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Herbal medicine.

Spasmogenic and spasmolytic activity of rind of Punica granatum Linn. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2017; 17: 97. DOI: 10.1186/sl 2906-017-1616-4

Background: Rind of Punica granatum is traditionally used in treatment of abdominal cramps and various GIT disorders. So far spasmolytic activity of rind of Punica granatum has been reported using in vitro model. However, its mode of action is not explored yet. Therefore, the current work describes the possible mode of action for spasmolytic-activity of methanolic extract of rind of Punica granatum (Pg. Cr). Acute toxicity study is also performed to determine its safe dose range.

Method: Rind of Punica granatum was subjected to shade drying. Shade dried materials were pulverized using conventional grinder. Grinded materials were macerated in commercial grade methanol. The extract of rind of P. granatum was concentrated using a rotary evaporator. Rabbits' jejunal preparations were mounted in organ bath containing 10 ml Tyrode's solution, constantly aerated with carbogen gas. Pg. Cr was tested on spontaneous rabbits' jejunal preparations in concentrations 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml. Pg. Cr was also tested on KC1 (80 mM)-induced contractions in rabbits' jejunal preparations. Since we observed spasmogenic activity for the first time, hence we also determined the effects of Pg. Cr in presence of atropine (0.03 [micro]M). Pg. Cr was also tested in presence of 0.03 [micro]M of loratadine HC1. Pg. Cr was also tested on barium chloride induced contractions. Calcium Concentration Response Curves (CCRCs) were constructed in the absence and presence of test samples of Pg. Cr in decalcified tissues to explore its possible mode of action. Acute toxicity screening was also performed to determine its safe dose range.

Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, carbohydrates, proteins, flavonoids, saponins and steroids. However, Pg. Cr tested negative for alkaloids and triterpenoids. Pg. Cr was safe up to 100 mg/kg with its LD50 = 1305 mg/kg. Its respective EC50, in the absence and presence of atropine, were 97 [+ or -]0.3 and 3.12[+ or -]0.45 mg/ml. In the presence of 0.02 and 0.08 [micro]M of loratadine HC1, respective EC50 were 5.6[+ or -]0.4 and 2.8[+ or -]0.15 mg/ml. EC50 for relaxant effects on KCl-induced contractions was 8.6[+ or -] 1 mg/ml. In the presence of 0.3 mg/ml of Pg. Cr, a right shift was observed with EC50 (log [Ca++1 M) = -1.8[+ or -]0.09 vs. control EC50-2.6[+ or -]0.01. Similarly, EC50 for verapamil (0.1 [micro]M) was -2.4[+ or -]0.011vs. control EC50= -2.4[+ or -]0.01. The right shift of P. granatum resembled the right shift of verapamil suggesting for inhibition of voltage gated calcium channels.

Conclusions: P. granatum is safe up to 100 mg/kg. In low concentrations, P. granatum produced spasmogenic activity possibly through involvement of cholinergic and histaminergic receptors. The spasmolytic action may follow inhibition of the voltage gated calcium channels.

Maternal intake of dietary virgin coconut oil modifies essential fatty acids and causes low body weight and spiky fur in mice. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2017; 17:79.

Background: Coconut oil is commonly used as herbal medicine worldwide. There is limited information regarding its effects on the developing embryo and infant growth.

Methods: We investigated the effect of virgin coconut oil post-natally and until 6 weeks old in mice (age of maturity). Females were fed with either standard, virgin olive oil or virgin coconut oil diets 1 month prior to copulation, during gestation and continued until weaning of pups. Subsequently, groups of pups borne of the respective diets were continuously fed the same diet as its mother from weaning until 6 weeks old. Profiles of the standard and coconut oil diets were analysed by gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GCFID).

Results: Analysis of the mean of the total weight gained/ loss over 6 weeks revealed that in the first 3 weeks, pups whose mothers were fed virgin coconut oil and virgin olive oil have a significantly lower body weight than that of standard diet pups. At 6 weeks of age, only virgin coconut oil fed pups exhibited significantly lower body weight. We report that virgin coconut oil modifies the fatty acid profiles of the standard diet by inducing high levels of medium chain fatty acids with low levels of essential fatty acids. Furthermore, pups borne by females fed with virgin coconut oil developed spiky fur.

Conclusion: Our study has demonstrated that virgin coconut oil could affect infant growth and appearance via maternal intake; we suggest the use of virgin coconut oil as herbal medicine to be treated with caution.
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Title Annotation:RECENT RESEARCH
Author:All, N; Jamil, A; Shah, S; Shah, I; Ahmed, G; Gunasekaran, R; Shaker, M; Mohd-Zin, S; Abdullah, A; A
Publication:Journal of the Australian Traditional-Medicine Society
Article Type:Report
Date:Sep 22, 2017
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