Hide and seek: on trail of women writers.
In order to make biographical and bibliographical information about women writers in Turkey visible, the project aims to build a digitalized database that will provide academic papers about Turkish women writers in three languages, Turkish, English and French, and present the profile of women writers in Turkey, focusing on the analytical examination of the idea of canon. But why do we see this project vital? Why women writers? Why not other women studies issues but literature? The answer is hidden in the definition of the novel. As Merriam Webster Dictionary puts it:
Novel: An invented prose narrative that is usually long and complex and deals especially with human experience through a usually connected sequence of events.
In this definition, I would like to highlight the words: "human experience."
In 1997, when German writer Bernhard Schlink's well known book The Reader was published in English, readers were confused about the subject of the book: A complicated love story between a woman who has a Nazipast, and a young boy who judges this Nazi-past of hers. By creating an unexpected plot and making us, the readers, sympathise with a Nazi character, Hannah, he was going against the accepted conventions of history, creating a work of pure "human experience." In 1997, he explained this in an interview:
It's been one of the big subjects for my generation. For many families it's a personal issue, because it pits fathers against their children. One of my favourite teachers, the one who taught me English, taught me to love the English language, also taught us gymnastics and we could see his SS tattoo. One way or the other, we all had to confront it not as a theoretical abstract, but as a very real and personal problem. (2)
If we generalize Schlink's experience, it would be possible to say that no matter what the big narrations of history tell us, human experience has always something more to say about it. Literature as a fictive form of human experience shows the shift from macro history narrations to micro history narrations. A shift, that is necessary for us to be able to see the whole picture of the history.
If literature is a powerful device to re-shape the narration of history, consequently literature canons also become the device of the central powers to decide whose experience should be known and whose should not. (3) In terms of Turkish literature, women's experiences have either been found too dangerous to be known, or not worthy enough to be learnt.
The main question the project is built on is: Can we talk about a women's literature 'canon' in Turkey? And if it is possible to talk about a new canon that will include the women writers and focus on their individual experiences, it is equally important for us to see "how" and "why" these women writers were targeted and hidden in the first place. To understand the reasons for such exclusion, I will follow the footsteps of the history whose narration has changed over time due to the political views and the best interest of the ruling powers of different eras.
In terms of Turkish literature, "nationalism" has been one of the most effective political movements that has shaped the narration of Turkish history. (4) The effects of the French Revolution showed themselves in the Ottoman Empire a century later, when different nations under the rule of a central power started to claim their independence. To survive this wave of nationalism and protect its borders, in the 19th century the concept of Ottomanism was developed. To gather together all nations under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, it promoted equality among the nations, stating that all subjects were equal before the law. (5) Yet the attempt came too late to preserve the borders of the empire. After the idea of Ottomanism lost its popularity, another concept was developed, Turkism, which aimed to unite Turkish people from around the world. (6) To spread nationalist feeling among people living in different parts of the world, a mutual and long-established history was needed. These concepts were focussed on showing people who they really were. As a result, literature has come to the stage as an important device to educate people about their own history. (7)
While creating these centrally decided canons, the first rule was to decide whom to take into the canon and whom to eliminate according to the interests of the ruling powers. To clarify the relation between the literary canon and the central powers, we can find the clues in the Althusser's texts, and in New Historicism which provides an alternative way, reading history as a narration. Althusser, in his Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses, sees the state as a "machine" that is used by the dominant powers.
The State is a 'machine' of repression, which enables the ruling classes (in the nineteenth century the bourgeois class and the 'class' of big landowners) to ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the former to subject the latter to the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to capitalist exploitation). (8)
Althusser continues by seeing the institutions like church and school as the devices of the ideology.
In other words, the school (but also other State institutions like the Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches 'know-how,' but in forms which ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the mastery of its 'practice.' (9)
Literature could very well find itself a place as an apparatus of the dominant powers. In his well known The Revival of Narrative, Lawrence Stone suggests that all histories are narrative. (10) Therefore, accepting the New Historicism perspective, literary canons are very important in terms of creating history and the history of literature. Deciding whom to take into the canon and whom to eliminate, therefore, was not only a demonstration of literary canons as somewhat arbitrary collections of subjectively selected works, but also that history itself is an "invented" fictive narration. Or as Annette Kolodny puts it, reading and shaping the canon could not be more distant from being innocent, for "readers and texts are both made and they are continually being remade." (11)
Still, whose history are we talking about? If we accept the idea that history is an invented narration, then the narrators of this story have always been men. While in the macro history narrations women are rarely more than shadows, in the micro history narrations women are always the ones talked about. As Soshana Felman puts it, they are always the objects of the texts, not the subjects. In other words, they are the Other, the one who is always written about. (12)
In early days of Turkish literature, educating women was one of the biggest aims. To achieve this educational goal, almost all of the male writers used the same formula, creating similar types of characters. The ideal woman stereotype had the same schematic characteristics: she was a good wife and a good Muslim, Westernized but not degenerated in the process. (13) While this formula was applied by male writers, women who wanted to write were seen dangerous. They had to concentrate on being good mothers, good wives and Muslims during the Ottoman years. (14) With the foundation of the new republic a new characteristic was added to their duties list: being educated and intellectual enough to help men develop the country and raise it to the level of Western countries. (15) They had to leave the serious work to the men, or as an old Turkish phrase puts it: "They should not meddle in the men's work as they belong in the kitchen." Still some women were able to write and publish their texts in this era, the well known daughters of the powerful men in the empire. Yet it was almost a must for them to hide their real names, disguised beneath pen names.
Fatma Aliye is the first example of these women writers. As the daughter of a famous politician of the Ottoman Empire, Fatma Aliye was the first Turkish woman novelist, giving us the first clues of the women's experience of that time in her fiction. (16) The institution of marriage is the main concern of her novels. Even though she is not a feminist in the modern sense of the word, with her approval of the patriarchal order, she still reversed the male point of view. While she follows the formula of the ideal woman by writing about well educated women with good manners, she also presents the disappointments of these women in their married lives.
The disappointment coming from marriage is a reflection of her own experience. The support of her father allowed Aliye to receive an education, unusual for a woman at that time. She learned French and translated George Ornet's Volonte in a time when most of the women did not know how to read or write. When she got married to a soldier she was highly disappointed to find out that not only did her husband not like literature, but also that he was a firm believer that reading was detrimental for women, threatening to destroy their morality. (17) Looking at her own experiences, it is not surprising for us to see that the disappointment of women in marriage was the main issue of her novels.
In her novel Udi (The Lute Player, 1899), her female protagonist learns how to play the lute with the support of her father and excels, but when she gets married she sadly realises that her husband is not interested in this most important pleasure of her life. (18) Similarly, in her Muhazarat novel (Beneficial Stories, 1892), not only does the female protagonist's husband not like reading, but she also realizes that they have nothing in common. (19)
Infidelity is another common aspect of her novels. Both in Udi and Muhazarat, she draws the portrait of a woman who sits in front of the window with wet eyes, waiting for her husband. In Udi, Fatma Aliye reflects her own thoughts about the marriage institution: girls who are not well informed about marriage are likely to make poor decisions. In her Muhazarat novel, she goes further into the matter and gives the readers a whole panorama of her ideas about married life.
Muhazarat tells the unfortunate story of Fazila who is tortured and victimized by her stepmother, cheated on by her husband and never unites with her childhood sweetheart.
Fazila's father, even though he ignores the torture Fazila goes through, is never reflected as one of the villains of the book. Accordingly, in her fiction, while husbands are always portrayed negatively, the fathers of the female protagonists are always exceptions. Her characters are often raised without a mother due to the deaths of their mothers and they always take their fathers as their role models. We can find almost the same case in Fatma Aliye's own life. Taking her father as her own role model, Fatma Aliye always showed her respect to her father in her texts, especially in her Ahmet Cevdet Pasa ve Zamani (Ahmet Cevdet Pasha and His Time) in which she documents her father's ideas.
Dear reader can rest assured that I am quoting directly from what Cevdet Pasha has taught me. However, I cannot guarantee that he/she will find in this work all that he has told and taught me. (20, 21)
Accordingly, in Fatma Aliye's fiction, the obedience to the father is an unquestionable rule: a father can never be disrespected or opposed. Fatma Aliye confirms her support for father's rule by believing that choosing a husband for her daughter is also a father's duty. (22) Obeying the father's rule is where Fatma Aliye's questionable feminism comes into being: in order to make their fathers proud, Fatma Aliye's characters are always strong women who have professions and take care of themselves financially in times of need.
Having such unusual thoughts for her time, her conservatism shows itself in her Muhazarat novel when Fazila's husband decides to sleep with odalisques, female slaves in an Ottoman seraglio, assisting or apprenticing to the concubines and wives. Fazila accepts his decision on one condition: choosing the odalisque herself. Here, by not criticizing the odalisque institution, Fatma Aliye becomes even more conservative than the male writers of her time. (23) The story continues as Bedia runs away to Beirut after her husband's decision to have a second wife and in Beirut she always rejects the romantic offers of the men in her life.
In her texts, happiness can only be pursued through morality. Even though personal happiness often overlaps with custom and usage, her characters always behave according to moral rules. Therefore, she reflects morality as the main element that is affecting women's daily life in the Ottoman times. As Nazan Aksoy puts it, Fatma Aliye does not question the patriarchal system, on the contrary she affirms it and shows the father's rule as the only way to go. (24)
While Fatma Aliye was reporting her experiences and thoughts by means of her novels in the last years of Ottoman Empire, Halide Edip Adivar, the best-known and most productive woman writer of Turkish literature, who wrote her first novel almost 20 years after Fatma Aliye, reflected a new issue in women's daily lives: Westernization.
In the search of the Mesrutiyet regime for a new type of human being, "for a new woman," it was advocated that women needed to be fashioned with a conscious morality and not with the external appearance of Europeanized 'luxurious' women. She had to remain among the civilized nations' women as mothers who are consciously aware of their responsibilities to the nation by raising children ... (25, 26)
All through her career, Halide Edip Adivar's texts were affected by her own personal life and her evolving thoughts. In the beginning of the 20th century, due to being harshly criticized because of her early essays, she found reflecting her own ideas as a woman impossible. As a result, she used her novels as a way to reflect her personal ideas on politics, marriage and the woman experience. (27) During the times of the Turkish war of independence she presented her nationalist thoughts in her novel, Yeni Turan (The New Order, 1912). After she actually joined the war as a soldier she wrote Atesten Gomlek (translated into English as The Daughter of Smyrna or The Shirt of Flame, 1922). But her texts reflecting her emotional life were written after she divorced from her first husband.
She was born in 1882 and was sent to Uskudar American College. Due to the Western education she received, she started to recognise the gap between her education and the conservative culture of her time. In her memoirs (published in English in 1926), she tells how ashamed she was of her clothes as a child which were revealing her arms and legs unlike her friends' clothes. (28)
Her first thoughts on the institution of marriage and relationship between men and women were formed during her childhood years after her mother's death when her father decided to marry two women. Witnessing her father's wife's depressions, she always accepted polygamy as her biggest enemy, defining it as insulting and tiresome for women. (29)
In 1901, she got married to her mathematics teacher Salih Zeki Bey and started writing political articles for the newspapers and journals. After the 31st March Incident, she first fled to Egypt and then to England. There she met Bertrand Russell and Isabel Frye. In 1909, following her return to Istanbul, her husband stated that he wanted to have a second wife. This was her biggest taboo; she divorced her husband right away. (30)
In her memoirs, she defines this period of her life as the darkest one. Spending days in bed, doing nothing but just sleeping and staring, she almost came back to life by expressing her emotions in her books, Raik'in Annesi (Raik's Mother, 1909), Seviye Talip (1910) and Handan (1912).
By having mutual characteristics with her own life, her Handan novel is an important example to give us the clues of her own experiences. Handan tells the story of a woman who receives a Western education, and who gets married with a man older than her and is then cheated on by her husband countless times. (31)
In the novel we see three male figures in Handan's life. The first man is Nazim, her teacher. Nazim, a boy who has socialist political views, falls in love with her and proposes to her by saying "In order to achieve my political dreams, I need a companion like you." (32) Yet Handan rejects this offer and gets married to a man who is older than her, Husnu Pasha. Husnu Pasha is a modern and sophisticated man, takes Handan to Paris to live, but cheats on her various times with many different women. When in the end he decides to live with his mistress and leaves Handan, our third man Refik Cemal gains importance in Handan's life. After Husnu Pasha leaves her, Handan falls into a depression, spends her days sick in bed and gets worse as Husnu Pasha continues to reject her letters. Refik Cemal, on the other hand, her cousin's husband, while disliking her in the beginning, thinking her too arrogant and in some ways too Western, begins to like and in the end love her when she becomes sick enough to need his help. Due to the doctor's suggestion, Refik Cemal takes Handan to a peaceful English village and takes care of her there so much that he even combs her hair or feeds her like a child. Although nothing happens physically and neither character says anything to the other, when Handan realises that she is in love with her cousin's husband, her depression turns into madness. And in the end, she dies with the guilt of falling in love with her cousin's husband.
Halide Edip creates Handan in her own image. (33) As a woman who has been educated in a Western way, Handan feels the gap between modernization and the conservative traditions. The westernization idea only demands women to be educated to be good mothers and to support their husbands. Additionally, the so-called westernization is only possible when there is a powerful man around women who let them to be more educated and modernized. The three male figures of the book are always more powerful than Handan either with their status, or age, or position. Handan can actualize herself only around the presence of a powerful man. Just like in a letter Handan writes to Husnu Pasha when he leaves her, she accuses him of leaving and taking her individuality with him.
Handan is not described as beautiful. Men find her attractive because of her wits. Still, her wits make her suffer the most. Halide Edip punishes Handan with madness and death for being not a womanly woman, or for not behaving as Virgina Woolf's angel suggests in her Professions for Women:
My dear, you are a young woman ... Be sympathetic; be tender; flatter; deceive; use all the arts and wiles of our sex. Never let anybody guess that you have a mind of your own. (34)
Halide Edip punishes Handan for she has a mind of her own. It may not be wrong to say that Halide Edip punishes herself in the image of Handan for having a mind of her own.
In order to give one more important example about the importance of women's texts to reflect their own experiences, I will present Adalet Agaoglu in whose fiction we witness the effects of the foundation of the modern Turkish republic in people's lives, the dilemma between the countryside and the city life and the position of women in the modernization of the republic. Her most famous work, Olmeye Yatmak (Lying Down To Die, 1973) tells the story of Aysel who decides to commit suicide in a hotel room. (35) The novel takes us back and we witness the growth of the first generation of children after the foundation of the republic. Aysel is one of the exemplary women raised with the ideals of the project to modernize women, receiving a good education and becoming an associate professor. But at the same time she experiences the crisis of her generation, feeling helpless in the dilemma between her own character and the feeling of having a mission in life, a mission that has been shared by all of her generation: being an intellectual to improve the country. As a woman, she experiences the hypocrisy of this mission, realising that society only expects her to be educated in order to support men to improve the country, not to improve it herself.
Adalet Agaoglu differentiates from the other women writers of her time in terms of sexual freedom. In her Olmeye Yatmak, she twists the faiths of the women who are being cheated on by their husbands in Turkish literature and make Aysel cheat on her husband this time. As can be seen in her Uc Bes Kisi (Curfew, 1984), in which she tells the story of people from different classes who experience the heaviness of the approaching 1980 Turkish coup d'etat, the modernization project has made women give up on their sexualities by making them dedicate themselves to their intellectual selves. (36) In Olmeye Yatmak when Aysel cheats on her husband Omer, a well educated modern man who received his education abroad and who believes in the equality between men and women, with Engin, her dominant student, Aysel feels like she has lost her virginity for the first time with Engin. As a woman who works to be independent and intellectual throughout her life, when she finds satisfaction in the authority of a man, she experiences a crisis in her character in the extreme. The broad line from Fatma Aliye to Adalet Agaoglu reaches its top. While in Fatma Aliye's works women experience a crisis in terms of their marriages, with Halide Edip Adivar, the fragile shells of married life shutters and with Adalet Agaoglu the crisis is not about marriage or morality anymore, the crisis is purely about women and their top down freedom.
Accepting women's freedom as a step to reach their ideals, modernization of the women was a project created by men. Therefore, it was only influential in the public sphere. In the private sphere, it was leading women to crises of character or depression. Women were trying to be free individuals, free from their fathers, mothers and most importantly their husbands. But at the same time women were trying to be free for men and for the country. This was the two faced aspect of the project which can be summarised as: "for men, in spite of men."
Three women, three different views, three different types of womanly experiences. If three women writers can give us this much insight into the experiences of women and the reflections of the evolving historical events on women's daily lives, the amount of information we can gain by exploring the hidden, forgotten and targeted women writers is potentially huge.
Recent research has begun to give us information about Armenian women writers, writing in Ottoman times in Armenian who were excluded from every canon as if they never existed. Canons also exclude women writers who are living in Germany, writing in German, but writing about their Turkish pasts. For example, Emine Sevgi Ozdamar who has received the Ingeborg Bachmann prize in 1991 exists in none of the literature traditions or canons. The Woman Writers of Turkey Project does not only aim to explore Turkish writers or writers who wrote in Turkish. By focusing on the questions: "What makes a canon a canon, what are the lines of a literature tradition?" it aims to explore a whole tradition, a whole ocean of women writers whose experiences evolve in this geography, in these historical stages, in this changing culture.
In his Istanbul: Memories and The City, while taking a journey through his memories, Orhan Pamuk wanders the city with a question in his head: Who am I? (37) But his wandering is more textual and mental than physical. What he searches for is his own past and his own roots as a writer. He searches for his own writerly identity in the history of literature. Yet, disappointingly, he cannot go further beyond 19th century literature. Lacking a novel tradition, he struggles to find his own voice, missing past examples to approach and transcend. He cannot find a tradition to fight against. In other words, he lacks a father to kill in order to create his own writerly identity. So what if the writer who is looking for the past tradition is a woman?
According to the given canons, women writers of modern Turkey have no early examples of woman experience in literature to compare themselves with. They have no past, no one to fight against, no way to see where they are in the history of literature, or in other words no mothers to fight against, to approach, to transcend.
What if with this Woman Writers of Turkey project and the others that hopefully will come after this, we re-write the history of Turkish literature including the women writers this time? Or maybe I should change my question to "what if we don't"? If we do not change the history of literature including women this time, the history of the experiences of individuals will always be missing. Like a puzzle with missing pieces, it is not possible for us to imagine a historical narration without the experience of women.
If we re-write history including its missing pieces this time, not only we will see the hidden side of literature, but we will also see "why" these writers were chosen to be hidden from us. This will also give us a clearer picture of the macro history, leading the way for further research on women in cultural studies of literature and hopefully Turkish literature back its mothers.
Agaoglu, Adalet (2008), Olmeye Yatmak. Istanbul: Turkiye Is Bankasi Kultur Yayinlari.
Abadan-Unat, Nermin, Deniz Kandiyoti, and Mubeccel Belik Kiray (1981), Women in Turkish Society. Leiden: Brill.
Adalet, Agaoglu (2007), Uc Bes Kisi. Istanbul: Turkiye Is Bankasi Kultur Yayinlari.
Adivar, Halide Edib (2010), Handan. Istanbul: Can Yayinlari.
--(1926), Memoirs of Halide Edib. New York: Century.
--(1967), Mor Salkimli Ev. Istanbul: Atlas Kitabevi.
Aksoy, Nazan (1996), Bati Ve Baskalari. Istanbul: Duzlem.
Althusser, Louis (1971), Lenin and Philosophy, and Other Essays. London: New Left.
Bekiroglu, Nazan (1998), sair NigarHanim. Cagaloglu, Istanbul: Iletisim.
Belge, Murat, and Jale Parla (2009), Balkan Literatures in the Era of Nationalism. Istanbul: Bilgi University Press.
Belge, Murat (2008), Genesis: "Buyuk Ulusal Anlati" Ve Turklerin Kokeni. Istanbul: Iletisim.
Cakir, Serpil (1996), Osmanli Kadin Hareketi. Cagaloglu, Istanbul: Metis Yayinlari.
Dogramaci, Emel (1989), Turkiye'de Kadinin Dunu Ve Bugunu. Ankara: Turkiye Is Bankasi Kultur Yayinlari.
Durakbasi, Ayse (1998), "Cumhuriyet Doneminde Kemalist Kadin Kimliginin Olusumu." Tarih Ve Toplum 9.
Esen, Nuket (2006), Modern Turk Edebiyati Uzerine Okumalar. Istanbul: Iletisim Yayinlari.
Felman, Shoshana, and Martha Noel Evans (2003), Writing and Madness: (literature/philosophy/psychoanalysis). Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Hanim, Fatma Aliye (1916), Ahmet Cevdet Pasa Ve Zamani. Istanbul: Kanaat.
--(1996), Muhadarat. Istanbul: Enderun.
Hanim, Fatma Aliye and Ferit Ragip Tuncor (2002), Udi. Istanbul: Selis Kitaplar.
Karabiyik, Barbarosoglu Fatma (2007), Fatma Aliye: Uzak ulke. Istanbul: Timas.
Karaosmanoglu, Yakup Kadri, and Atilla Ozkirimli (1990), Genglik Ve Edebiyat Hatiralari. Cagaloglu, Istanbul: Iletisim Yayinlari.
Kirpik, Cevdet "Fatma Aliye Hanim and Historiography," <http://yayinlar.yesevi.edu.tr/files/article/357.pdf>.
Leitch, Vincent B. (2001), The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. New York: Norton.
Oktem, Deniz (2002), "Manipulating the Personal Journeys of Identity: Westernization and the Ottoman and Republican Understandings of Gender in Turkey." Thesis. Georgetown University.
Pamuk, Orhan (2005), Istanbul: Memories and the City. New York: Knopf.
Shaw, Stanford J., and Ezel Kural Shaw (1977), History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stone, Lawrence (1981), The Past and the Present Revisited. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Woolf, Virginia (1974), The Death of the Moth and Other Essays. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
*** "The BEATRICE Interview: 1997." Beatrice.com, 28 Aug. 2011. <http://www.beatrice.com/interviews/schlink/>.
*** "Novel--Definition Merriam-Webster Dictionary." Dictionary and Thesaurus--Merriam-Webster Online, 28 Aug. 2011. <http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/novel?show=1>.
SIMA BEGUM IMSIR
Ozyegin University, Istanbul University
NOTES AND REFERENCES
(1.) 'Women Writers of Turkey' Project is funded by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) and supported by the European Science Foundation (ESF) and led by Dr. Cimen Gunay-Erkol. The project is part of the framework of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action entitled "Women Writers of History--Toward a New Understanding of European Literary Culture."
(2.) Interview with Bernard Schlink, http://www.beatrice.com/interviews/schlink/
(3.) Jale, Parla and Murat Belge (2009), Balkan Literatures in the Era of Nationalism. Istanbul: Istanbul Bilgi Universitesi Yayinlari, passim.
(4.) Murat Belge, Genesis (2008), Buyuk Ulusal Anlati ve Turklerin Kokeni. Istanbul: Iletisim Yayinlari, Kasim: passim.
(5.) Stanford, J. Shaw and Ezel Kural Shaw (1977), History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Volume 2, Reform, 'Revolution and Republic: The Rise of Modern Turkey 1808-1975,' Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 127.
(6.) Ibid, 259.
(7.) Nuket, Esen (2006), "Tanzimat Romaninda Yazarin Konumu," Modern Turk Edebiyati Uzerine Yazilar. Istanbul: Iletisim Yayinlari, 81-82.
(8.) Althusser, Louis (1971), "Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses," Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays. London: New Left, 137.
(9.) Ibid, 133.
(10.) Lawrance Stone, (1981), "The Revival of Narrative," The Past and Present Revisited. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 77-96.
(11.) Vincent B. Leicht, (2001), "Annette Kolodny," The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. New York: Norton, 2144.
(12.) Felman, Soshana (2003), Writing and Madness (literature/philosophy/psychoanalysis), Palo Alto: Stanford UP, 5-6
(13.) Aksoy, Nazan (1996), "Fatma Aliye Hanim'in 'Muhazarat'inda Kadin Acisi," Bati ve Baskalari. Istanbul: Duzlem Yayinlari, 94-95.
(14.) Bekiroglu, Nazan (1998), Sair NigarHanim. Istanbul: Iletisim Yayinlari, 386.
(15.) Dogramaci, Emel (1998), Turkiye 'de Kadinin Dunu ve Bugunu. Ankara: is Bankasi Kultur Yayini, 19.
(16.) Serpil, Cakir (1996), Osmanli Kadin Hareketi. Istanbul: Metis Yayinlari, 45
(17.) Karabiyik Barbarosoglu, Fatma (2007), Fatma Aliye: Uzak Ulke. Istanbul: Timas Yayinlari, passim.
(18.) Aliye, Fatma (2002), Udi. Istanbul: Selis Kitaplar, passim.
(19.) Muhadarat H Emel Asa (ed) (1996), Fatma Aliye. Istanbul: Enderun Kitabevi.
(20.) Aliye, Fatma (1916), Ahmet Cevdet Pasa ve Zamani. Istanbul: Kanaat Matbaasi, 60.
(21.) Trans. by Cevdet Kirpik, Fatma Aliye Hanim and Historiography. http:// yayinlar.yesevi.edu.tr/files/article/357.pdf.
(22.) Aksoy, "Fatma Aliye Hanim'in 'Muhazarat'inda Kadin Acisi," Bati ve Baskalari. Istanbul: Duzlem.
(25.) Durakbasi, Ayse (1998), "Cumhuriyet Doneminde Kemalist Kadin Kimliginin Olusumu," Tarih ve Toplum. Vol. 9, Istanbul: Iletisim, 168.
(26.) Trans. by Deniz Oktem, Manipulating the Personal Journeys of Identity: Westernization and The Ottoman and Republican Understandings of Gender in Turkey, http://www8.georgetown.edu/cct/thesis/DenizOktem.pdf
(27.) Nermin Abadan-Unat, Deniz Kandiyoti, Mubeccel Belik Kiray (1981), Women in Turkish Society Leiden: Brill, 230.
(28.) Halide, Edip Adivar (1926), The Memoirs of Halide Edib. New York: The Century, passim.
(29.) Halide, Edip Adivar (1967), Mor Salkimli Ev. Istanbul: Atlas Kitabevi, 22-23.
(31.) Halide, Edip Adivar (2010), Handan. Istanbul: Can Yayinlari, passim.
(33.) Karaosmanoglu, Yakup Kadri (1990), Genglik ve Edebiyat Hatiralari. Istanbul: Iletisim Yayinlari, 242.
(34.) Woolf, Virginia (1974), "Professions for Women," The Death of the Moth and Other Essays. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
(35.) Agaoglu, Adalet (2008), Olmeye Yatmak. Istanbul: Turkiye Is Bankasi Kultur Yayinlari, passim
(36.) Agaoglu, Adalet (2008), Uc Bes Kisi. Istanbul: Turkiye Is Bankasi Kultur Yayinlari, passim
(37.) Orhan Pamuk. (2005), Istanbul: Memories and the City. New York: Knopf, passim)
Sima Begum Imsir is research assistant at Ozyegin University, working as a member of the 'Women Writers of Turkey' Project, funded by TUBITAK and ESF. She obtained her BA in Comparative Literature from Istanbul Bilgi University and is currently completing her MA in Women Studies at Istanbul University. Her MA thesis analyzes the works of Asli Erdogan using the abject and stranger theories of Julia Kristeva.
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|Author:||Imsir, Sima Begum|
|Publication:||Journal of Research in Gender Studies|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2014|
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