic impoverishment and other associated reasons, they are being deprived of the higher education. The analysis of data as given in Table-5 shows that the mean IGNOU enrolment among SCs is 8.5 percent, which is lower than the mean GER of 14.11. It reveals that the SCs have not been adequately benefited from the IGNOU ODL system, one of the main reasons being that IGNOU does not offer any fee concessions to SC students which they usually get when they enroll themselves in formal educational institutions. As far as STs are concerned, the IGNOU mean enrolment is 13.24, which is almost equal to mean GER 13.39. This means SCs disproportionately, STs proportionately and other caste group of population has highly benefited from the ODL system. This means that while IGNOU is helpful in democratizing higher education, is still to be inclusive among the disadvantaged i.e. SCs and STs. It has not become inclusive, not because of caste based obstruction, but because of its constraint of affordability among the disadvantaged. In the conventional education system, they get fee concessions from the government, whereas IGNOU does not have any special fee concessions for SCs and STs. Still a colossal percentage of SC's and ST's, particularly staying in rural areas are economically impoverished to even afford fees for distance education. This particularly hits the education of the girl and disabled children belonging to these disadvantaged families.
The massification process can truly be democratic only when people belonging to both rural and urban areas irrespective of caste, class, sex and ethnicity are registered in large numbers in the distance education system. This can happen when effective coordination between the decentralized centres of Open University such as regional centres, study centres and the decentralized line department functionaries and democratic decentralization institutions such as ULBs and PRIs are established. The study centers of open universities, usually positioned at the cities and semi-urban areas, are not sufficient for the proliferation of higher education, more so in populated developing countries, where students belonging to marginalized communities are unable to attain higher education in spite of the provision of educational subsidies and scholarships by the government. The other direct and indirect costs, such as pocket expenses related to attaining counseling session, preparation of assignments, appearing examination, etc. de-motivate students particularly belonging to marginalized groups such as Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, women and economically weaker sections, from pursuing higher education even though distance education. Albatchetal (1998) study from other counties also has similar views that cost remains an enormous barrier to access. Even where tuition is free, students have to bear indirect costs such as living expenses and often loss of income. Scholarships, grant and/ or loan programme are demonstrating some degree of success, but cannot by themselves remove economic barriers. It is only through decentralized distance education system, along with the active participation of grass-root level democratic institutions, representatives and functionaries that tertiary education can reach to the doorsteps of the disadvantaged and marginalized in the developing countries. The formation of Village Higher Education Committee at the village levels will enhance enrolment of higher education in rural areas and enable the rural society to fight against unemployment, poverty inequality, low level of education and corruption. It will improve quality of life of countryside population. Frequent interaction between Higher Education Committees and academic counselors of the Open University is required for a sustainable higher education system. The decentralized democratic institutions such as ULBs and PRIs would provide support to the higher education in different ways: (i) motivating students for various programmes; (ii) monitoring drop out/ discontinuing rate; (iii) providing space for counseling classes; (iv) providing financial support to poor students from village development fund; (v) monitoring GER at various levels of local self government and; (vi) ensure access to internet facility available at village, block and district panchayat for e-Education. The customary challenge, which massification of higher education through distance education has to face, is the quality. Quality of distance education depends exclusively on quality of study materials and student support services. Greater care has to be taken while designing learner centredself-learning materials (SLMs) and other technology driven learning materials. As the students are away from the classrooms setting, effective quality study materials, quick admission and despatch of enrolment number and study materials, counseling services, supportive student inquiry and grievances redressal system and timely declaration of results and issue of grade cards and certificates are a few student satisfaction indices to be taken into consideration for the enhancement of enrolment through distance education system. It is not a flight of fancy, truly one motivated student will enhance enrolment in an arithmetic proportion while one demotivated or dissatisfied student can affect negative enrolment in a geometric proportion.
Besides institutional mechanism and governance system, the success of massifcation of higher education through distance education depends on community participation and support from civil society organizations. The mobile and satellite study centres of the open university have to be established and work in tandem with the community based organization (CBOs) such as Youth Clubs, MahilaMandals (Women Groups), Self Help Groups (SHGs) and other grass-root level bodies for enhancing enrolment in rural areas. A study conducted by Salaman, Solokolowski and Associates (2003) shows that 64 percent of the work force of Civil Society Organizations is engaged in delivering education services. A National Planning Commission data shows that around 90 percent of NGOs in India are involved in social sector activities including education. Community participation frame work, given in Fig-2, if effectively materialized, would boost distance education in rural areas and enable the system to reach the unreached.
Notwithstanding community participation, inter-sectoral coordination is also another vital aspect for massification of higher education through distance education. Education sector if operate in silos will be less successful and therefore has to coordinate with other related sectors for massification of higher education at the grassroots. The health, rural development, local self government, women and child development, cooperative and banking, agriculture and allied sectors, youth development, etc. are the other related sectors which can offer support to open distance education system at the grassroots. The Sixth Five Year Plan of Government of India has emphasized that education system, in order to achieve its goals and tasks, has to stress on coordination of efforts, resources and programmes of different sectors and agencies. Inter-sectoral coordination encourages government line departments to work together and mobilize communities and involve them in the development process. 4 There are several other successful models of inter-sectoral coordination and public-private partnership in the development arena and open and distance education system has to examine and adopt with suitable modification. One of the examples of inter-sectoral coordination framework is given in Table-4.
The massification of higher education in developing countries is an agenda of globalization and development. Open and Distance education system has significant contribution towards massification of higher education in India and also in many other developing countries. For instance, IGNOU, one of the largest Open and Distance University in India, has not only enhanced enrolment in tertiary education in the country, but is also helping in proliferation of higher education in other developing countries in Asia and Africa. Both vertical as well as horizontal decentralization approach, with the help of decentralized line department and democratic institutions, will go a long way to scale up higher education and help it reach to the unreached. However, other issues like quality SLM's (Self Learning Materials), experienced educational counselors, proactive student support services, grievance redressal, good educational governance and management system are needed to be addressed by the distance education system in order to efficiently and effectively carry forward the agenda of massification with quality. Further monitoring of discontinuation and dropout rate and wastage, cost-effectiveness, general acceptance of distance education in the job market, etc. are other challenges before the distance education system. Despite all these constraints, distance education are playing a vital role in the massification of higher education in both developed as well as in developing countries.
In order to enhance its enrolment and pass-out rate, University needs to open mobile and satellite study centres in remote and far-flung areas.
(1.) The Growth of ODL System in Higher Education for detail see http://www.ugc.ac.in/deb (accessed on 3/03/2004).
(2.) C P Joshi said this while delivering 16th Prof. G Ram Reddy Memorial Lecture on 2nd of July 2011 in IGNOU, New Delhi for detail see http:// world.mitrasites.com/imgs/gram-reddy.html.
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Caption: Figure-1: Percentage of GER among different Groups, All India and IGNOU
Caption: Figure 3: Community Participation Framework
Caption: Figure 4: Inter-Sectoral Coordination Framework
Table 1: Dual Mode Universities and Open Universities in India Year Dual Mode Universities / Single Mode OUs Total Distance Institutes Education Institutions 1962 1 -- 1 1975 22 -- 22 1982 34 1 35 1985 38 2 40 1990 46 5 51 2000 70 9 79 2005 106 13 119 2010 242 14 256 Source: "Growth of ODL System in Higher Education" http://www.ugc.ac.in/ deb(accessed on 3/03/2014) Table 2: Enrolment in Conventional and Open Education System in India Year Conventional CCIs / DEIs Percentage Total Universities / Open share of DE /Colleges Universities 1962-1963 7,52,095 1,112 0.147 753207 1975-1976 24,26,109 64,210 2.578 2490319 1980-1981 27,52,437 1,66,428 5.701 2918865 1985-1986 36,06,029 3,55,091 8.964 3961120 1990-1991 49,24,868 5,92,814 10.744 5517682 1994-1995 61,13,929 8,03,176 11.611 6917105 1995-1996 65,74,005 10,03,000 13.237 7577005 2000-2001 83,99,443 13,78,000 14.094 9777443 2005-2006 110,28,020 18,33,524 14.256 12861544 2009-2010 124,68,560 37,36,744 23.35 16000000 (approx) Table 3: Enrolment in Different categories of Tertiary Education Level Distance Education Enrolment Male Female Total Post Graduate 772328 531536 1303864 Under Graduate 1213524 785429 1998953 P G Diploma 44661 18003 62664 Diploma 70580 45595 116175 Certificate 37231 38671 75902 Integrated 1523 478 2001 All 2139847 1419712 3559559 Source: "Growth of ODL System in Higher Education" http://www/ugc/ac/in/deb (accessed on 3/03/2014) Table 4: Types of Dependent and Independent Variables Dependent Variables: IGNOU Enrolment Independent Variables [X.sub.1] = % of Enrolment of SC I--Scheduled Castes (SC) [X.sub.2] = % of Enrolment of ST [Y.sub.1] = SC Literacy rate (%) [X.sub.3] = % of Enrolment of Women [Y.sub.2] = GER of SC (%) [X.sub.4] = % of Enrolment of [Y.sub.3] = % of Poverty in SC Rural Areas Students [X.sub.5] = % of Enrolment [Y.sub.4] = % of SC Population of Rural Women II--Scheduled Tribes (ST) [Y.sub.5] = SC Literacy rate (%) [Y.sub.6] = GER of ST (%) [Y.sub.7] = % of Poverty in ST [Y.sub.8] = % of ST Population III--Women [Y.sub.9] = Women Literacy rate (%) [Y.sub.10] = Gender Gap of Literacy (%) [Y.sub.11] = Women GER IV--Rural [Y.sub.12] = % of Rural Poverty [Y.sub.13] = Rural Literacy Rate (%) [Y.sub.14] = Rural Population (%) [Y.sub.15] = GER of Rural (%) Table 5: Relationship between Dependent and Independent Variables Categories Enrolment Status in Tertiary Education X" r I Rural Area (i) Rural Poverty (%) 23.39 11.69 -0.37 0.32 (ii) Rural Literacy (%) 70.67 8.47 0.404 0.202 (iii) Rural Population (%) 70.08 11.57 0.302 0.207 (iv) GER Rural Area 8.79 4.26 0.63 0.209 II Women (i) Literacy Rate (%) 66.87 9.66 0.28 0.223 (ii) Gender Gap in 16.94 5.19 -0.19 0.24 Literacy (%) (iii) Women GER 21.123 11.204 -0.418 0.52 III Scheduled Castes (SC) (i) SC Poverty (%) 26.11 11.307 -0.074 0.545 (ii) SC Literacy (%) 52.9 10.64 0.389 0.255 (iii) SC Population (%) 14.82 5.49 0.013 0.10 (iv) SC GER (%) 14.11 6.69 0.359 0.343 IV Scheduled Tribes (ST) (i) ST Poverty (%) 36.029 15.877 0.159 0.193 (ii) ST Literacy (%) 61.28 13.14 -0.167 0.83 (iii) ST Population (%) 11.58 9.349 0.055 0.039 (iv) ST GER (%) 13.329 8.518 0.045 0.029 Categories IGNOU Enrolment X" I Rural Area (i) Rural Poverty (%) 42.51 16.87 (ii) Rural Literacy (%) (iii) Rural Population (%) (iv) GER Rural Area II Women (i) Literacy Rate (%) 46.42 11.98 (ii) Gender Gap in Literacy (%) (iii) Women GER III Scheduled Castes (SC) (i) SC Poverty (%) 8.35 6.98 (ii) SC Literacy (%) (iii) SC Population (%) (iv) SC GER (%) IV Scheduled Tribes (ST) (i) ST Poverty (%) 13.249 13.08 (ii) ST Literacy (%) (iii) ST Population (%) (iv) ST GER (%) Table 1: ST, SC & General Student enrolment in 2011 and Proportion of ST, SC & General population according to 2011 Census Sl. State Total Total No. Number of percentage student in of ST 2011 student enrolled in (Jan-June= 2011) 1 Assam 4537 21.29 2 Andhra Pradesh 9944 2.61 3 Chhattisgarh 2127 10.67 4 Gujarat 14566 35.76 5 Himachal Pradesh 4682 4.63 6 Jammu & Kashmir 9885 4.62 7 Jharkhand 14968 21.67 8 Karnataka 6670 4.54 9 Kerala 7211 1.40 10 Madhya Pradesh 9166 21.14 11 Maharashtra 24487 39.26 12 Odisha 12538 3.02 13 Rajasthan 6057 0.33 14 Tamilnadu 7884 18.82 15 Uttar Pradesh 22563 31.17 16 Uttaranchal 8508 3.10 17 West Bengal 24486 1.21 Total Total No. percentage of percentage of SC student General enrolled in student (Jan-June= enrolled in 2011) (Jan-June= 2011) 1 8.35 70.35 2 14.63 82.75 3 14.06 75.27 4 0.31 63.93 5 15.31 80.05 6 11.86 83.52 7 13.40 64.94 8 10.64 84.81 9 7.42 91.18 10 14.77 64.08 11 23.04 37.71 12 12.79 84.18 13 7.97 91.70 14 16.13 65.04 15 3.63 65.20 16 29.27 67.63 17 4.68 94.11 Table 3: Percentage of Female Literacy, IGNOU Enrolment, Gross Enrolment Ratio and Gender Gap in Literacy Categories Percentage Total Sl. State of enrolment Percentage No of Female in of Female IGNOU Literacy in (2011 year) (2011, Census) 1 Andhra Pradesh 49.62 59.7 2 Assam 42.43 67.3 3 Chhattisgarh 34.10 60.6 4 Gujarat 61.54 70.7 5 Himachal Pradesh 47.28 76.6 6 Jammu & Kashmir 42.85 58.0 7 Jharkhand 39.30 56.2 8 Karnataka 43.24 68.1 9 Kerala 47.58 92.0 10 Madhya Pradesh 45.24 60.0 11 Maharashtra 85.20 75.5 12 Odisha 36.98 64.4 13 Rajasthan 42.62 52.7 14 Tamil Nadu 34.64 73.9 15 Uttar Pradesh 51.97 59.3 16 Uttaranchal 40.89 70.7 17 West Bengal 43.69 71.2 Total Total Sl. Percentage Percentage No of Gender of Female gap in Gross Literacy Enrolment (2011, Ratio (GER, Census) 2011-12) 1 16.7 23.4 2 15.8 14.2 3 20.9 53.8 4 16.5 9.9 5 14.2 15.7 6 20.3 24.2 7 22.2 24.9 8 14.7 7.6 9 4.0 22.8 10 20.5 26.9 11 14.3 14.6 12 18.0 14.3 13 27.9 14.9 14 13.0 35.2 15 20.0 18.1 16 17.6 27.9 17 11.5 10.7 Table 4: Percentage of Rural Literacy, IGNOU Enrolment, Gross Enrolment Ratio and Gender Gap in Literacy Sl. State Total Total Total No Percentage Percentage percentage of Rural of Rural of Rural Poverty literacy population (2011-12) * rate in (2011) ** (2011) ** 1 Andhra 11.0 61.14 85.92 Pradesh 2 Assam 33.9 61.59 66.51 3 Chhattisgarh 44.6 66.76 76.76 4 Gujarat 21.5 73.00 57.42 5 Himachal 8.5 82.91 89.96 Pradesh 6 Jammu & 11.5 64.97 72.79 Kashmir 7 Jharkhand 40.8 62.40 75.95 8 Karnataka 24.5 68.86 61.43 9 Kerala 9.2 92.92 52.28 10 Madhya 35.7 65.29 72.37 Pradesh 11 Maharashtra 24.2 77.09 54.77 12 Odisha 35.7 70.78 83.32 13 Rajasthan 16.1 62.34 75.11 14 Tamil Nadu 15.8 73.80 51.55 15 Uttar 30.4 67.55 77.72 Pradesh 16 Uttaranchal 11.7 77.11 69.45 17 West Bengal 22.5 72.97 68.11 Sl. Total Total No Percentage percentage of of Rural student Gross Enrolment in Enrolment IGNOU in Ratio Rural areas: [GER] in (Jan- (2011-12)(#) June=2011) (##) 1 37.59 9.0 2 7.1 17.06 3 6 34.55 4 9.1 35.84 5 74.81 17.3 6 65.70 10.2 7 4.5 56.61 8 6.6 24.37 9 19.55 63.93 10 34.94 4.45 11 9.1 28.25 12 4.5 28.59 13 5.75 49.37 14 8.15 24.33 15 38.69 8.75 16 12.75 60.87 17 6.75 47.16 Sources: * Panagariya, A and More V "Poverty by social, religious and economic groups in India an d its largest states", Working Paper No.2013-02, School of International and Public Affairs, Programme on Indian Economic Policies, Columbia University. ** Census of India 2011 (#) Government of India (provisional), AISHE 2011-12, MHRD, Department of Education New Delhi, 2013. (##) IGNOU (2013): Status Report of Regional Centers, September 2013, IGNOU, New Delhi. Table 5: Scheduled Castes Sl. State Scheduled Castes No Total Total Total Percentage Percentage Percentage of SC of SC of SC student Literacy Poverty enrolled in Rate Rate (2011- IGNOU(Jan- (2009-10) 12) June=2011) 1 Andhra 8.35 12.7 Pradesh 52.9 2 Assam 14.63 83.0 28.6 3 Chhattisgarh 14.06 80.9 46.7 4 Gujarat 0.31 63.5 18.4 5 Himachal 15.31 15.9 Pradesh 77.9 6 Jammu & 11.86 18.7 Kashmir 71.7 7 Jharkhand 13.40 56.0 40.4 8 Karnataka 10.64 56.1 33.2 9 Kerala 7.42 87.6 16.0 10 Madhya 14.77 39.6 Pradesh 67.3 11 Maharashtra 23.04 78.8 19.7 12 Odisha 12.79 64.8 39.0 13 Rajasthan 7.97 56.8 18.7 14 Tamil Nadu 16.13 66.6 19.0 15 Uttar 3.63 40.9 Pradesh 60.0 16 Uttaranchal 29.27 76.8 14.9 17 West Bengal 4.68 70.9 21.5 Sl. Scheduled Castes No Total Proportion Percentage of SC of SC Population Gross (2011, Enrolment Census) Ratio [GER] in (2011- 12) 1 23.1 16.2 2 11.7 6.9 3 19.2 11.6 4 8.8 7.1 5 13.5 24.7 6 2.8 7.6 7 5.4 11.8 8 15.4 16.2 9 17.5 9.8 10 11.6 15.2 11 24.9 10.2 12 9.1 16.5 13 12.0 17.2 14 27.1 19.0 15 12.5 21.1 16 16.5 17.9 17 8.6 23.0 Table 6: Scheduled Tribe Sl. State Scheduled Tribe No Total Total Total Percentage Percentage Percentage of ST of ST of ST student Literacy Poverty enrolled in Rate (2009- Rate IGNOU 10) (2011-12) (Jan- June=2011) 1 Andhra 21.29 23.1 Pradesh 72.1 2 Assam 2.61 80.5 32.4 3 Chhattisgarh 10.67 66.9 51.1 4 Gujarat 35.76 63.5 35.9 5 Himachal 4.63 9.2 Pradesh 71.7 6 Jammu & 4.62 15.3 Kashmir 36.5 7 Jharkhand 21.67 54.6 49.7 8 Karnataka 4.54 52.8 31.5 9 Kerala 1.40 87.0 39.4 10 Madhya 21.14 53.4 Pradesh 56.9 11 Maharashtra 39.26 66.1 54.4 12 Odisha 3.02 52.2 62.5 13 Rajasthan 0.33 52.4 40.3 14 Tamil Nadu 18.82 48.8 25.8 15 Uttar 31.17 25.6 Pradesh 44.3 16 Uttaranchal 3.10 69.7 13.5 17 West Bengal 1.21 65.8 49.4 Sl. Scheduled Tribe No Total Proportion Percentage of ST of ST Population Gross (2011, Enrolment Census) Ratio [GER] in (2011-12) 1 21.0 6.6 2 13.6 12.4 3 5.1 31.8 4 9.7 14.8 5 20.4 4.0 6 2.0 10.9 7 3.9 26.3 8 12.7 6.6 9 12.3 1.1 10 6.9 20.3 11 12.5 8.9 12 7.5 22.1 13 13.2 12.6 14 31.0 1.0 15 18.9 0.1 16 30.0 3.0 17 5.9 5.5
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|Publication:||Political Economy Journal of India|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2018|
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