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Healing flora of the Brunei Dusun. (Research Notes).

Introduction

The Dusun of northwest Borneo inhabit the Tutong and Belait River watersheds of Brunei Darussalam (Fig. 1). Although officially recognized as Malay by the Brunei government, the Dusun are linguistically related to the Bisaya, an ethnic group currently inhabiting the Limbang region of Sarawak (Bernstein et al., 1997). Like most tropical forest societies on the island, their subsistence economy depended, at least until recently, on swidden hill rice cultivation, supplemented by fishing, snare trapping of forest game, and collection of extractive products (Antaran, 1993; King, 1993). Although the Dusun's ethnobotanical knowledge of the forests and fields is formidable (Voeks, 1998), it is nevertheless in the process of rapid decline as they abandon their traditional ways of life (Ellen and Bernstein, 1994). As the younger generation is drawn away from the rural landscape and towards urban, wage-earning jobs, the Dusun's traditional plant knowledge is increasingly relegated to a few knowledgeable elders (Bernstei n et al., 1997). The objective of this study is to document the medicinal dimension of the Dusun's ethnobotanical knowledge before it is lost irretrievably (cf. Balick, 1990; Cox, 1994).

Methods and study area

Medicinal plant collections were carried out on seven one-day plant collecting trips between 1 July 1994 and 8 January 1995. Each trip lasted from four to seven hours. At the end of each collecting day, we examined and discussed the collections at length. We thus were able to resolve most questions regarding vernacular names, proper plant collection and preparation procedures, and illnesses treated.

Our Dusun informants included 68 year old Umar Putel from Bukit Sawat, and 64 year old Kilat bin Kilah from Bukit Udal. Although neither man is a specialized healer, each is regarded by the local community as particularly knowledgeable about local medicinal plants. There are, it appears, a dwindling number of Dusun with knowledge about, or interest in, the organic medicinal properties of the local flora. When we approached other Dusun to participate in the study, they simply referred us to one of our original informants.

Although not documented in the literature, Dusun medicine is divided roughly between organic and spiritual medicine. Organic medical problems, such as cuts, rashes, infections, and the like, are usually treated with plant products by men. Spiritual medicine, on the other hand, which is practiced in highly specialized ceremonies (tamarok), is the exclusive purview of female shamans, known as balians (see Antaran 1993, pp. 189-191). The present census focused on plant knowledge maintained by men because they are thought to be more familiar with old and second growth forests than women. In addition, organic medicinal knowledge is not sacred, whereas balian knowledge is highly secretive. Anecdotal evidence suggests, in fact, that balian medicinals are quite distinct from their organic counterparts.

Medicinal plants and duplicates were collected, vouchered, and stored in the Brunei Forestry Center herbarium at Sungai Liang, Brunei Darussalam. Species determinations were made by Dr. Idris M. Said and Joffre H. Ali Ahmad of the Brunei Forestry Herbarium.

The study area is mantled by mixed dipterocarp tropical forest and, to a lesser extent, heath forest. Soils grade from ultisols to spodosols. Collecting efforts were directed towards a diversity of habitats, from nearly pristine forests to continuously disturbed and managed areas. These latter included kitchen gardens, roadsides, trails, cattle pasture, abandoned swidden plots, secondary forest, and old growth forest. Collections in old growth forest were made in a 1-hectare, permanent study plot maintained by the Universiti Brunei Darussalam Biology Department in the Ladon Hills. The plot is characterized by a 30-40 meter relatively unbroken canopy, and is dominated floristically by the Dipterocarpaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Ebenaceae families. With 303 tree species or morpho-species identified, the plot is species-rich even by tropical forest standards (Voeks, 1998).

Medicinal plants

Seventy-three medicinal taxa were identified by Umar and Kilat (Table 1). Because much of the material, particularly in old growth forest, was collected in sterile condition, not all vouchers could be identified to the species level. Of the total, 58 taxa (79%) were identified to species or subspecies, 13 (18%) to genus, and 2 (3%) only to family. These taxa were fairly evenly dispersed among 47 total families. The most medicinally rich families were the Euphorbiaceae (5), Melastomataceae (5), Fabaceae (4), Dilleniaceae (4), Menispermaceae (3), Poaceae (3), Rubiaceae (3), and Schizaceae (3).

Among the most numerically important medicinal families in the pharmacopoeia, only Euphorbiaceae is well represented as a primary forest tree family. The latter groups are either understory forest families, or, more often, are characteristic of disturbed habitats. In fact, many of the old growth understory medicinals, according to Kilat and Umar, are easier to locate in second growth forest. Thus, whereas 25 (34%) of the censused medicinals inhabited old growth forest, only 3 (12%) of these were canopy trees. The majority of old growth medicinals were, respectively, herbs 12 (48%), climbers 6 (24%), treelets or palms 3 (12%), and shrubs 1 (4%). Thus, although old growth, dipterocarp forest trees possess myriad economic and spiritual values for the Dusun, especially for timber, fiber, food, fuel wood, and magic; medicinal species in this habitat are dominated by understory, readily accessible taxa.

The Dusun pharmacopoeia is numerically dominated by disturbance species. Fifty-eight (79%) of the medicinal species were collected in second growth forest, trails or roadsides, pastures, or recent swidden sites. This preference for disturbed areas was not a product of researcher bias, but rather represented the foraging preference of the informants. Although both were quite familiar with the timber and non-timber values of old growth forest species--Kilat was able to name and describe the utility of 161 tree species in the old growth plot-neither perceived old growth forest as the most fruitful habitat for medicinal collection. Among these 58 disturbance medicinals, 18 (31%) were treelets, 13 (22%) were herbs, 13 (22%) were climbers, 9 (15%) were shrubs, and 5 (9%) were trees.

The perceived value of disturbed as opposed to primary forest habitats for medicinal plant collection among the Dusun is not anomalous. Similar results have been noted elsewhere. Toledo et al. (1992), in a comprehensive survey of useful Mexican species, reported that medicinals tended to be concentrated in second growth areas. In the Atlantic forests of Brazil, Voeks (1996) found that 76% of the plant pharmacopoeia inhabited disturbed habitats, and that 70% were represented by herbs and shrubs. Similar results were reported by Chazdon and Coe (in press), Heinrich and Barerra (1993), and Kohn (1992).

Medicinal lexicon

The informants were unable to provide names for a significant proportion 24 (33%) of identified medicinals. Kilat, in particular, often forgot the name of the plant but not its medicinal use. At the same time, much of this "problem" appears to be in the way the Dusun lexically encode their medicinal flora. In many cases, when I asked "What is the name of this plant?", they would respond, for example "parat," which means both male weakness and the medicine for this ailment. Thus, in this and many other cases, parat served as a gloss for the name of the plant, the relevant illness, and its remedy. Other examples included: sarah ("women's weakness"), muntah dara, ("blood in vomit"), ubat ratang ("disease that dissolves nasal cartilage"), and others. This situation was not, however, the case with most medicinals, which were referred to by separate plant names and illnesses. The Dusun medicinal naming system warrants further investigation (Bernstein et al., 1997).

Medicinal applications

Dusun plant medicines are employed as remedies for a wide array of ailments. Most involve the treatment of non-life threatening health problems. The largest number of species are used as tonics, or parat, to treat weakness in men 15 species (20%), and sarah, weakness in women 3 (4%). These are described as remedies for physical exhaustion, such as that experienced during rice harvest, a particularly stressful time, although there may also be a psychological component. The degree to which this gender division is dependent upon our choice of only male informants is unknown, but likely to be significant.

The other most common medicinals are used to treat postpartum distress 7 (10%), dermal problems 8 (11%), gastrointestinal ailments 17 (23%), and rheumatism 3 (4%). Three species are used to diminish the effects of alcohol consumption. This is a common problem among Borneo cultivators during harvest festivals (gawai), when drinking competitions frequently occur. With the exception of chest pain, which is treated by a single species, none of the medicinals are directed at life threatening problems. Significantly, no medicinals were recommended for any form of cancer, venereal disease, or snakebite.

Conclusions

This ethnobotanical investigation revealed that the Dusun of Brunei Darussalam retain considerable knowledge of medicinal plants and their applications. A total of 73 medicinal taxa and their organic uses were identified. Most of these species have not been recorded in other local studies.

The majority of Dusun medicinal species inhabit disturbed habitats, especially secondary forests. These plants are usually represented by life forms that are readily accessible, that is, herbs, shrubs, climbers and treelets, and species that are relatively common. Large, old growth forest trees, characterized by high species diversity and concomitant low local abundance, seldom enter into medicinal recipes.

Unlike most tropical forest locations, Brunei Darussalam has not experienced extensive deforestation. As cultivating groups increasingly abandon agricultural subsistence, Brunei is in the unique position of witnessing gradual afforestation of its previously swiddened mixed dipterocarp forests. Combined with its progressive forest policy, which includes a strict logging quota and a prohibition on timber exports, Brunei harbors one of the richest and least threatened moist tropical forests on earth (Cranbrook and Edwards, 1994).

Nevertheless, ethnobotanical knowledge appears to be eroding rapidly among the Dusun and other Bruneian forest societies. The degree to which this is the case, and the possible causes therein, merit further investigation.
Table 1

Dusun Medicinal Plants. Other local studies reporting these
medicinal species are noted with an asterisk, followed by the
abbreviated source. *AN92 (Anon. 1992); *HMCH92 (Haji Mohiddin,
Chin, and Holdsworth 1992; *HMCH91 (Haji Mohiddin, Chin and
Holdsworth 1991); *AH94 (Ahmad and Holdsworth 1994); *H91
(Holdsworth 1991).

Anisophylleaceae

Anisophyllea disticha (Jack) Baill.
Name: sapad
Life form/habitat: One-meter shrub, in pasture.
Preparation/Use: Prepare fresh root decoction and drink, or
occasionally eat roots raw, for weakness in men. Parat plant.
Coll. Number: RV482

Annonaceae

Cyathostemma excelsum (Hook.f. & Thoms.) J. Sinclair.
Name: tudong
Life form/habitat: Two-meter shrub along a trail in second
growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Heat leaves and place directly on stomach
of woman after childbirth, or boil leaves in water and pour
liquid on body.
Coll. Number: RV444

Polyalthia tenuipes Merr.
No name
Life form/habitat: Four-meter treelet in second growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Heat leaves directly over a fire and rub on
baby's stomach for general illness.
Coll. Number: RV441

Arecaceae

Licuala sp.
Name: silad
Life form/habitat: Three-meter palm in old growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink, or
occasionally eat fresh roots, for weakness in men. Parat plant.
Coll. Number: RV501

Aristolochiaceae

Aristolochia sp.
No name
Life form/habitat: Woody herb in old growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink, or
occasionally eat roots raw, to treat blood in vomit.
Coll. Number: RV467

Blechnaceae

Blechnum orientale L.
Name: gerintek
Life form/habitat: Two-meter fern in second growth
forest or pasture.
Preparation/Use: Mash young fiddleneck directly on leg
to relieve pain. To dry up large boils, place pounded
fiddleneck directly on boil as poultice.
Coll. Numbers: RV448 and RV500

Caesalpiniaceae

Bauhinia sp.
No name
Life form/habitat: Climber in old growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink,
or occasionally eat roots raw, for relief of vertigo.
Coll. Number: RV462

Bauhinia semibifida Roxb.
Name: daub-daub
Life form/habitat: Small climber in old growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink, or
occasionally eat fresh roots, as remedy for blood in vomit.
Coll. Number: RV491

Clusiaceae

Garcinia parvifolia (Miq.) Miq.
Name: kandis
Life form/habitat: Four-meter treelet in second growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Woman restores post-partum health by inhaling
smoke from burning branches and leaves.
Coll. Number: RV551

Calophyllum sp.
No name
Life form/habitat: Four-meter treelet in old growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink, or
occasionally eat fresh roots, as remedy for kidney pain.
Coll. Number: RV458

Commelinaceae

Amischotolype sphagnorhiza Cowley
No name
Life form/habitat: Woody herb in old growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink, or
occasionally eat fresh roots, as remedy for blood in vomit.
Coll. Number: RV468

Connaraceae

Rourea mimosoides (Vahl) Planch.
Name: akau udang
Life form/habitat: Small shrub or climber in second
growth or old growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Boil the young, reddish shoots and drink
as treatment for bloody feces. Also, eat roots asparat.
Coll. Numbers: RV460 and RV542

Convolvulaceac

Ervcibe sp.
Name: akau uru lanuk
Life form/habitat: Climber in second growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Slowly rub leaf to loosen and remove
upper epidermis, then apply as a thin sheet on the part
of the body that has been scalded by hot water.
Coll. Number: RV559

Costaceae

Costus paradoxus K. Schum.
No name
Life form/habitat: Herb in old growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Cut petiole or piece of stem, heat
over fire, put in nostril and inhale for many days
to treat disease that dissolves nasal cartilage.
Coll. Number: RV469

Crassulaceae

Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. (Syn: Bryophyllum pinnatum)
Name: dingan-dingan
Life form/habitat: Cultivated herb in kitchen garden.
Preparation/Use: Place fresh leaves on forehead for
headache relief. (*AN92, p. 31; *H, p. 248; *HMCH91, p. 255).
Coll. Number: RV565

Dichapetalaceae

Dichapetalum gelonioides (Roxb.) Engi. ssp. Pilosum Leenh.
No name
Life form/habitat: Climber in secondary or old growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink, or
occasionally eat fresh roots, for weakness in men. Parat plant.
Coll. Numbers: RV484 and RV529

Dilleniaceae

Dillenia suffruticosa (Griff.) Martelli
Name: simpor
Life form/habitat: Four to six meter treelet in second
growth forest, trails, or around swidden sites.
Preparation/Use: Shave off bark and cambium, rub directly
on cut to stop bleeding and promote healing.
(*AN92, p. 71; *H91, p. 248; *HMCH9l, p. 256).
Coll. Numbers: RV447 and RV477

Dillenia sumatrana Miq.
No name
Life form/habitat: Woody herb in old growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink,
or occasionally eat fresh roots, to treat rheumatism.
Coll. Number: RV456

Tetracera fagifolia Blume.
Name: pampan mianai
Life form/habitat: Climber in second growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare fresh root decoction to stop diarrhea.
Coll. Number: RV487

Tetracera macrophylla Hook.f. & Thorns.
Name: panpan indu
Life form/habitat: Climber in second growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare fresh root decoction to stop diarrhea.
Coll. Number: RV499

Dracaenaceae

Dracaena sp.
Name: sambangun
Life form/habitat: Two-meter treelet in second growth.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink, or
occasionally eat fresh roots, for weakness in females.
Sarah plant. Also numerous magical uses. (*AH94, p. 385).
Coll. Number: RV540

Eriocaulaceae

Eriocaulon longifolium Nees
Name: kumpau sambangau
Life form/habitat: Small herb in wet soil of pasture.
Preparation/Use: Place mashed roots directly on oral
blisters for relief.
Coll. Number: RV560.

Euphorbiaceae

Glochidion rubrum Blume
Name: dampul
Life form/habitat: Five-meter tree in second growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Place fresh leaves and water inside a bamboo tank
(see Coll. number 436), boil, and drink to treat blood in feces.
Coll. Number: RV443

Glochidion sp.
No name
Life form/habitat: One-meter woody herb in second growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Shave off root exterior and rub directly on area
affected by rheumatism.
Coll. Number: RV550

Macaranga gigantea (Rchb.f. & Zoll.) Muell. Arg.
Name: bangowong
Life form/habitat: Two to four-meter treelet growing along trails
or around swidden sites.
Preparation/Use: Tear off leaf and rub the petiole latex directly
on tongue when tongue is white colored.
Coll. Number: RV449

Mallotus macrostachyus Meull. Arg.
Name: sadaman asu
Life form/habitat: Three-meter treelet in second growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Scrape pubescence from leaves and rub directly
on cuts to promote healing.
Coll. Numbers: RV497 and RV564

Trigonostemon polyanthus Merr. var. lychnus R.I. Milne
Name: ambuk segubang
Life form/habitat: Treelet or tree in old growth forest.
Preparation: Eat or suck on fresh root as an antidote for
poisoning, or to avoid drunkenness when drinking alcohol.
Coll. Number: RV519

Fabaceae

Airvantha borneensis (Oliv.) Brummitt
Name: akau barayung
Life form/habitat: Four-meter treelet or climber in second
growth forest.
Preparation: Heat fresh roots in water almost to boiling,
and drink to treat weakness in women. Sarah plant.
Coll. Numbers: RV481 and RV534

Archidendron clypearia (Jack) Nielsen ssp. clypearia
Name: sogo
Life form/habitat: Four-meter treelet in second growth.
Preparation/Use: Boil the tree bark in water. Then pass the
bark over the skin to relieve itchiness.
Coll. Number: RV435

Archidendron ellipticum (BI.) Nielsen ssp. ellipticum
Name: sabano
Life form/habitat: Two-meter shrub in second growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Heat leaves over a fire and place directly
over pancreas for relief of pain. Also, eat fresh, young, red
leaves to eliminate blood in feces.
Coll. Number: RV496

Spatholobus ferrugineus (Zoll.) Benth.
Name: akau kalibid
Life form/habitat: Climber in second growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink, or
occasionally eat fresh roots, for weakness in men. Parat plant.
Coll. Number: RV538

Flacourtiaceae

Casearia rugulosa Blume
Name: keh lupor
Life form/habitat: Two-meter treelet in second growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Mash fruit with lime paste and rub on skin
for infection or rash.
Coll. Number: RV440

Gnetaceae

Gnetum gnemon L.
Name: bagu
Life form/habitat: Two-meter shrub in second growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Fresh root decoction drunk by women for
weakness. Sarah plant.
Coll. Number: RV539

Lauraceae

Cinnamomum sp.
No name
Life form/habitat: Woody herb in old growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Drink root decoction to treat blood in vomit.
Coll. Number: RV459

Linaceae

Indorouchera griffithiana (Planch.) Hallier f.
Name: akau kabul
Life form/habitat: Climber in recent swidden areas and second
growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Remove bark, heat it, pound it thoroughly, and
apply directly to rheumatic areas for relief.
Coll. Number: RV537

Philbornea magnifolia (Stap) Rallier f.
No name
Life form/habitat: Four-meter treelet or climber along trails
or in second growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Crush raw roots with fruit from pinang palm
(Pinanga sp.) into a pulp and rub directly on head and stomach
to treat food poisoning.
Coll. Number: RV446

Loganiaceae

Fagraea cuspidata Blume
Name: kabang penah (or panaa)
Life form/habitat: Treelet or tree in second growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Heat leaves directly over fire. Place on
stomach of woman for postpartum relief.
Coll. Numbers: RV437 and RV541

Lycopodiaceae

Lycopodium cernuum L.
Name: susut susut
Life form/habitat: Club moss occurring in swampy areas.
Preparation/Use: Place fresh roots directly on oral blisters.
(*AN 92, p. 123; * HMCH92, p. 105.).
Coll. Number: RV561

Melastomataceae

Melastoma beccarianum Cogn.
Name:uduk-uduk abai
Life form/habitat: Three-meter shrub in pasture.
Preparation/Use: Rub fresh flowers on skin blemishes.
Also, eat fresh leaves to relieve diarrhea.
Coll. Number: RV478

Melastoma malabathricum L.
Name: kudok-kudok (or uduk-uduk)
Life form/habitat: Common shrub in pastures or along roads.
Preparation/Use: Rub the fresh flowers directly on facial blemishes
to remove them. (* AN92, p. 135; * H91, P. 249; * HMCH92, p. 106).
Coll. Numbers: RV434 and RV475

Memecylon scolopacinum Ridl.
No name
Life form/habitat: One-meter, woody herb in old growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink, or occasionally
eat fresh roots, for blood in vomit.
Coll. Number: RV463

Pternandra gracilis (Cogn.) M. P. Nayar
Name: panawar
Life form/habitat: Nine-meter tree in second growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root infusion, drink for relief of
food poisoning.
Coll. Number: RV439

Pternandra cf. rostrata M. P. Nayar
No name
Life form/habitat: One-meter shrub in old growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Treat diarrhea by drinking root decoction, or
drink liquid directly from freshly cut stem.
Coll. Number: RV470

Menispermaceae

Fibraurea tinctoria Lour.
Name: akau limbo
Life form/habitat: Climber in old growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Grind roots and place poultice on stomach of
baby suffering from colic, or on adult skin to treat jaundice.
Also, fresh root decoction is used as a remedy for alcohol
poisoning (hangover).
Coll. Number: RV532

Sp. Indet.
No name
Life form/habitat: Climber in pasture.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink, or occasionally
eat fresh roots, for weakness in men. Parat plant.
Coll. Number: RV479

Sp. Indet.
No name
Life form/habitat: Small, woody herb in old growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink to treat blood
in vomit.
Coll. Number: RV472

Mimosaceae

Entada rheedyi Sprengl.
No name
Life form/habitat: Five-meter treelet in second growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Soak bark in water, and bathe skin to relieve
itchiness.
Coll. Number: RV486

Myrsinaceae

Ardisia sp.
No name
Life form/habitat: Small, woody herb in old growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink, or
occasionally eat fresh roots, for weakness in men. Parat plant.
Coll. Numbers: RV455 and RV464

Myrtaceae

Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk.
Name: karamunting
Life form/habitat: Three-meter shrub in pasture.
Preparation/Use: Eat fresh fruit or leaves for diarrhea relief.
(*AN92, p. 181; *HMCH92, p. 107).
Coll. Number: RV476

Nepenthaceae

Nepenthes gracilis Korth.
Name: tuyud ranggas
Life form/habitat: Tiny climbing pitcher plant in
pasture and second growth.
Preparation/Use: Root decoction used to treat weakness in men.
Parat plant. (*AN92, p. 143; *HMCH92, p. 106).
Coll. Number: RV562

Nephrolepidaceae

Nephrolepis dicksonioides Christ
Name: ungkubuk
Life form/habitat: Small fem in second growth.
Preparation/Use: Prepare frond decoction, pour over body,
roll body up in bamboo mat until patient sweats. For relief
of chills or skin itch.
Coll. Number: RV494

Orchidaceae

Bromheadia finalysoniana (Lindi.) Miq.)
No name
Life form/habitat: Ground orchid growing in pasture.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink, or
occasionally eat fresh roots, for weakness in men. Parat plant.
Coll. Number: RV480

Pandanaceae

Galearia fulva (Tul.) Miq.
Name: sanggara
Life form/habitat: One-meter herb in old growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink, or
occasionally eat fresh roots, for weakness in men. Parat plant.
Coll. Number: RV505

Phormiaceae

Dianella ensifolia (L.) D.C.
No name
Life form/habitat: Small herb in second growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink, or
occasionally eat fresh roots, for weakness in men. Parat
plant. (*HMCH91, p. 256).
Coll. Number: RV485

Poaceae

Dinochloa trichogona S. Dransf.
Name: bulu badan
Life form/habitat: Two-meter bamboo in old and second
growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Cut fresh stem and let liquid drip
directly into eyes to treat infection.
Coll. Numbers: RV492 and RV525

Lophatherum gracile Brongn.
No name
Life form/habitat: Small woody herb in second growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Eat fresh nodules from roots for postpartum
relief (*AN92, p. 121; *HMCH91, p. 257).
Coll. Number: RV438

Schizostachyum latifolium Gamble
Name: bulu gana
Life form/habitat: Ten-meter bamboo in second growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare decoction using Glochidion rubrum
in basin made from this bamboo to treat blood in stool.
Coll. Number: RV436

Pteridaceae

Pteris sp.
No name
Life form/habitat: Small fern in second growth.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink for
weakness in men. Parat plant.
Coll. Number: RV495

Rhamnaceae

Ziziphus borneensis Merr.
No name
Life form/habitat: Small woody herb in old growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink for
blood in stool.
Coll. Number: RV466

Rosaceae

Rubus sp.
No name
Life form/habitat: Small herb in old growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink for chest
pain, possibly angina.
Coll. Number: RV474

Rubiaceae

Nauclea orientalis (L.) L.
Name: bangakal
Life form/habitat: Tree in second growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare decoction of fresh twigs in
aluminum pot and drink to relieve painful bowel movement.
Coll. Number: RV433

Uncaria sp.
Name: akar keluit
Life form/habitat: Tree in second growth.
Preparation/Use: Boil fresh leaves and rub warm liquid on skin
to relieve itchiness.
Coll. Number: RV442

Chassalia chartacea Craib seas. lat.
Name: kayou lanci
Life form/habitat: Shrub or treelet in second growth.
Preparation/Use: Grate fresh roots, wrap in cloth, soak in
water, and squeeze into eyes to treat blurred vision.
Coll. Number RV546

Sapindaceae

Lepisanthes fruticosa (Roxb.) Leenh
Name: anculuk
Life form/habitat: Three-meter treelet in old and second
growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink or eat
fresh roots for weakness in men. Parat plant.
Coll. Numbers: RV489 and RV523

Schizaeaceae

Lygodium circinnatum (Burm.) Sw.
Name: taribu mianai
Life form/habitat: Climbing fern in second growth forest,
roadsides, or swidden plots.
Preparation/Use: Prepare fresh root decoction and drink to
contract vagina in women after giving birth. (* AN92, p. 131).
Coll. Number: RV498

Lygodium microphyllum (Cay.) R. Br.
Name: taribu indu
Life form/habitat: Climbing fern in second growth forest,
roadsides, or swidden plots.
Preparation/Use: Prepare fresh root decoction and drink to
contract vagina in women after giving birth. (* HMCH92, p. 106).
Coll. Number: RV483

Schizaea dichotoma (L.) Sm.
Name: pitagar payung
Life form/habitat: Small fern occurring around swidden sites and
pastures.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink or eat fresh roots
for weakness in men. Parat plant. (*AH94, p. 386; *HMCH92, p. 107).
Coll. Number: RV554

Scrophulariaceae

Brookea tomentosa Benth.
Name: sambong
Life form/habitat: One-meter herb in second growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare fresh root decoction and drink to contract
vagina in women after giving birth. Also, various magical uses.
Coll. Number: RV488

Simaroubaceae

Eurycoma longifolia Jack
Name: teratus
Life form/habitat: Two-meter treelet in second growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink for cough
suppression and as aphrodisiac. Chew fresh roots to neutralize
effects of alcohol consumption. (*HMCH91, p. 256).
Coll. Number: RV493

Sterculiaceae

Leptonychia heteroclita (Roxb.) Kurz
Name: tembulang manok
Life form/habitat: Two-meter shrub in second growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Let fresh roots soak in water and drink liquid
for relief of stomach ache.
Coll. Number: RV445

Verbenaceae

Hosea lobbiana (C.B. Clarke) Ridl.
Name: tagalap
Life form/habitat: Treelet in old and second growth forest,
and roadsides.
Preparation/Use: Fresh root infusion combined with roots of
other species used to treat blood in vomit.
Coll. Number: RV533

Vitaceae

Ampelocissus winkleri Lauterb.
Name: akau kumburat
Life form/habitat: Climber in old growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Eat fresh roots or drink root infusion
to strengthen bones.
Coll. Number: RV528

Zingiberaceae

Globba sp.
No name
Life form/habitat: Small perennial herb in old growth forest.
Preparation/Use: Prepare root decoction and drink, or eat
fresh roots, for weakness in men. Parat plant.
Coll. Number: RV454


Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance provided by the Universiti Brunei Darussalam Biology Department, especially Peter Becker, and the Brunei Forestry Herbarium staff, especially Idris M. Said and Joffre H. A. Ahmad. The map was produced by Kelly Donovan of California State University, Fullerton. Field research was funded in part by a grant from the National Geographic Society (No. 5420-95). Finally, we especially thank the Dusun community and, in particular, Umar Putel and Kilat bin Kilah, for sharing their considerable knowledge of the Dusun healing flora.

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Author:Nyawa, Samhan
Publication:Borneo Research Bulletin
Geographic Code:9BRUN
Date:Jan 1, 2001
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