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Head Teacher as an Instructional Leader in School.

Byline: Abid Hussain Ch., Saghir Ahmad and Ayesha Batool

Abstract

Instructional leadership has become one of the most widely researched topics. This type of leadership has been connected to teacher growth and development, teacher job satisfaction, student achievement, and improving school climate in general. The objective of the study included to determine the role played by head teachers as an instructional leaders in schools through the perceptions of teachers. To achieve this purpose descriptive research method was used. The study was quantitative and survey type in nature. The sample consisted of 200 secondary school teachers. The data were collected from teachers by using a self-developed questionnaire. The data were analyzed by using different descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings of the study indicated that head teachers support creativity, innovation and practice of new skills in the classroom. They also praised to those teachers who use creativity in classrooms to enhance the learning of students.

They held meetings with teachers to discuss the students' performance and solve the problems of teachers as an instructional leaders. It is recommended that head teachers may be trained that they can use new innovative methods and ideas to discuss with teachers and they help out the teachers to make the dull topics interesting. Head teachers may be motivated to teachers by giving different incentives in the shape of awards for bringing innovation in school.

Keywords: Head teachers, Instructional leaders, Teachers performance.

Introduction

Leadership and administration both are the procedures characterized as a value-based and shared occasion that perform between the leader and the followers. Leader calls the meetings which accessible for everybody. Leadership identifies with impact on how the heads influence the devotees essentially, subsequently, there is a shared collaboration between the leader and supporters. In addition, leadership includes the gathering's objective accomplishment where the leaders direct their supporters to accomplish their shared objectives together (Northouse, 2004).

Similarly, educational institutions also run by leadership. The leadership theories apply in educational context. School is an educational institution where the head of the school performs as a leader and teacher are the followers and stakeholders in the institution. The head instructor has a vital role in an educational institution. He/she is obliged to coordinate the instructors and partners keeping in mind the end goal to achieve their shared objectives together. The head instructor can be an image of the shared participation among the teachers, shareholders, and society; the head of the institution needs to develop the good relations with them and he can do a better job in a school with their positive attitude. He needs to act immovably yet insistently with a specific end goal to solve the problems of institutions (Purinton, 2013).

Leadership has critical effects on the nature of the educational institution and on the performance of students. Leadership is relevant with the importance of initiative since the administration is about institutional progression. Especially, it is tied in with sorting out the institution (school) to accomplish shared objectives. The objective of school authority is school change towards its improvement. In fact, school administration is a fundamental part for school viability in order to train the learners to achieve their future achievement (Leithwood, Day, Sammons, Harris, and Hopkins, 2006).

School administration a compelling one, has been a critical basis for school betterment and learners accomplishment (Hariri, Moneypenny, and Pridaux, 2012). Teachers are facilitated in their teaching practices and solve their academic or teaching problems in instructional leadership. Head of the institution encourages the teachers, supporting educators and allowing them to learn new knowledge to meet the academic and social needs of the students.

There is fundamental duty of head as an instructional director is to takes an interest in the instructing and learning procedure of the school; inspect the teachers in classrooms and working them to upgrade teaching and learning, setting the school's objectives, conveying the objectives, directing and assessing instructions, organizing the educational programs, monitor the educational improvement and progress of the students, ensuring instructional time, keeping up high standard, giving impetuses to instructors or teachers, advancing proficient improvement, creating and implementing scholarly standards, and providing motivating forces to learning. The instructional administration considered the head teacher as a leader of the leader (Hallinger, 2008; Hallinger and Murphy, 1987).

Instructional leadership is also referred as "distributed," and "shared" leadership and this perspective obliges that administration of the school is a considerably more grounded indicator of school improvement and academic change and learners' accomplishment when authority is circulated extensively over various parts including school heads (Leithwood, 1994).

These days with the progression of knowledge and learning and the emerging innovation, we require diverse kinds of leadership in educational institutions. The current instruction frameworks have a tendency to have set their attention on managing school- smooth transport tasks, substitute situation, learners and staff training. The head teacher is answerable of administrative functions and as well as the academic development of the students, and gives proficient help to less experienced staff in issues including lesson improvement and classroom administration (Dowling, 2007).

Many head teachers were playing the traditional roles in the institutions. They do not pay attention to teaching learning activities in schools. The traditional image of the head teachers is not compatible with current needs. Now, it is an ideal opportunity to move and find a way to change this scenario. Broadly, the instructional administration adds to "leadership for instructions" in educational sectors. Its purpose to look at the effect of leadership on the performance of teachers and students achievement. Moreover, this enlightens how the head of the school runs the instructive framework and dedicates to their activities and their allotment of time to educational modules and academic improvement, and administration of institutions with guardians and society (Leonard, 2010).

Research Objectives

The study was conducted to achieve the following objectives:

1. To identify the roles of head teachers as instructional leaders in secondary schools.

2. To find out the difference in the teachers' views about the roles of head teachers with respect to the demographic variables (gender, arts and science subjects, and qualification of teachers).

Research Questions

The study was conducted to answer the following research questions:

1. What are the roles of head teachers as an instructional leaders in secondary schools?

2. Is there any difference between male and female teachers' perceptions about the roles of the head teacher as an instructional leader?

3. Is there any difference between arts and science teachers' perceptions about the roles of the head teacher as an instructional leader?

4. Is there any difference in the teachers' perceptions about the roles of the head teacher as an instructional leader due to qualification?

Significance of the Study

This research may be helpful to researchers and the individuals who are keen on instructive leadership. It may provide the guide lines to heads of the schools that how they train themselves in different fields and enhance the skills which are compulsory to run an institution. Furthermore, this research may help out the head teachers to recognize the best instructional leadership practices that could help the teaching staff practically in classes and in the meantime to realize which instructional leadership practice requires the improvement in schools. The findings of the study may also helpful for the teachers to understand their heads role and how to improve their teaching practices.

Method

Research Design

This study was quantitative in nature and survey method was used to collect the perceptions of teachers regarding head teacher as an instructional leader in schools.

Population and Sample

The population of the study was male and female teachers of government secondary schools of Lahore district. A sample of 200 secondary school teachers selected randomly.

Instrumentation

A self-developed questionnaire on five point Likert type (strongly agree to strongly disagree) was used to collect data from the respondents. The reliability of instrument is statistically significant as the table shows under.

Table 1 Reliability of the Scale

Cronbach's Alpha###No. of Items

###.955###25

Above table shows that reliability of the scale checked by applying Cronbach's Alpha. There were 25 statements of the scale "Head Teacher as an Instructional Leader in School". The Cronbach's Alpha value was .955, which is statistical significant.

Data Collection and Data Analysis

Data were collected personally by the researchers. The researchers went to the schools and meet the heads of the schools. After taking permission from the heads, the researchers took consent from the teachers and then distributed the questionnaire to the teachers. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Frequencies, means and standard deviations were obtained in descriptive statistics and independent sample t-test and one way ANOVA were applied in inferential statistics.

Demographic Analysis of Respondents

Table 2 Gender of Respondents

Gender###Frequency###Percent

Male###100###50.0

Female###100###50.0

Table 2 shows the difference between the frequency and percentage of respondents according to their gender. There were 50% male and 50% female teachers.

Table 3 Qualification of Respondents

Qualification###Frequency###Percent

Intermediate###2###1.0

Bachelors###18###9.0

Masters###130###65.0

M.Phil.###50###25.0

Table 3 shows the qualification of the respondents. There were 1% F.A teachers, 9% were B.A/ BSC, 65% were master holders degree, and 25 % respondents were M.Phil. degree holders.

Table 4 Teaching Experience of Respondents

Experience###Frequency###Percent

1-5years###45###22.5

6-10 years###37###18.5

11-15 years###33###16.5

16 years and above###85###42.5

Table 4 shows the experience of sampled teachers. The 22.5 % respondents had 1-5 years' experience, 18.5% respondents had 6-10 years' experience, 16.5% respondents had 11-15 years' experience, and 42.5 % respondents had 16-above years' experience. It is concluded that majority of the teachers had more than 16 years teaching experience.

Data Analysis

A detail analysis of the study is as under:

Table 5 Mean and Standard Deviation about Supervising and Evaluating Instruction

Statements###M###SD

Head teacher ensures the classroom objectives###3.86###.882

Head teacher makes effort with the goals of school###4.03###.916

Head teacher helps to ensure the working towards the same objectives###4.00###.927

Head teacher provide guidance and counseling sessions to foresee###3.76###1.028

problems of teachers

Head teacher give the feedback to teacher after observation###3.75###.977

Table 5 shows that majority of teachers agreed with the statement that their head teacher helps to ensure the working towards the same objectives (M = 4.00, SD = .927). A very few teachers said that head teacher give the feedback to teachers after observation (M = 3.75, SD = .977).

Table 6 Mean and Standard Deviation about Monitoring Student's Progress

Statements###M###SD

Head teacher arrange meetings with teachers to discuss student school###4.07###.897

performance

Head teacher visit's classrooms to discuss school issues with teachers and###3.85###1.013

students

Head teacher informs the school performance of the students to their parents###3.94###.866

Head teacher provides direct instruction to students###3.67###.915

head teacher evaluates the academic performance of the students###3.69###.870

Table 6 shows that majority of teachers agreed with the statement that their head teacher arrange meetings with teachers to discuss student school performance (M = 4.07, SD = .897). A very few teachers said that head teacher provides direct instruction to students (M = 3.67, SD = .915).

Table 7 Mean and Standard Deviation about Providing Motivation for Teachers

Statements###M###SD

Head teacher praises and support teacher's performance###3.86###1.049

Head teacher facilitates teachers work###3.81###1.063

Head teacher compliment teachers openly for their efforts and performance###3.63###1.019

Head teacher gives special opportunities to the teachers for professional###3.64###1.071

development

Head teacher provides time with teachers to discuss instructional issues###3.78###1.034

Table 7 shows that majority of teachers agreed with the statement that head teacher praises and support teachers performance (M = 3.86, SD = 1.049). A very few teachers said that head teacher compliment teachers openly for their efforts and performance (M = 3.63, SD = 1.019).

Table 8 Mean and Standard Deviation about Professional Development

Statements###M###SD

Head teacher do efforts on aid teacher's professional development###3.60###.992

Head teacher encourages new ideas of the teachers###3.77###1.037

Head teacher supports creativity, innovation and practice of new skills###3.81###1.021

Head teacher plans and executes new in-service seminars or teachers###3.50###1.075

training programs for teachers

Head teacher actively supports the use of skills in the classroom that were###3.67###.978

acquired during in-service training

Table 8 reveals that majority of teachers agreed with the statement that their head teacher supports creativity, innovation and practice of new skills (M = 3.81, SD = 1.021). A very few teachers said that head teacher plans and executes new in-service seminars or teachers training programs for teachers (M = 3.50, SD = 1.075).

Table 9 Mean and Standard Deviation about Infrastructure and Resources

Statements###M###SD

Head teacher preserves all the maintenance facilities in the school###3.81###0.915

equipment/facilities for teaching learning (e.g television, overhead projector,###3.54###1.074

video machine and others) were adequately provided

Head teacher checks water tanks, first aid box, toilets, electrical wiring###3.80###1.070

Head teacher fairly distributes funds in schools###3.67###1.013

Head teacher asks the teaching staff to check the cleanliness of the students###4.12###.89

everyday

Table 9 shows that majority of teachers agreed with the statement that their head teacher asks the teaching staff to check the cleanliness of the students everyday(M = 4.12, SD = .894). A very few teachers said that equipment/ facilities for teaching learning were adequately provided them (M = 3.54, SD = 1.074).

Table 10 Independent Sample t-test for Difference among Teachers regarding Instructional Leadership Practices on the Basis of Gender

Variable###Gender###N###M###SD###t-value###df###Sig.

###Male###100###97.16###13.906###2.159###178.781###.032

Instructional Leadership

###Female###100###91.98###19.546

Table 10 shows that all the statements of the scale summed together and independent sample t-test was applied to create the difference between male and female respondents' teachers' perception regarding instructional leadership practices. There was a statistically significant difference between the scores of male (M= 97.16, SD= 13.906) and female M= 91.98, SD= 19.546, t (178.781) =2.159, p = .032. Resultantly, there is significant difference between male and female perception regarding instructional leadership practices. Thus, they have different point of views about instructional leadership.

Table 11 Independent Sample t-test for Difference among Teachers regarding Instructional Leadership Practices on the Basis of Arts and Science Subjects

###Subject###N###M###SD###t-value###df###Sig.

Instructional Leadership###Arts###94###93.50###16.135###-.832###198###.407

###Science###106###95.52###17.967

The table showed that all the statements of the scale summed together and independent sample t-test is used to check the difference between the arts and science respondents' perceptions regarding instructional leadership practices. There was no statistical difference between the scores of arts (M= 93.50, SD= 16.135) and science teachers M= 95.52, SD= 17.967, t (198) =-.832, p = .407. There is no significant difference between arts and science teachers' perceptions regarding instructional leadership practices.

Table 12 One way ANOVA for the Difference among Teachers regarding Instructional Leadership Practices on the basis of Qualification

Variable###Sum of Squares###df###Mean###f###Sig.

###Square

Instructional###Between Groups###717.897###3###239.299###.814###.487

Leadership###Within Groups###57593.123###196###293.842

###Total###58311.020###199

Table 12 shows results of one way ANOVA explore the difference in means scores of instructional leadership practices F (3, 196) = .814, p = .487. Therefore, there was no significant difference among the views of respondents with respect to their qualification regarding instructional leadership practices.

Discussion

The researchers conducted this study to identify the roles of head teachers in secondary schools. Question one investigated the roles and responsibilities of head teachers in secondary schools. When the head teacher provides an incentive to teachers, they will strive to excel in classrooms. The researchers also found that male teachers better in performing instructional leadership practices in comparison with female teachers. These findings supported by the previous study conducted by Hallinger (2013) they found that male teachers performing better than female head teachers, and there was also no significant difference among teachers perceptions on the basis of their qualification.

Conclusion

The study was conducted to explore the role of head teachers as an instructional leader at the school level. The sample of the study was secondary school teachers. On the basis of findings, it was indicated that head teachers do not spend the majority of their day carrying out instructional leadership responsibilities. It was also concluded that there was a significant difference between male and female teachers' perceptions regarding instructional leadership practices. Male teachers were doing more instructional leadership practices at public secondary schools in Lahore than female. The findings of the study indicated that there was no significant difference between teachers' perceptions about instructional leadership practices on the basis of their qualification. They had a different opinion with respect to their qualification.

Recommendations

The following recommendations were offered for future:

1. Head teachers may give proper attention to innovative education at all levels by keeping in check the methods of teaching. The good school culture is impossible to build without such supports from all school stakeholders. This study emphasizes the school head teachers to not only attend but also implement the various trainings and seminars to develop the school. Also, it is important to create trust and good collaboration with teachers.

2. Head teachers may be motivated to teachers by giving different awards for bringing innovation in school.

3. Instructional leadership practices may be revised innovatively for better teaching according to the demands of modern society.

4. Government may take some steps to promote in service training in schools by conducting seminars on the importance and benefits of instructional leadership.

5. There may be an observation schedule of teachers' classes during their lectures by the head teacher of the school.

References

Dowling, C. (2007). A measurement of the instructional and transformational leadership of the assistant principal: Its relationship to closing the achievement gap. Doctoral dissertation, The University of Akron. DAI, 68, no. 09A.

Hallinger, P. (2008). A review of PIMRS studies of principal instructional leadership: Assessment of progress over 25 years. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York. Retrieved from http://philiphallinger.com/educational.html.

Hallinger, P., and Murphy, J. (1987). Assessing and developing principal instructional leadership. Educational Leadership, 45(1), 54-61.

Hallinger, P. (2013). A conceptual framework for reviews of research in educational leadership and management. Journal of Educational Administration, 49, 125-142.

Hariri, H., Monypenny, R., and Pridaux, M. (2012). Principalship in an Indonesian school context: Can principal decision-making styles significantly predict teacher job satisfaction? School Leadership and Management, 32(5), 453-471.

Leithwood, K. (1994). Leadership for school restructuring. Educational Administration Quarterly, 30(4), 498-518. doi :10.1177/0013161X94030004006

Leithwood, K., Day, C., Sammons, P., Harris, A., and Hopkins, D. (2006). Successful school leadership what it is and how it influences pupil learning. National College for School Leadership, 1-115. Retrieved from http://illinoisschoolleader.org/research_compendium/documents/succe ssful_school_leadership.pdf

Leonard, J. (2010). Framing the issues of the principal time. In finding the time for instructional leadership: Management Strategies for Strengthening the Academic Program. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Education.

Northouse, P. G. (2004). Leadership theory and practice. California: Sage Publications.

Purinton, T. (2013). Is instructional leadership possible? What leadership in other knowledge professions tell us about contemporary constructs of school leadership? International Journal of Leadership in Education: Theory and Practice, 16(3), 279-300. doi:10.1080/13603124.2012.732244
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Article Details
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Author:Hussain, Abid; Ahmad, Saghir; Batool, Ayesha
Publication:Bulletin of Education and Research
Article Type:Report
Date:Apr 30, 2018
Words:3675
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