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Health-risk behaviors between students attending public and private high schools.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore differences among selected health-risk behaviors between adolescents in public and private high schools. Data were collected from a sample of students in Northwest Florida (N = 1606). Private high school students reported higher prevalence rates for driving after drinking alcohol, cigarette and alcohol use (males), binge drinking, and life satisfaction; public students had higher prevalence rates for physical fighting and suicide (females), gang activity, sexual intercourse, and condom use at last sexual intercourse (p < .05). Students seem to engage in considerable health-risk behavior regardless of the type of secondary institution attended.

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Adolescence is a developmental period in which various health-related attitudes, values, and beliefs are implemented and reinforced. It is a time of change characterized by physical, psychological, social, cultural, and cognitive transformations (Davies, 2004; Valois, Thatcher, Drane, & Reininger, 1997). Progression through this critical stage of human development is marked by exploration with diverse occupational, sexual, and ideological roles in order to establish a mature personal identity (Lavoie, 1994). Today's adolescents enjoy a large degree of freedom and greater access to numerous health-compromising behaviors such as experimenting with drugs, alcohol, and sexual activity as well as to numerous health-enhancing experiences such as regular physical activity and a balanced diet (DiClemente, Wingood, Crosby, Sionean, Cobb, Harrington, et al., 2001). Given this acquisition of new abilities and the search for identity and autonomy, adolescents may participate in a range of health-risk behaviors that can potentially have serious adverse developmental outcomes. These behaviors and their negative outcomes may have the potential for perseverance into adulthood (Martin & Martin, 2000). Adolescent health-risk behaviors are often interrelated and most are preventable (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2002; Grunbaum, Kann, Kinchen, Williams, Ross, Lowry, et al., 2002).

In order to monitor the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among adolescents in the US, the CDC developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is currently the primary source of data regarding health-risk behaviors of youth at national, state, and local levels (Kann, Kinchen, Williams, Ross, Grunbaum, & Kolbe, 1999; Kolbe, 1990). Subsequent studies have documented the reliability of YRBS high school adolescent data (Brener, Collins, Kann, Warren, &Williams, 1995; Brener, Kann, McManus, Kinchen, Sundberg, & Ross, 2002). Health and education officials at national, state, and local levels utilize the YRBS data and results in order to analyze and improve policies and programs, to reduce priority health-risk behaviors among youth, and to measure progress toward achieving the national health objectives for 2010 (CDC, 2002; Kolbe, 1990; Sussman, Jones, Wilson, & Kann, 2002).

Health-risk behaviors among adolescents in the United States contribute to the leading causes of adolescent morbidity and mortality. In the United States, 70.6% of all deaths among youth and young adults aged 10 to 24 result from only four causes: motor vehicle crashes (31.4%), other unintentional injuries (12%), homicide (15.3%), and suicide (11.9%) (Kann et al., 1999; Sells & Blum, 1996). Results from the 2001 national YRBS suggest that many high school students engage in health-risk behaviors, which increase their likelihood of death from these four causes. In 2001, high school students nationwide indicated the following behaviors in the 30 days prior to the survey: had rarely or never worn a seatbelt (14.1%), had ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol (30.7%), carried a weapon to school (17.4%), consumed alcohol (47.1%), used marijuana (23.9%). In addition, 8.8% of the students surveyed indicated that they had attempted suicide during the 12 months preceding the survey (CDC, 2002). During the same year, 45.6% of high school students in grades 9 through 12 reported having had sexual intercourse, with almost two-thirds of twelfth grade students reporting participation (63.9% male, 65.8% female) (CDC, 2000). Of these sexually active students, 42.1% had not used a condom at last sexual intercourse (CDC, 2002). Early sexual initiation places adolescents at risk for contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and unplanned pregnancies. According to the CDC, among youth aged 15-24 in 1999, there were 1,700 reported cases of AIDS, 480,195 cases of chlamydia, 210,892 cases of gonorrhea, and 1,410 cases of primary or secondary syphilis. It is estimated there are over 3 million cases of STDs each year among persons aged 10-19 in the nation (Groseclose, 2001). Significant morbidity also results from the approximately 870,000 pregnancies that occur every year among women 15-19 years of age (CDC, 2000).

In order to protect children from engaging in health-risk behaviors many parents send their children to private institutions for schooling. The general public (rightly or wrongly) considers private schools to be vastly superior to their public school counterparts (Davies, 2004). There are many factors that come into play which attract parents to private schools. The literature suggests that parents send their children to private schools for higher academic achievement (Council for American Private Education, 2004), religious education, a more disciplined environment, and greater opportunity for extracurricular activities (Figlio & Stone, 1997; Moe, 2000). Parents want an environment that will help their children avoid negative behaviors such as drug use, violence, and early sexual involvement. A growing number of parents desperately desire the opportunity to choose schools whose primary purpose is to provide a sound moral and religious education Figlio & Stone, 1997); and private schools are the only schools that can assist parents with such religious and spiritual development (Council for American Private Education, 2004).

One might suspect that as a group, young people in private schools are less likely to engage in negative health behaviors compared to public school students; however, there is a lack of research that addresses this topic. Furthermore, little research has focused specifically on private high school students in the United States. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore differences among selected health-risk behaviors between adolescents in public and private high schools grades 9 through 12 utilizing results from a modified version of the 2001 YRBS. Researchers hypothesized there would be statistically significant differences among selected health-risk behaviors between those individuals who attended a public high school and adolescents who attended a private high school (p < .05).

METHODS

SAMPLE

According to data published by the US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES, 2003a), the average enrollment for Florida's secondary schools are the highest in the nation at 1,396 students per school. The national average for secondary schools in the same 1999-2000 school year was 706 students per school (NCES, 2003a). For this study, all eight public high schools in one northwestern county in Florida were surveyed during two days in April 2002. Of these eight schools, six were above the State of Florida average (> 1,396 students per school), while two were below the U.S. national average (< 706 students per school). In order to maximize student eligibility in the public high schools, two classes from each grade level (eight classes per school), during the second period of the day, were selected randomly.

Passive consent forms were utilized and distributed one week prior to survey administration. The potential sample size for the public high schools was 1,412 students. Out of this sample, 66 participants (4.7%) either self-declined participation or parental consent was not granted. Absenteeism was consistent for the county as a whole, as 233 (16.5%) potential participants were absent during the survey dates. Additionally, if a participant had 10 or more missing or unreadable responses to the survey questions, their record was removed from the analysis. In the public high school sample, 50 participants (3.5%) were removed for this reason. Therefore, the total public high school sample for the analysis was 1063 (75% response late).

The sampling of the private school took place during one day in April 2002. One of four private high schools in the same northwestern county in Florida participated in the study. This private high school had more than twice as many enrolled students (grades 912) compared to the other three private high schools in the particular northwestern Florida county (NCES, 2003b). All students in this school were eligible to participate in the survey. The potential sample size for the private high school was 615 students. Of this sample, 12 participants (2.0%) were absent. Sixty two participants (10.3%) were removed from the analysis for having 10 or more missing or unreadable responses to the survey questions. This percentage was higher than the public high school sample and may be due to the questions referring to sexuality. Passive consent forms were utilized and distributed one week prior to survey administration in the private high school as well. No parental consent forms were returned and no student self-&dined participation. Therefore, the total private high school sample for the analysis was 541 (88% response rate).

SURVEY ADMINISTRATION

Teachers from the selected second period classes in the public and private high schools conducted the in-class surveying after they received detailed instructions with regard to the administration of the survey. The survey took approximately 30 to 45 minutes to complete. Students were informed by survey administration personnel and classroom teachers their identities and answers would remain anonymous. At no time were student identifiers used. Completed answer sheets were gathered and placed into an envelope by a student participant. Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval was granted prior to implementation of the study.

INSTRUMENTATION

To examine the differences between health-risk behaviors in public and private high schools, a modified version of the 2001 YRBS was used for the study. The original 84-item questionnaire was customized to include 15 additional questions, which comprised the constructs of: (1) gang activity, (2) quality of life, and (3) life satisfaction. These questions have been used in previous studies and have been shown to demonstrate satisfactory test re-test reliability (Heubner, Drane, & Valois, 2000). Fifteen questions out of the possible 99 were selected for this analysis. For the purpose of this study, responses to the following questionnaire items were examined:

1. During the past 30 days, how many times did you drive a car or other vehicle when you had been drinking alcohol?

2. During the past 30 days, on how many days did you carry a weapon such as a gun, knife, or club?

3. During the past 12 months, how many times were you in a physical fight?

4. Have you ever been forced to have sexual intercourse when you did not want to?

5. During the past 12 months, how many times did you actually attempt suicide?

6. Are gangs present in your schools and/or community?

7. During the past 30 days, on how many days did you smoke cigarettes?

8. Have you ever smoked cigarettes regularly, that is, at least one cigarette every day for 30 days?

9. During your life, on how many days have you had at least one drink of alcohol?

10. During the past 30 days, on how many days did you have 5 or more drinks of alcohol in a row, that is, within a couple of hours?

11. During your life, how many times have you used marijuana?

12. Have you ever had sexual intercourse?

13. The last time you had sexual intercourse, did you or your partner use a condom?

14. I would describe my satisfaction with my school experience as?

15. I would describe my satisfaction with my overall life as?

According to the literature, these questions most adequately addressed the key health behaviors shown to negatively affect the health of youth in the United States.

DATA ANALYSIS

Chi-Square analyses were used to determine if statistically significant differences existed in selected health-risk behavior prevalence rates among students in public and private high schools. All statistical procedures were performed using Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS). Females attending private schools were compared to females attending public schools; males attending private schools were compared to males attending public schools. The analysis of data did not take race into account due to the small number of respondents classified as non-white. The selected health-risk behavior questions were dichotomized to demonstrate participation in a selected health-risk behavior versus no participation (yes/no). The two items addressing school and overall life satisfaction were dichotomized into positive and negative levels of satisfaction.

RESULTS

Of the 1604 participants included in the analysis, 1063 were public high school students and 541 were private high school students. Of the public high school participants included in the examination, 495 (47%) of the sample were males and 568 (53%) were females. Of the private high school participants included in the examination, 278 (51%) of the sample were males and 263 (49%) were females. More than 60% of public high school participants were Caucasian and more than 85% of the private high school participants reported their race as Caucasian. There was a relatively equal distribution in the percentage of public and private high school participants enrolled in the ninth through twelfth grade.

INTENTIONAL AND UNINTENTIONAL INJURIES

Public high school males (16.2%) were significantly less likely than private high school males (32.5%) to report driving after drinking alcohol within the past 30 days (p < .001). Public high school females (11.8%) were significantly less likely than private high school females (18.6%) to report driving after drinking alcohol within the past 30 days (p < .008). Public high school females (25.7%) were twice as likely as private high school females (14.4%) to report being in a physical fight (p < .001). Additionally, public high school females (13.2%) were significantly more likely than private high school females (7.6%) to report actual suicide attempts (p = 0.02). No statistically significant differences were identified for carrying a weapon, physical fighting (males), forced sexual intercourse, and suicide (males).

GANG ACTIVITY

Public high school males (41.8%) were significantly more likely than private high school males (28.5%) to report the presence of gangs in their school and/or community (p < .001). Public high school females (33.5%) were significantly more likely than private high school females (24.6%) to report the presence of gangs in their school and/or community (p = 0.01).

TOBACCO, ALCOHOL, AND OTHER DRUG USE

Public high school males (23.6%) were significantly less likely to report smoking cigarettes during the past 30 days when compared to private high school males (35.0%) (p < .001). Additionally, public high school males (16.4%) were less likely than private high school males (22.4%) to report regular cigarette use during the past 30 days (p < 0.04). Public high school males (73.9%) were significantly less likely to report lifetime alcohol use when compared with private high school males (83.0%) (p < 0.004). Additionally, public high school males (29.3%) were significantly less likely than private high school males (50.2%) to report binge drinking (p < .001). Public high school females (21.1%) were significantly less likely to report binge-drinking alcohol when compared with private high school females (37.5%) (p < .001). No statistically significant differences were identified for current cigarette smoking (females), regular cigarette smoking (females), lifetime alcohol use (females), and lifetime marijuana use.

SEXUAL ACTIVITY

Public high school males (56.0%) were significantly more likely than private high school males (39.7%) to report ever having sexual intercourse (p < .001). Additionally, public high school males (56.1%) were significantly more likely than private high school males (39.6%) to report using a condom at last act of sexual intercourse (p < .001). Among female students, public high school females (53.0%) were significantly more likely than private high school females (33.7%) to report ever having sexual intercourse (p < .001). Additionally, public high school females (54.4%) were significantly more likely than private high school females (33.5%) to report using a condom at last act of sexual intercourse (p < .001).

LIFE SATISFACTION

Public high school males (35.1%) were significantly more likely than private high school males (25.9%) to report their satisfaction with their school experience as negative (p < 0.03). Additionally, public high school males (16.8%) were significantly more likely than private high school males (6.3%) to report their satisfaction with their overall life as negative (p < .0001). Public high school females (29.0%) were significantly more likely than private high school females (16.2%) to report their satisfaction with their school experience as negative (p < .001). Public high school females (11.0%) were significantly more likely than private high school females (3.5%) to report their satisfaction with their overall life as negative (p < .001).

DISCUSSION

In this study both public and private high school students reported engaging in many health-risk behaviors. When compared to their private high school counterparts, public high school participants had statistically significantly increased prevalence rates for physical fighting (females only), attempted suicide (females only), gangs, sexual activity, and statistically significantly decreased prevalence rates for school satisfaction, and overall life satisfaction. In contrast, private high school participants had statistically significantly increased prevalence rates for driving after drinking alcohol, current cigarette use (males only), regular cigarette use (males only), alcohol use (males only), binge drinking, and decreased prevalence rates for use of a condom at last sexual intercourse.

When comparing these results to the 2001 national YRBS, public high school males were above the national average for suicide (10.3% vs. 6.2%), ever having sexual intercourse (56.0% vs. 48.5%), and condom use at last sexual intercourse (56.1% vs. 51.3%). Public high school females were above the national average for physical fighting (25.7% vs. 23.9%), suicide (13.2% vs. 11.2%), and ever having sexual intercourse (53.3% vs. 42.9%). Private high school males were above the national average for driving after drinking alcohol (32.5% vs. 17.2%), current cigarette use for grades 9 and 10 (35.0% vs. 23.9% grade 9, 26.9% grade 10), regular cigarette use for grades 9, 10and 11 (22.4% vs. 14.3% grade 9, 19.1% grade 10, 22.1% grade 11), alcohol use for grades 9, 10 and 11 (83.0% vs. 73.1% grade 9, 76.3% grade 10, 80.4% grade 11), binge drinking (50.2% vs. 33.5%), and below the national average for condom use at last sexual intercourse (39.6% vs. 65.1%). Private high school females were above the national average for driving after drinking alcohol (18.6% vs. 9.3%), binge drinking (37.5% vs. 26.4%), and below the national average for condom use at last sexual intercourse (33.5% vs. 51.3%) (CDC, 2002).

Results similar to this study were obtained by Valois et al. (1997) with regard to health-risk behavior patterns among youth attending public and private institutions; however, this study examined satisfaction with school experience and overall satisfaction with life. Public high school students were statistically significantly more likely to report their school and overall life satisfaction as negative (terrible, unhappy, or mostly dissatisfied), when compared to their private high school counterparts. There may be several underlying factors that may attempt to explain this finding. While some families do make financial sacrifices to send their children to private schools, it has been well documented that private high school families are traditionally wealthier and belong to a higher social class (Smith & Sikkink, 1999). Families of private high school adolescents are often attracted to these institutions due to religious interests, academic specialty, or educational philosophy. Thus, these schools represent a community effect and a common moral culture. The literature has suggested a closer parallel between school values and family values among those that attend private institutions (Smith & Sikkink, 1999). There may also be a possibility that private high school adolescents come from more stable, two-parent households. Furthermore, private schools generally have a better teacher to student ratio. Perhaps greater access to economic resources and a closer association and support from family, teachers, coaches, friends contribute to higher levels of school and life satisfaction experienced among private high school adolescents.

STUDY LIMITATIONS

Interpretation of these results should consider the limitations of the study. First, the YRBS is a self-report questionnaire and students may have produced false or undesirable responses. The extent of underreporting or over-reporting cannot be determined; however, the YRBS instrument has demonstrated good test-retest reliability (Brener et al., 1995; Brener et al., 2002).

Additionally, only one private high school out of the four in the county participated in the project. Therefore, the sample of private high school participants was not necessarily representative of that population. Future studies may find health-risk behaviors of these students to be dissimilar from the current study population. Finally, this combined data set is from youth attending school. The data may not be usable to understand risk-behavior prevalence rates of all persons in this age group.

CONCLUSION

Results from this study demonstrate that both public and private high school students engage in substantial health-risk behavior. It is reasonable to conclude that attending a private high school is not a panacea for a reduction in adverse health behaviors. Since results of the study indicate that health-risk behaviors differ among these two populations, future programming efforts should be tailored to specific areas of concern most prevalent in the individual public and private high school populations. It is imperative that prevention and intervention programmers, as well as policy makers recognize that dissimilar risk profiles exist with regard to school classification. Since health-risk behavior research on private high school adolescents is limited, future studies should attempt to include private high school students in larger, stratified, random samples. Further research might attempt to explain why certain health behaviors differ among these populations; perhaps SES or other demographic variables could be included in future research as well. Youth health-risk behavior represents extensive concern, as these behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the US (CDC, 2002). While most adolescents progress to become healthy productive adults, there is growing concern that many youth do not progress to achieve their full potential. Adequate preventative health education is essential for students attending both public and private high schools.

CHES AREAS

Responsibility I--Assessing Individual and Community Needs for Health Education

Competency A: Obtained health related data about social and cultural environments, growth and development factors, needs, and interests.

Competency B: Distinguished between behaviors that foster and those that hinder well-being.

Competency C: Inferred needs for health education on the basis of obtained data.

REFERENCES

Brener, N. D., Collins, J. K., Kann, L., Warren, C. W., & Williams, B. I. (1995). Reliability of the Youth Health-Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire. American Journal of Epidemiology, 141, 575-580.

Brener, N. D., Kann, L., McManus, T., Kinchen, S. A., Sundberg, E. C., Ross, J. G. (2002). Reliability of the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire Journal of School Health' 31, 336-342.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000). National and state-specific pregnancy rates among adolescents: United States, 1995-1997. MMWR, 49, 605-611.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance United States: 2001. MMWR, 49(SS05), 1-65.

Council for American Private Education. (2004). Benefits of private education. Retrieved August 2004, from http://www.capenet.org/benefits.html

Davies, S. (2004) School choice by default? Understanding the demand for private tutoring in Canada. American Journal of Education, 110, 233-255.

DiClemente, R. J., Wingood, G. M., Crosby, R., Sionean, C., Cobb, B. K., Harrington, K., et al. (2001). Parental monitoring: Association with adolescents' risk behaviors. Pediatrics, 107, 1363-1368.

Figlio, D. N., & Stone, J. A. (1997). School choice and student performance: Are private schools really better? (Discussion Paper 1141-1197). Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin, Institute for Research on Poverty.

Groseclose, S. L. (2001). Summary of notifiable diseases, United States, 1999. MMWR, 48, 1-101.

Grunbaum, J., Kann, L., Kinchen, S. A., Williams, B., Ross, J. G., Lowry, R., et al. (2002). Youth Risk Surveillance-United States: 2001. Journal of School Health, 72, 313-316.

Heubner, E. S., Drane, W., & Valois, R. E (2000). Levels and demographic correlates of adolescent life satisfaction reports. School Psychology International, 21, 281-92.

Kann, L., Kinchen, B. I., Williams, J. G., Ross, R. L., Grunbaum, J., & Kolbe, L. J. (1999). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States, 1999. Journal of School Health, 70, 271-285.

Kolbe, L. J. (1990). An epidemiological surveillance system to monitor the prevalence of youth behaviors that most affect health. Journal of Health Education, 21,44-48.

Lavoie, J. C. (1994). Identity in adolescence: Issues of theory, structure and transition. Journal of Adolescence, 17, 17-28.

Martin, D., & Martin, M. (2000). Understanding dysfunctional and functional family behaviors for the at risk adolescent. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 785.

Moe, T. M. (2000, March). The attraction of private schools. Retrieved March 2003, from Stanford University Web site: http://www.educationnext.org/unabridged/2001sp/moe.html

Sells, C. W., & Blum, R. W. (1996). Morbidity and mortality among US adolescents: An overview of data. American Journal of Public Health, 86, 513-519.

Smith, C., & Sikkink, D. (1999). Is private schooling privatizing? Journal of Religion and Public Life, 16, 52-63.

Sussman, M. F., Jones, S. E., Wilson, T. W., & Kann, L. (2002). The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Updating policy and program applications. Journal of School Health, 72, 13-17.

National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2003a). Enrollment Size of Florida's Public Schools. Retrieved February 2003, from http://www.firn.edu/doe/eias/eiaspubs/pdf/enroll.pdf

National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2003b). Private School Universe Survey (PSS) data for the 1999-2000 school year. Retrieved February 2003, from http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pss/

Valois, R. F., Thatcher, W.G., Drane, W., & Reininger, B. M. (1997). Comparison of selected health-risk behaviors between adolescents in public and private high schools in South Carolina. Journal of School Health, 67, 434-440.

Tina M. Penhollow, PhD, CHES is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Exercise Science & Health Promotion at Florida Atlantic University. Michael Young, PhD, FAAHB, FSSSS is a University Professor for the Program of Health Science at the University of Arkansas. Address all correspondence to Michael Young, PhD, FAAHB, FSSSS, University of Arkansas, Health Education Projects Office, 326A HEPR Building, Fayetteville, AR 72701; PHONE: 479-575-5639; FAX: 479-575-6401; E-MAIL: meyoung@uark.edu
Table 1. Comparison of Male and Female Public and Private School
Students Relative to Selected Health Behaviors

 Male Male
 Public Private

Intentional and Unintentional Injuries

Driving after 16.2% 32.5% ****
 drinking alcohol
 (prior month)
Carried a weapon 28.7% 26.7%
 (prior month)
Physical fight (lifetime) 38.6% 40.1%
Forced sexual 7.5% 4.7%
 intercourse (lifetime)
Attempted suicide 10.3% 8.7%
 (prior year)

Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Drug Use

Current cigarette 23.6% 35.0% ***
 use (prior month)
Regular cigarette 16.4% 22.4% *
 use (prior month)
Alcohol use (lifetime) 73.9% 83.0% **
Binge drinking 29.3% 50.2% ****
 (prior month)
Marijuana use (lifetime) 47.1% 53.1%

Sexual Activity

Have had sexual 56.0% **** 39.7%
 intercourse (lifetime)
Condom use at last 56.1% 39.6% ****
 sexual intercourse

Gang Activity 41.8% *** 28.5%

Life Satisfaction

Satisfaction with school:
 Negative 35.1% * 25.9%
 Positive 64.9% 74.1%
Satisfaction with overall life:
 Negative 16.8% **** 6.3%
 Positive 83.2% 93.7%

 Female Female
 Public Private

Intentional and Unintentional Injuries

Driving after 11.8% 18.6% **
 drinking alcohol
 (prior month)
Carried a weapon 7.6% 5.3%
 (prior month)
Physical fight (lifetime) 25.7% *** 14.4%
Forced sexual 14.8% 10.6%
 intercourse (lifetime)
Attempted suicide 13.2% * 7.6%
 (prior year)

Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Drug Use

Current cigarette 22.9% 23.9%
 use (prior month)
Regular cigarette 17.3% 12.5%
 use (prior month)
Alcohol use (lifetime) 78.2% 80.3%
Binge drinking 21.1% 37.5% ****
 (prior month)
Marijuana use (lifetime) 43.0% 36.7%

Sexual Activity

Have had sexual 53.0% **** 33.7%
 intercourse (lifetime)
Condom use at last 54.4% 33.5% ****
 sexual intercourse

Gang Activity 33.6% * 24.6%

Life Satisfaction

Satisfaction with school:
 Negative 29.0% ** 16.2%
 Positive 71.0% 83.8%
Satisfaction with overall life:
 Negative 11.0% *** 3.5%
 Positive 89.0% 96.5%

* p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001, **** p < .0001

Note: Percentages refer to the percent of students
participating in the behavior.
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Author:Young, Michael
Publication:American Journal of Health Studies
Article Type:Survey
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2005
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