Printer Friendly

Hematologic parameters in raptor species in a rehabilitation setting before release.

Abstract. To be considered for release, raptors undergoing rehabilitation must have recovered from their initial injury in addition to being clinically healthy. For that purpose, a good understanding of reference hematologic values is important in determining release criteria for raptors in a rehabilitation setting. In this study, retrospective data were tabulated from clinically normal birds within 10 days of release from a rehabilitation facility. Hematologic values were compiled from 71 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), 54 Eastern screech owls (Megascops asio), 31 Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii), 30 great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus), 28 barred owls (Strix varia), 16 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and 12 broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus). Parameters collected included a white blood cell count and differential, hematocrit, and total protein concentration. Comparisons were made among species and among previously published reports of reference hematologic values in free-ranging birds or permanently captive birds. This is the first published report of reference values for Eastern screech owls, barred owls, and broad-winged hawks; and the first prerelease reference values for all species undergoing rehabilitation. These data can be used as a reference when developing release criteria for rehabilitated raptors.

Key words. raptor hematology, avian, Eastern screech owl, barred owl, great-horned owl, red-tailed hawk, Cooper's hawk, broad-winged hawk, bald eagle


In the rehabilitation of wild raptors, setting release criteria to determine when a bird is considered fit and healthy for release is essential. Raptors often mask clinical signs of illness until disease becomes advanced; therefore, reference hematologic parameters are valuable in determining the health and readiness for return to the wild. Because differences in reference intervals exist among species, intraspecific comparisons are best when evaluating the health status before release. Several factors can influence reference values for otherwise healthy raptors, including age, season, and sex. (1-11) In addition, hematologic values from raptors acclimated to stressful conditions have been shown to differ significantly from nonacclimated birds. (12,13)

Reference hematologic parameters have been published for multiple species of raptors found in North America, including peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus), (2,7,13) gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus), (7,14) sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), (1,15) Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) (COHA), (1,6) bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) (BAEA), (9,16-18) golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), (17) California condors (Gymnogyps californianus), (5) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (RTHA), (11,17,19) Harris's hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus), (13,17) Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni), (10) barn owls (Tyto alba), (12,18) and great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus) (GHOW). (18) Most studies to date have been based on free-ranging birds sampled either as nestlings or during capture for banding, or on birds in a situation of permanent captivity. Few studies have focused on values from birds in a rehabilitation setting. To our knowledge, no values have been published to date for Eastern screech owls (Megascops asio) (EASO), barred owls (Strix varia) (BADO), or broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus) (BWHA).

The purpose of this study was to establish reference hematologic parameters for RTHAs, EASOs, COHAs, GHOWs, BADOs, BAEAs, and BWHAs deemed clinically healthy for release from a rehabilitation setting.

Materials and Methods

All the raptors in this study were presented to the Wildlife Center of Virginia for rehabilitation and release. Of those with recorded presenting conditions, most birds were admitted for trauma-related cases, although species-specific differences were observed (Table 1). Each bird was clinically healthy at the time of release as determined by results of physical examination, screening for internal parasites, body weight determination, flight fitness assessment, and successful live prey capture. All the birds were independent adults at the time of release. Records were retrospectively searched from 1993 to 2007 and were limited to birds with hematologic data within 10 days of successful release. The number of days that each bird was kept in captivity was counted. Hematologic values assessed included total white blood cell (WBC) count, WBC differential counts, total protein (TP) concentration, and measurement of packed cell volume (PCV), which were performed according to standard methods. (20) In addition, the heterophil : lymphocyte ratio (H:L) was calculated from each bird. In total, 71 RTHA, 54 EASO, 31 COHA, 30 GHOW, 28 BADO, 16 BAEA, and 12 BWHA were selected.

The means (SD), median values, first and third quartile values, and ranges for all measurements were calculated. Comparisons among species were made by using a 1-way analysis of variance. Results were considered significant when P < .05. Statistical analysis was performed by using commercial software (NCSS 2000, NCSS, Kaysville, UT, USA).


Results for individual species are listed in Tables 2-8. There were no significant differences in time spent in captivity, with the exception that COHA (mean [SD], 17 [+ or -] 36 days) were in captivity a significantly shorter period than GHOW (mean [SD], 45 [+ or -] 37 days) (P = .04). Heterophils were found to be the predominant circulating WBC in all species. The TP values were significantly lower in COHA than in RTHA, BADO, and EASO (P = .02). In addition, TP values also were significantly lower in BAEA than in EASO (P < .001). Furthermore, PCV values in GHOW were significantly lower than in EASO, COHA, and BAEA (P = .003).

There was little significant variation between species with regard to WBC counts and differentials. The WBC count was significantly lower in EASO than in GHOW (P = .04), whereas heterophils were significantly lower in EASO and BADO than in GHOW (P = .003). Eosinophils were significantly lower in BAEA than in RTHA (P < .001). No significant differences were found among species in lymphocyte, monocyte, or basophil counts or the H:L ratio.


These data present the first report of reference values for EASOs, BADOs, and BWHAs. Whereas, RTHA and GHOW reference values from birds in a rehabilitation setting in this study were similar to previously reported values, BAEA and COHA reference values differed, likely because of the stress of rehabilitation. Because these birds were clinically normal at the time of release, these changes should be considered acceptable for these species in a rehabilitation setting. These data may be helpful in evaluating the physical condition of raptors in captivity before release.

Several factors not addressed in this study have been documented to affect reference values for otherwise healthy birds, including age, season, and sex. (1-11) The most likely cause for hematologic changes in a rehabilitation environment is stress from captivity and handling. Adrenocortical stimulation has been shown to cause changes to hematologic values in various avian species, and there are species-specific differences in this response. For example, in chickens, administration of corticosterone resulted in leukocytosis, heterophilia, and a lymphopenia. (21-23) Similarly, Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) (24) and mynah (Acridotheres tristis) (25) were found to respond to stress with a heterophilia and lymphopenia. Harris's hawks were found to respond to transport stress with a leukopenia caused by a lymphopenia. (13) By contrast, rock doves (Columba livia), cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis), and crows (Corvus splendens) were found to respond with heteropenia and lymphocytosis. (25)

Because of this variability, the H:L ratio has been proposed as the most sensitive measure of stress response in avian species. (13,21,26) For example, the H:L ratio was found to increase in chickens (27) and rock doves (28) after transport. A similar response was found in Hyacinth macaws. (24) The H:L ratio was found to be the most reliable indicator of transport stress in peregrine falcons and Harris's hawks, because birds not acclimated to travel had elevated ratios. (13) Other types of stressors besides transport have also been shown to affect H:L ratio. For instance, H:L ratio was higher in oiled, emaciated, injured, or parasitized gulls (Larus species). (29) In addition, H:L ratio was found to be higher in injured Addlie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) compared with birds that were recently fighting or nest tending, (30) and in gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) with pododermitis compared with normal birds. (31)

Data from RTHA in this study were similar to values reported for free-ranging (19) and permanently captive (11) animals, although free-ranging birds tended to have a somewhat lower monocyte count (mean [SD], 0.21 [+ or -] 0.46 x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L). Reference values for H:L ratios have not been reported for RTHAs, however, values in this study were similar to those seen in Harris's hawks. (13)

Similarly, results from GHOW in this study are similar to ranges previously reported. (18) Differences in mean values in GHOW in this study compared with previously published ranges are a slightly lower PCV (reported range, 38%-50%), higher heterophil count (20%-60%), and a lower eosinophil count (5%-30%). (18) Reference values for H:L ratio have not been reported for GHOW, however, values in this study were similar to those seen in BAEA (9) and Harris's hawks (13) but higher than those seen in imperial eagles (Aquila heliaca adalberti) (32) and sharp-shinned hawks. (1)

Likewise, values for BAEA in this study were comparable with reference values published for free-ranging birds, with a few slight differences. (9,16) Free-ranging adult birds have a slightly lower mean (SD) WBC count (13.0 [+ or -] 4.5 x [10.sup.3] cells/ [micro]L) and heterophil count (8.5 [+ or -] 3.3 x [10.sup.3] cells/ [micro]L) than the birds in this study. (9) Alternatively, free-ranging nestling BAEA have a mean (SD) lower PCV (32% [+ or -] 4%), higher TP (4.5 [+ or -] 0.4 g/ dL), and nearly identical WBC. (16) The H:L ratio in BAEA in this study tended to be somewhat higher than those reported in flee-ranging birds (median, 3.6). (9)

Multiple hematologic values for COHA in this study differ from values reported in flee-ranging COHA. (1,6) Free-ranging COHA during migration have a lower WBC (median, 11.90 x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L; range, 3.02-32.73 x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L), with a lower heterophil count (median, 4.80 x [10.sup.3] cells/[micor]L; range, 0.57-12.44 x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L), higher lymphocyte count (median, 5.60 x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L; range, 1.52-16.04 x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L), and higher eosinophil count (mean, 1.34 x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L; range, 0.35-4.26 x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L) when compared with birds in a rehabilitation setting. (1) Furthermore, in free-ranging COHA, the predominant circulating WBCs were lymphocytes, whereas, in this study, heterophils predominated. (1) Breeding free-ranging COHA have a higher mean PCV (50.7%, females; 53.7%, males) and TP concentration (4.13 g/dL females; 4.02 g/dL males) than birds in this study. (6) In addition, the H:L ratio for COHA in this study was much higher than that seen in free-ranging COHA (median, 0.82). (1)

There are no published reference values for EASO, BADO, or BWHA. For EASO, the values were similar to those published for 4 individual, permanently captive animals, however, the PCV and TP concentration tended to be lower in the prerelease population. (33) The WBC reference interval for captive EASO in the International Species Information System (ISIS) database is much greater (3.0-52.8 x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L) than the range seen in this study. (34) In addition, the birds in this study demonstrated a slightly higher heterophil count (6.48 [+ or -] 4.82 x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L) and decreased lymphocyte count (6.16 [+ or -] 4.44 x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L) when compared with values from ISIS. Comparisons with ISIS values must be made with some caution, because sampling methods are not uniform and the physiologic condition of outliers is not always known.

Hematologic values for BADO are similar to those reported for tawny owls (Strix aluco) in a rehabilitation setting, although tawny owls (a similar Eurasian species) tended to have a somewhat lower WBC (mean, 10.0 x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L), lower heterophil count (mean, 4.28 x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L), and lower monocyte count (mean, 0.18 x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L). (35) Heterophil values in this study were somewhat higher than BADO values report ed in ISIS (5.88 [+ or -] 3.29 x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L), whereas basophil values were somewhat lower (0.79 [+ or -] 0.78 x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L). (34) Hematologic values for BWHA are similar to those reported for free-living RTHA (19) and permanently captive common buzzards (Buteo buteo), (12) although RTHA tended to have a somewhat lower monocyte count (0.21 [+ or -] 0.46 x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L). No ISIS reference values exist for this species.

From these data, there appears to be no biologically significant differences in hematologic values between RTHA and GHOW from a rehabilitation setting when compared with free-ranging or permanently captive birds, which suggests that these species are not greatly affected by the stress of rehabilitation near the time of release. Although reference ranges for EASO or BWHA are not available, these species appear not to have biologically significant differences compared with related species and are likely also minimally affected by the stress of rehabilitation. Although no reference ranges for free-ranging or permanent captive BADO exist, the species appear to have a higher WBC and heterophil counts when compared with the closely related tawny owl, which may imply a more marked stress response in this species; however, their H:L ratio is similar to those seen in Harris's hawks (13) and imperial eagles, (32) and lower than those seen in BAEA, (9) so these results must interpreted with caution.

In this study, BAEA had a slightly higher H:L ratio, WBC count, and heterophil count compared with free-ranging BAEA, which would likely indicate a measurable response to the stress of rehabilitation in this species. Likewise, COHAs in a rehabilitation setting are noted to have a higher H:L ratio, WBC count, and heterophil count, along with a lower lymphocyte count, when compared with free-ranging COHA, to the extent that the lymphocyte count is no longer the predominant cell type, which would imply a significant stressful effect of rehabilitation in this species. Although modifications to standard rehabilitation practices are beyond the scope of this article, these findings offer a method to monitor the effects of changes for these species.

Acknowledgments: We thank Sara Snead and the rehabilitation staff of the Wildlife Center of Virginia for their assistance with this project.


(1.) Phalen DN, Taylor C, Phalen SW, Bennett GF. Hemograms and hematozoa of sharp-shinned (Accipiter striatus) and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) captured during spring migration in northern New York. J Wildl Dis. 1995;31(2): 216-222.

(2.) Lanzarot MP, Montesinos A, San Andres MI, et al. Hematological, protein electrophoresis, and cholinesterase values of free-riving nestling peregrine falcons in Spain. J Wildl Dis. 2001;37(1): 172-177.

(3.) Dell'omo G, Cavallina R. Blood chemistry and haematological values of captive Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus). Avian Pathol. 1996;25(3): 613-618.

(4.) Casado E, Balbontin J, Ferrer M. Plasma chemistry in booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) during breeding season. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2002; 131 (2):233-241.

(5.) Dujowich M, Mazet JK, Zuba JR. Hematologic and biochemical reference ranges for captive California condors (Gymnogyps californianus). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2005;36(4):590-597.

(6.) Boal CW, Hudelson KS, Mannan RW, Estabrook TS. Hematology and hematozoa of adult and nestling Cooper's hawks in Arizona. J Raptor Res. 1998;32(4):281-285.

(7.) Lierz M. Plasma chemistry reference values for gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus). Vet Rec. 2003; 153(6): 182-183.

(8.) Hollamby S, Afema-Azikuru J, Sikarskie JG, et al. Clinical pathology and morphometrics of African fish eagles in Uganda. J Wildl Dis. 2004;40(3): 523-532.

(9.) Miller M JR, Wayland ME, Bortolotti GR. Hemograms for and nutritional condition of migrant bald eagles tested for exposure to lead. J Wildl Dis. 2001;37(3):481-488.

(10.) Sarasola JH, Negro JJ, Travaini A. Nutritional condition and serum biochemistry for free-living Swainson's hawks wintering in central Argentina. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2004; 137(4):697-701.

(11.) Rehder NB, Bird DM, Lague PC, MacKay C. Variation in selected hematological parameters of captive red-tailed hawks. J Wildl Dis. 1982;18(1): 105-109.

(12.) Ferrer M, Garcia-Rodriguez T, Carrillo JC, Castroviejo J. Hematocrit and blood chemistry values in captive raptors (Gyps fulvus, Buteo buteo, Milvus migrans, Aquila heliaca). Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 1987;87(4):1123-1127.

(13.) Parga ML, Pendl H, Forbes NA. The effect of transport on hematologic parameters in trained and untrained Harris's hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus) and peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus). J Avian Med Surg. 2001;15(3):162-169.

(14.) Samour JH, Naldo JL, John SK. Normal haematological values in gyr falcons (Falco rusticolus). Vet Rec. 2005;157(26):844-847.

(15.) Powers LV, Pokras M, Rio K, et al. Hematology and occurrence of hemoparasites in migrating sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) during fall migration. J Raptor Res. 1994;28(3):178-185.

(16.) Bowerman WW, Stickle JE, Giesy JP. Hematology and serum chemistries of nestling bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the lower peninsula of MI, USA. Chemosphere. 2000;41(10):1575-1579.

(17.) Ivins GK, Weddle GD, Halliwell WH. Hematology and serum chemistries in birds of prey. In: Fowler ME, ed. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1986:434-437.

(18.) Joseph V. Raptor hematology and chemistry evaluation. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anita Pract. 1999;2(3):689-699.

(19.) Stein RW, Yamamoto JT, Fry DM, Wilson BW. Comparative hematology and plasma biochemistry of red-tailed hawks and American kestrels wintering in California. J Raptor Res. 1998;32(2): 163-169.

(20.) Campbell TW, Ellis CK. Hematology of birds. In: Campbell TW, Ellis CK, eds. Avian and Exotic Animal Hematology and Cytology. 3rd ed. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing Professional; 2007:3-50.

(21.) Davison TF, Flack IH. Changes in the peripheral blood leucocyte populations following an injection of corticotrophin in the immature chicken. Res Vet Sci. 1981;30(1):79-82.

(22.) Gross WB, Siegel HS. Evaluation of the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio as a measure of stress in chickens. Avian Dis. 1983;27(4):972-979.

(23.) Post J, Rebel JMJ, ter Huurne AAHM. Automated blood cell count: a sensitive and reliable method to study corticosterone-related stress in broilers. Poult Sci. 2003;82(4):591-595.

(24.) Speer BL, Kass PH. The influence of travel on hematologic parameters in hyacinth macaws. Proc Annu Conf Assoc Avian Vet. 1995:43-49.

(25.) Bhattacharyya TK, Sarkar AK. Avian leucocytic responses induced by stress and corticoid inhibitors. Ind J Exp Biol. 1968;6(1):26-28.

(26.) Moreno J, Merino S, Martinez J, et al. Heterophil/lymphocyte ratios and heat-shock protein levels are related to growth in nestling birds. Ecoscience. 2002;9(4):434-439.

(27.) Mitchell MA, Kettlewell PJ, Maxwell MH. Indicators of physiological stress in broiler chickens during road transportation. Anita Welfare. 1992; 1(2):91-103.

(28.) Scope A, Filip T, Gabler C, Resch F. The influence of stress from transport and handling on hematologic and clinical chemistry blood parameters of racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica). Avian Dis. 2002;46(1):224-229.

(29.) Averbeck C. Haematology and blood chemistry of healthy and clinically abnormal great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus) and herring gulls (Larus argentatus). Avian Pathol. 1992;21(2):215-223.

(30.) Vleck CM, Vertalino N, Vleck D, Bucher TL. Stress, corticosterone, and heterophil to lymphocyte ratios in free-living Adelie penguins. Condor. 2000; 102(2):392-400.

(31.) Hawkey CM, Samour HJ, Henderson GM, Hart MG. Haematological findings in captive Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) with bumblefoot. Aivan Pathol. 1985;14(2):251-256.

(32.) Garcia-Montijano M, Garcia A, Lemus JA, et al. Blood chemistry, protein electrophoresis, and hematological values of captive Spanish imperial eagles (Aquila adalberti). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2002; 33(2):112-117.

(33.) Elliott RH, Smith E, Bush M. Preliminary report on hematology of birds of prey. J Zoo Wildl Med. 1974;5(2):11-16.

(34.) International Species Information System. Physiological Data Reference Values [CD-ROM]. Apple Valley, MN: ISIS; 2002.

(35.) Spagnolo V, Crippa V, Marzia A, et al. Hematologic, biochemical, and protein electrophoretic values in captive tawny owls (Strix aluco). Vet Clin Pathol. 2008;37(2):225-228.

Peter A. Black, DVM, David L. McRuer, MSc, DVM, Dipl ACVPM, and Leigh-Ann Home, LVT

From the Wildlife Center of Virginia, PO Box 1557, Waynesboro, VA 22980, USA (Black, McRuer, Horne). Present address (Black): Busch Gardens, 3605 E Bougainvillea Ave, Tampa, FL 33612, USA.
Table 1. Cause of presentation by percentage of raptor species that
were presented to the Wildlife Center of Virginia  from 1993 to 2007
and rehabilitated to release.

Cause         Overall   RTHA   EASO   COHA   GHOW   BADO   BAEA   BWHA

Impact             62     60     72     80     17     83      0     67
Orphaned            9      3      2      0     39      9      0     33
Entrapment         12      5     18     15     22      4      0      0
Predation           3      0      8      5      0      0      0      0
Gunshot             5     16      0      0      0      4     50      0
Other               9     16      0      0     22      0     50      0

Abbreviations: RTHA indicates red-tailed hawks; EASO, Eastern screech
owls; COHA, Cooper's hawks; GHOW, great-horned  owls; BADO, barred
owls; BAEA, bald eagles; BWHA, broad-winged hawks.

Table 2. Hematologic values for red-tailed hawks within 10 days before
release from a rehabilitation facility (n = 71).

Value                                             Mean (SD)

TP (g/dL)                                    3.41 [+ or -] 0.65
PCV (%)                                      37.2 [+ or -] 4.6
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)           19.28 [+ or -] 7.51
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)   10.81 [+ or -] 4.82
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    5.16 [+ or -] 2.98
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    1.96 [+ or -] 1.69
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)      1.47 [+ or -] 1.24
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)      0.06 [+ or -] 0.19
H:L ratio                                    3.50 [+ or -] 5.34

Value                                          Range      1st Quartile

TP (g/dL)                                    2.00-5.00     3.10
PCV (%)                                      24.0-50.0    34.0
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)            5.60-36.90   13.75
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    3.67-25.40    7.23
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    0.56-13.34    3.19
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    0.00-8.69     0.89
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)      0.00-6.60     0.65
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)      0.00-1.03     0.00
H:L ratio                                    0.66-41.50    1.30

Value                                        3rd Quartile   Median

TP (g/dL)                                     3.95           3.20
PCV (%)                                      40.0           37.0
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)            23.15          18.01
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    14.10           9.87
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)     6.86           4.43
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)     2.48           1.48
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)       1.97           1.14
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)       0.00           0.00
H:L ratio                                     3.77           2.11

Abbreviations: TP indicates total protein; PCV, packed cell volume;
WBC, white blood cell; H:L, heterophil:lymphocyte.

Table 3. Hematologic values for Eastern screech owls within 10 days
before release from a rehabilitation facility  (n = 54).

Value                                             Mean (SD)

TP (g/dL)                                     3.78 [+ or -] 0.84
PCV (%)                                       39.5 [+ or -] 7.0
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)            15.31 [+ or -] 6.70
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)     8.05 [+ or -] 4.85
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)     4.77 [+ or -] 2.59
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)     1.35 [+ or -] 1.32
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)       1.05 [+ or -] 0.96
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)       0.09 [+ or -] 0.44
H:L ratio                                     2.38 [+ or -] 3.19

Value                                           Range

TP (g/dL)                                     2.00-6.00
PCV (%)                                       24.0-62.0
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)             5.52-31.70
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)     1.50-25.96
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)     1.12-13.63
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)     0.00-5.81
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)       0.00-4.19
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)       0.00-3.17
H:L ratio                                     0.45-22.00

Value                                        1st Quartile

TP (g/dL)                                        3.13
PCV (%)                                         34.0
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)                9.70
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)        4.90
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)        3.09
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)        0.30
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)          0.24
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)          0.00
H:L ratio                                        1.02

Value                                         3rd Quartile    Median

TP (g/dL)                                          4.20         3.80
PCV (%)                                           43.0         39.0
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)                 18.52        14.60
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)          9.62         7.15
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)          6.21         4.00
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)          2.21         0.91
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)            1.73         0.88
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)            0.00         0.00
H:L ratio                                          2.32         1.66

Abbreviations: TP indicates total protein; PCV, packed cell volume;
WBC, white blood cell; H:L, heterophil:lymphocyte.

Table 4. Hematologic values for Cooper's hawks within 10 days before
release from a rehabilitation facility (n = 31).

Value                                            Mean (SD)

TP (g/dL)                                    2.83 [+ or -] 0.85
PCV (%)                                      39.8 [+ or -] 6.4
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)           15.78 [+ or -] 7.40
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    9.68 [+ or -] 5.17
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    3.77 [+ or -] 3.20
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    1.11 [+ or -] 1.05
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)      1.12 [+ or -] 1.13
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)      0.01 [+ or -] 0.03
H:L ratio                                    5.46 [+ or -] 7.47

Value                                        Range         1st Quartile

TP (g/dL)                                    1.40-4.60          2.05
PCV (%)                                      29.0-62.0         35.5
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)            2.00-29.90         9.75
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    1.66-19.08         4.94
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    0.20-10.47         1.16
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    0.00-4.19          0.28
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)      0.00-5.20          0.38
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)      0.00-0.15          0.00
H:L ratio                                    0.64-40.00         1.47

Value                                        3rd Quartile    Median

TP (g/dL)                                         3.35        2.80
PCV (%)                                          42.5        40.0
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)                21.78       16.10
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)        13.83        8.94
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)         6.12        2.86
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)         1.34        0.80
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)           1.54        0.71
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)           0.00        0.00
H:L ratio                                         5.25        3.08

Abbreviations: TP indicates total protein; PCV, packed cell volume;
WBC, white blood cell; H:L, heterophil:lymphocyte.

Table 5. Hematologic values for great horned owls within 10 days
before release from a rehabilitation facility  (n = 30).

Value                                             Mean (SD)

TP (g/dL)                                    3.28 [+ or -] 0.90
PCV (%)                                      34.3 [+ or -] 4.0
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)           21.09 [+ or -] 8.60
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)   13.38 [+ or -] 6.17
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    4.86 [+ or -] 3.34
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    1.72 [+ or -] 1.83
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)      1.19 [+ or -] 1.08
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)      0.02 [+ or -] 0.07
H:L ratio                                    4.57 [+ or -] 4.25

Value                                           Range

TP (g/dL)                                    2.00-5.30
PCV (%)                                      24.0-41.0
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)            1.31-36.14
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    1.01-27.02
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    0.20-16.22
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    0.00-7.20
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)      0.00-3.60
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)      0.00-0.30
H:L ratio                                    0.67-16.80

Value                                        1st Quartile

TP (g/dL)                                         2.73
PCV (%)                                          32.0
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)                16.80
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)         8.71
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)         3.60
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)         0.37
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)           0.38
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)           0.00
H:L ratio                                         1.88

Value                                        3rd Quartile     Median

TP (g/dL)                                         3.90          3.05
PCV (%)                                          37.0          34.0
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)                28.00         20.70
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)        17.29         13.27
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)         5.65          4.68
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)         2.66          1.24
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)           1.81          0.66
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)           0.00          0.00
H:L ratio                                         5.13          2.95

Abbreviations: TP indicates total protein; PCV, packed cell volume;
WBC, white blood cell; H:L, heterophil:lymphocyte.

Table 6. Hematologic values for barred owls within 10 days before
release from a rehabilitation facility (n = 28).

Value                                             Mean (SD)

TP (g/dL)                                     3.65 [+ or -] 1.04
PCV (%)                                       36.7 [+ or -] 5.8
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)            15.65 [+ or -] 5.75
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)     8.36 [+ or -] 4.69
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)     4.89 [+ or -] 3.13
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)     1.04 [+ or -] 1.05
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)       1.43 [+ or -] 1.01
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)       0.06 [+ or -] 0.14
H:L ratio                                     2.74 [+ or -] 2.56

Value                                           Range

TP (g/dL)                                    2.00-6.60
PCV (%)                                      24.0-46.0
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)            6.21-28.30
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    0.72-21.79
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    1.21-14.06
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    0.00-5.40
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)      0.00-3.96
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)      0.00-0.67
H:L ratio                                    0.06-8.56

Value                                        1st Quartile

TP (g/dL)                                         3.10
PCV (%)                                          33.0
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)                11.15
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)         4.77
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)         2.46
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)         0.31
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)           0.58
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)           0.00
H:L ratio                                         0.97

Value                                        3rd Quartile    Median

TP (g/dL)                                         4.20         3.60
PCV (%)                                          41.2         37.5
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)                18.98        15.21
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)        10.52         7.58
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)         6.30         4.08
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)         1.34         0.91
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)           2.40         1.06
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)           0.02         0.00
H:L ratio                                         4.88         1.60

Abbreviations: TP indicates total protein; PCV, packed cell volume;
WBC, white blood cell; H:L, heterophil:lymphocyte.

Table 7. Hematologic values for bald eagles within 10 days before
release from a rehabilitation facility (n = 16).

Value                                              Mean (SD)

TP (g/dL)                                     3.01 [+ or -] 0.72
PCV (%)                                       41.9 [+ or -]- 5.3
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)            17.69 [+ or -] 6.88
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    11.87 [+ or -] 4.90
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)     4.47 [+ or -] 5.32
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)     0.56 [+ or -] 0.84
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)       0.83 [+ or -] 0.74
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)       0.13 [+ or -] 0.26
H:L ratio                                     5.25 [+ or -] 3.46

Value                                         Range

TP (g/dL)                                    1.20-4.00
PCV (%)                                      35.0-52.0
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)            6.40-26.60
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    1.55-19.23
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    1.00-21.50
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    0.00-3.19
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)      0.00-2.33
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)      0.00-0.80
H:L ratio                                    0.07-12.29

Value                                        1st Quartile

TP (g/dL)                                         2.73
PCV (%)                                          36.5
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)                12.23
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)         8.84
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)         1.35
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)         0.10
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)           0.10
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)           0.00
H:L ratio                                         3.55

Value                                        3rd Quartile   Median

TP (g/dL)                                        3.30        3.15
PCV (%)                                          45.0        43.0
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)                24.83       17.60
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)        14.70       12.75
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)         5.20        2.55
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)         0.72        0.22
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)           1.30        0.71
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)           0.17        0.00
H:L ratio                                         7.21        4.05

Abbreviations: TP indicates total protein; PCV, packed cell volume;
WBC, white blood cell; H:L, heterophil:lymphocyte.

Table 8. Hematologic values for broad-winged hawks within 10 days
before release from a rehabilitation facility (n  = 12).

Value                                             Mean (SD)

TP (g/dL)                                    3.53 [+ or -] 0.71
PCV (%)                                      36.1 [+ or -] 3.5
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)           19.10 [+ or -] 7.09
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)   10.27 [+ or -] 6.23
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    5.92 [+ or -] 4.07
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    1.71 [+ or -] 0.72
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)      1.36 [+ or -] 1.52
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)      0.00 [+ or -] 0.00
H:L ratio                                    5.93 [+ or -] 12.85

Value                                           Range

TP (g/dL)                                    2.50-4.80
PCV (%)                                      31.0-45.0
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)            10.30-29.52
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    2.47-25.98
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    0.59-13.05
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)    0.34-2.61
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)      0.29-5.80
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)      NA
H:L ratio                                    0.42-44.03

Value                                        1st Quartile

TP (g/dL)                                         3.08
PCV (%)                                          34.5
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)                13.70
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)         6.00
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)         1.99
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)         1.27
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)           0.62
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)           0.00
H:L ratio                                         0.74

Value                                        3rd Quartile    Median

TP (g/dL)                                         3.80        3.45
PCV (%)                                          37.0        35.0
WBC (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)                24.09       17.95
Heterophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)        12.61        9.63
Lymphocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)         8.44        5.76
Eosinophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)         2.25        1.77
Monocytes (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)           1.32        1.03
Basophils (x [10.sup.3] cells/[micro]L)           0.00        0.00
H:L ratio                                         3.86        1.17

Abbreviations: TP indicates total protein; PCV, packed cell volume;
WBC, white blood cell; NA, not available; H:L, heterophil: lymphocyte.
COPYRIGHT 2011 Association of Avian Veterinarians
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2011 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Retrospective Study
Author:Black, Peter A.; McRuer, David L.; Horne, Leigh-Ann
Publication:Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 1, 2011
Previous Article:Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).
Next Article:Proventricular dilatation disease in cockatiels (nymphicus hollandicus) after infection with a genotype 2 avian bornavirus.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2022 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |