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Hawaii.

TEACHING NOTES (TN)

Supplement to Science Weekly publication Pre-A through F

Background

You probably don't think of the Hawaiian Islands as barren, lifeless mounds of molten rock in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. That's exactly what they were until a few million years ago. How did mountains of lava rock become the "Paradise of the Pacific"? It helps to know a little about Hawaii's geography, which makes it unique in many ways. It is the only U.S. state not in North America. It is the only island state. It is farther away from a continent than any other inhabited place on Earth. Many of the plants and animals that live on Hawaii can't be found anywhere else on Earth!

Lava Mountains

The Hawaiian Islands began forming about 70 million years ago when lava -- boiling liquid rock -- began. oozing from cracks in the floor of the Pacific Ocean.

As more and more eruptions occurred, the lava built up. Mountains formed under the sea. The mountains of lava continued to grow until they eventually rose above the surface of the ocean. For millions of years, volcanoes made new islands. That process continues today. Just south of Hawaii, a new island named Loihi is forming. Someday, perhaps in another 10,000 years from now, it will join the family of Hawaiian Islands.

Today the Hawaiian archipelago (ar ki PEL i go) stretches like a strand of pearls across 1,500 miles in the middle of the North Pacific Ocean. North America, the closest continent, is almost 2,500 miles away! Hawaii is divided into 2 groups of islands. The first group is made up of 124 tiny islands, reefs, and shoals. The second group comprises 8 major islands. The southernmost island is Hawaii (called the Big Island to distinguish it from the state). Maui and Kahoolawe are to the north. Kahoolawe was once used as a practice bombing target by the U.S. military and is uninhabited. Lanai and Molokai are next in the chain, followed by Oahu, which is home to about 80% of the state's population. Kauai and Niihau, are next.

Some of the islands, including Kauai, Oahu, Lanai, and Molokai, are very old and no longer have any erupting volcanoes. Maui is a newer island. It has 1 volcano that hasn't erupted in 200 years and seems to be dormant. The Big Island is the newest, and it is still growing. The lava from its volcanoes hardens and makes new land. The Big Island has 5 volcanoes. The busiest volcano is Kilauea, which has been erupting since 1983. Mauna Loa is the largest active volcano on Earth. It hasn't erupted since 1984. Both are located in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. The world's tallest volcano is also on the Big Island. Mauna Kea is taller than Mt. Everest when measured from the ocean floor.

Ideal Climate

Hawaii's weather is one of its greatest attractions. It enjoys mild, sunny weather all year long. The average temperature is about 75 [degrees] F, but extreme climate changes are found on each of the islands. Some spots have sun year round, yet it rains every day in some areas of the islands. Rainbows are a common sight as the sun's rays pass through the drops of moisture. Lush tropical rainforests cover about 40 percent of the islands. Mt. Waialeale on Kauai is the wettest spot on Earth. Just a few miles away, Waimea Canyon is almost a desert. The mountains offer the possibility of snow, especially during winter months. Miles of beautiful sun-drenched beaches feature sands of many different colors - red, gold, black, and even green. The result of crushed lava rock. In Hawaii, it is sometimes possible to swim and ski on the same day. Hawaii is also one of the best places in the world to stargaze. Its tall mountains and clear skies attract astronomers from all over the world.

Life Begins

No one knows exactly when or how new living things came to the Hawaiian Islands. The wind, ocean, and birds probably brought many of the first plants. Insects and spiders were also carried in the feathers of birds. Most animals that are found on continents did not make it to the isolated islands. Only 2 types of mammals -- seals and small bats -- were living in Hawaii when the people first moved there. Now, Hawaii is covered with colorful flowers, lush vegetation, and exotic plant life. There are thousands of different kinds of plants and flowers on the Hawaiian Islands, including orchids and hibiscus, the state flower. Rare and often endangered birds such as honeycreepers, coots, and nenes (the state bird) inhabit the islands. More than 450 types of colorful fish and sea turtles swim in Hawaii's coral reefs, or "underwater rainforests." Pacific herds of rare humpback whales spend winters in the warm waters of Hawaii giving birth to their young.

Colorful History

The first known settlers of Hawaii were Polynesians ("people of the many islands") from the Marquesas Islands. They crossed the ocean in double-hulled canoes about 1,500 years ago. They were expert sailors who used the stars, clouds, and ocean currents to navigate. Later, other Polynesians came. They brought sugarcane, banana, and taro plants. They raised chickens and pigs. These first Hawaiians believed in many gods. One of the most important was Pele, the goddess of the volcanoes. Hawaiians believed that Pele lived at Kilauea volcano on the Big Island, and was responsible for Kilauea's eruptions. Kahuna, or priests, worshiped the gods with rituals. Each island became a separate kingdom until one chief, Kamehameha (kah MAY hah MAY hah), conquered most of the islands and unified them. His kingdom lasted until 1893.

English Captain James Cook was the first European to discover Hawaii. He spotted the islands in 1778 while searching for the Northwest Passage, a water route thought to lead from Europe to Asia. Cook named his discovery the Sandwich Islands, in honor of the Earl of Sandwich, Cook's patron. Cook died in a fight soon afterward, but by the 1780s, Hawaii had become a stopping point on the way to Asia. Missionaries from the United States started arriving in Hawaii in the 1800s. They changed Hawaiian life in many ways. They created an alphabet so that Hawaiians could read and write for the first time. They opened schools and churches and built hospitals. They also discouraged many Hawaiian traditions, such as the hula dance and making flower necklaces called leis (lays). They made Hawaiian women wear long dresses called muumuus (MOO moos). At the same time, sugar became the biggest industry in Hawaii. Most of the sugarcane plantations were privately owned by foreigners, and Hawaiians began to lose the power to rule themselves.

Last State

By the end of the 1800's, U.S. and European business interests had gained control of Hawaii. They overthrew Queen Liliuokalani, (Lee lee oh kuh LUH nee) Hawaii's last monarch, in 1893. The United States took control of Hawaii in 1898. It built many military bases on Oahu, including one at Pearl Harbor. On December 7, 1941, Japanese planes made a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, and the U.S. entered WWII. In 1959, Hawaii became the last star on the Stars and Stripes, the 50th state. Today, tourism has replaced sugarcane and pineapples as the leading industry.

Vanishing Treasures

Protecting the environment has become one of Hawaii's greatest challenges. There are more endangered species in Hawaii than anywhere else in the U.S. Most are lost or threatened because of competition with "alien" animals, plants, and insects that were brought by the Polynesian and European settlers.

National Science Education Standards

Unifying Concepts and Processes (K-8)

* Systems, order, and organization

* Evidence, models, and explanation

* Constancy, change, and measurement

* Form and function

Standard A: Science as Inquiry (K-8)

* Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry

* Understanding about scientific inquiry

Standard B: Physical Science (K-4)

* Properties of objects and materials

* Position and motion of objects

* Light, heat, electricity, and magnetism (5-8)

* Motions and forces

* Transfer of energy

Standard C: Life Science (K-4)

* The characteristics of organisms

* Organisms and environments (5-8)

* Regulation and behavior

* Populations and ecosystems

* Diversity and adaptations of organisms

Standard D: Earth and Space Science (K-4)

* Properties of earth materials (5-8)

* Structure of the earth system

* Earth's history

* Earth in the solar system

Standard E: Science and Technology (5-8)

* Abilities of technological design

Level Pre-A

Main Concepts: The Hawaiian Islands are in the Pacific Ocean.

Picture Activity

Have your students count the islands. Explain that the 8 islands in the picture make up the state of Hawaii. There are many smaller islands too. Tell them that Hawaii is very far away in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Hawaii is so far away that it would take about 5 days to go from California to Hawaii by ship. Volcanoes under the ocean made the islands. The volcanoes kept growing higher and higher until they rose above the water. Ask what WHY-FLY is doing. He is taking a helicopter ride. Lots of people take helicopter rides in Hawaii so they can see the coves, volcanoes, waterfalls, and hidden valleys from above.

Vocabulary

Answers: (Down) ALOHA, HELLO (Across) GOODBYE. Use the KEY to fill in the missing letters. Say "aloha" (a LOW ha)together. Aloha is the most popular word in the Hawaiian language.

Weekly Lab

You need: sugar (waffle style) ice cream cones, pudding (or apple sauce, whipped topping, or any food of similar consistency), plastic sandwich bags, napkins. You can use chocolate or strawberry pudding, or add red food coloring to vanilla pudding, to simulate a "lava" effect. Tell your students to bite off only the tip of the cone. Explain that this is where the "lava" will come out. Fill a small plastic bag with pudding and put it inside the inverted cone. Now, slowly squeeze the plastic bag, so the pudding will "erupt" out of the top of the cone and flow down the sides. Tell them not to squeeze too hard. Have lots of napkins on hand activity.

Weekly Problem

Answers: 5 + 4 = 9. Ask your students if they have ever snorkeled. What did they see? Explain that the coral reefs around Hawaii are filled with lots of colorful fish. Many kinds of fish live only in Hawaii. The two fish in this activity are the Hawaiian Squirrelfish (red and white) and the Bandit Angelfish (which is found only in Hawaii).

Storytelling

Ask if they have ever heard of wave sliding. Explain that is what Hawaiians called surfing when they invented it many years ago. The waves in Hawaii are so big that surfers from all over the world come here to surf. After they draw a picture of themselves surfing, ask them to tell a story about what it would feel like to ride one of Hawaii's big waves. Explain that WHY-FLY is making the "hang loose" sign with his hand, a very common and friendly gesture in Hawaii.

Challenge

You need: scissors, hole punch, yarn or string. Have your students cut out the flowers, then punch out the 2 red holes in the middle of each flower. They should weave their yarn or string through each flower so that the flowers will all be facing the front. Explain that the custom of giving leis began with the very first settlers in Hawaii. According to folklore, the sister of Pele (the goddess of volcanoes) gave the first lei. Leis are more than just a pretty necklace of flowers. They are given to express many things like hello, goodbye, I'm sorry, congratulations, and even I love you. Some leis are made with the hibiscus flower. The hibiscus is Hawaii's state flower and comes in many different colors.

Level A

Main Concepts: Hawaii is our newest state. It is far away. Underwater volcanoes made the Hawaiian Islands.

Picture Activity

Have your students count the islands. Explain that the 8 islands in the picture make up the state of Hawaii. There are many smaller ones too. Tell them that Hawaii is very far away in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Hawaii is so far away that it would take about 5 days to go from California to Hawaii by ship. Volcanoes under the ocean made the islands. The volcanoes kept growing higher and higher until they rose above the water. Ask what WHY-FLY is doing. He is taking a helicopter ride. Lots of people take helicopter rides in Hawaii, so that they can see the volcanoes, waterfalls, hidden valleys, and coves from above.

Vocabulary

Answers: (Across) HAWAII, GOODBYE (Down) ALOHA, HELLO. Use the KEY to fill in the missing letters. Have everyone say "aloha" (a LOH ha) together. Aloha is the most popular word in the Hawaiian language.

Weekly Lab

You need: sugar (waffle style) ice cream cones, pudding (or apple sauce, whipped topping or any food of similar consistency), plastic sandwich bags, napkins. You can use chocolate or strawberry pudding, or add red food coloring to vanilla pudding, to simulate a "lava" effect. Tell them to bite off only the tip of the cone. Explain that this is where the "lava" will come out. Fill a small plastic bag with pudding and put it inside the inverted cone. Now, slowly squeeze the plastic bag, so the pudding will "erupt" out of the top of the cone and flow down the sides. Tell them not to squeeze too hard. Have lots of napkins on hand. You can also dip the cone in melted chocolate or Magic Shell[TM] topping first. Have them watch as this coating hardens. Explain that lava hardens in much the same way when it cools.

Weekly Problem

Answers: 5, 4, 2 for a total of 11. Ask your students if they have ever snorkeled. What did they see? Explain that the coral reefs around Hawaii are filled with colorful fish. Many kinds of fish live only in Hawaii. The 3 fish in this activity are the Hawaiian Squirrelfish (red and white stripes), the Bandit Angelfish (black and white), which is found only in Hawaii, and the Fantail File fish, which is native to Hawaii. Tell them that the Fantail is unique because the horn-like structure on the top of its head makes it look like a unicorn.

Writing for Science

Ask them if they have ever heard of wave sliding. Explain that that is what Hawaiians called surfing when they invented it many years ago. The waves in Hawaii are so big that surfers from all over the world come here to surf. After they draw a picture of themselves surfing, ask them to write a story about what it would feel like to ride one of Hawaii's big waves. Explain that WHY-FLY is making the "hang loose" sign with his hand, a very common and friendly gesture in Hawaii.

Challenge

You need: scissors, hole punch, yarn or string. Have your students cut out the flowers, then punch out the 2 red holes in the middle of each flower. They should weave their yarn or string through each flower so that the flowers will all be facing the front. Explain that the custom of giving leis began with the very first settlers in Hawaii. According to folklore, the sister of Pele (the goddess of volcanoes) gave the first lei. Leis are more than just a pretty necklace of flowers. They are given to express many things like hello, goodbye, I'm sorry, congratulations, and even I love you. Some leis are made with the hibiscus flower. The hibiscus is Hawaii's state flower. Leis can also be made with flowers, nuts, shells, and even feathers. Explain that each island has a special flower or seashell that is used to make leis.

Level B

Main Concepts: Hawaii is an island state in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Some of the volcanoes that made the islands are still active. It has many beautiful beaches, rain forests, birds, plants, and animals.

Vocabulary

Answers: (Across) HAWAII, GOODBYE (Down) ALOHA, HELLO. Use the KEY to fill in the missing letters. Aloha is the most popular word in the Hawaiian language.

Weekly Lab

Explain that the bubbles created in this lab are filled with carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a gas that is formed when vinegar mixes with baking soda. It's also what makes people burp when they drink carbonated soft drinks. Explain that a real volcano is an opening in the Earth's surface. Gases in the volcano build up, and hot, melted rock pushes up from the Earth's core to create a volcano. Lava flows from the volcano.

Weekly Problem

Answers: Kauai - 14, Niihau - 10, Oahu - 11, Molokai - 12, Lanai - 15, Maui - 17, Kahoolawe - 14, Hawaii - 13. Maui is circled.

Writing for Science

Explain that although most people in Hawaii speak English, the ancient Hawaiian language is making a comeback. Encourage your students to say these words aloud. Tell them that the Hawaiian alphabet has only 12 letters -- the 5 regular vowels (a, e, i, o, u) and 7 consonants (h, k, l, m, n, p, and w).

Challenge

Explain that the oil floats on water because a drop of oil is lighter than a drop of water the same size. The boiling hot lava that erupts from an underwater volcano is also lighter than water around it.

Home Base

Have your students cut out the flower pattern and use it to trace other flowers on colored construction paper. Then have them punch 2 holes in each flower. They can use string or yarn to thread through the flowers so that they are all facing to the front.

Level C

Main Concepts: Underwater volcanoes made the Hawaiian Islands. Our 50th state is far away in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. It is the home of many plants and animals that don't live anywhere else on Earth.

Vocabulary

Answers: (Across) HAWAII, GOODBYE, ISLAND (Down) ALOHA, HELLO. Use the KEY to fill in the blanks. Aloha is the most popular word in the Hawaiian language.

Weekly Lab

Explain that the oil floats on water because a drop of oil is lighter than a drop of water the same size. The boiling hot lava that erupts from an underwater volcano is also lighter than water. When salt is first added, the oil sticks to the heavier salt and is pulled down. As the salt dissolves, it releases the oil, which then floats back to the surface. Explain that as lava cools, it becomes heavier and it settles back down on the ocean floor. Over time, a mountain is formed.

Weekly Problem

Answers: Kauai -- 4, Niihau -- 5, Oahu -- 3, Molokai -- 3, Lanai -- 5, Maui -- 6, Kahoolawe -- 2, Hawaii -- 4. Maui is circled.

Writing for Science

Explain that although most people in Hawaii speak English, the ancient Hawaiian language is making a comeback. Encourage your students to say these words aloud. Tell them that the Hawaiian alphabet has only 12 letters -- the 5 regular vowels (a, e, i, o, u) and 7 consonants (h, k, l, m, n, p, and w).

Challenge

Encourage your students to cut out their own plants and shells to add to the coral reef. Tell them that there are about 450 species of fish living in the coral reefs around Hawaii. About 1/4 of those species live only in Hawaii. It takes thousands of years for a reef to form.

Puzzle

Answer: IF YOU WALKED ON IT IN BARE FEET, YOU WOULD SAY "AAH"! "AAH"!

Level D

Main Concepts: Underwater volcanoes made the Hawaiian Islands. Hawaii's geography makes it special. It is isolated and many unique plants and animals grow here. Humpback whales travel to Hawaii to breed. Hawaii is also the best place in the world for stargazing.

Vocabulary

Answers: 1) waterfall 2) pineapple 3) surfboard 4) coastline 5) seashell.

Weekly Lab

These are some different recipes for creating lava flows. You can adjust these amounts for larger flows. Individual volcanoes can be built using a small empty can or other small container and some Play-Doh[TM] or clay. Using a paper plate as a base, simply shape a clay mountain around the container. Small groups of students can build a larger volcano using an inverted bucket as a base. On top of the bucket, place either a large cup or a plastic soft drink bottle with the neck cut off (be sure to smooth any sharp edges). Paper or plastic trash bags can be taped around the crater and arranged around the base. These can be stuffed with newspaper to create the sides of the volcano. If you use papier-mache, the sides can be painted more realistically. Have them vary the terrain (the folds, grooves, and crevices) to watch how they affect the lava flow. If your class has access to a sandbox, building volcanoes with sand and cups is a great "no-mess" way to experiment. Be sure to have lots of vinegar and baking soda for larger models. Also, try this recipe for Slow-moving Lava -- 1 Tbl. each of baking soda, alum powder, and unflavored gelatin. Add red and yellow food coloring. Pour in 1/4 cup of white vinegar.

Weekly Problem

Answers: Kauai -- 30, Niihau -- 90, Oahu -- 60, Molokai -- 70, Lanai -- 50, Maui -- 100, Kahoolawe -- 75, Hawaii -- 90. Maui is circled.

Writing for Science

Tell your students that the first ancestors of today's Hawaiians followed the stars and birds across long distances of dangerous ocean to Hawaii, which they called "The Land of Raging Fire." Ask why they chose those words to describe Hawaii. Discuss what it must have been like for these sailors to leave their homes and travel so far in canoes. Ask them to imagine that they are among these first settlers. Would they have been scared or excited on their adventure?

Challenge

Encourage them to cut out their own plants and shells to add to their coral reef. There are about 450 species of fish living in the coral reefs around Hawaii. About 1/4 of those species live only in Hawaii. It takes thousands of years for a reef to form.

Puzzle

Answer: IF YOU WALKED ON IT IN BARE FEET, YOU WOULD SAY "AAH"! "AAH"!

Level E

Main Concepts: The same volcanic forces that made our 50th state are forming a new island in the Pacific Ocean near Hawaii. Early explorers from Polynesia brought seeds and animals to Hawaii. Hawaii is a great place to see colorful beaches and unique plants, animals, and fish.

Vocabulary

Answers: 1) waterfall 2) pineapple 3) surfboard 4) coastline 5) seashell 6) rainbow.

Weekly Lab

These are some different recipes for creating lava flows. You can adjust these amounts for larger flows. Individual volcanoes can be built using a small empty can or other small container and some Play-Doh[TM] or clay. Using a paper plate as a base, simply shape a clay mountain around the container. Small groups of students can build a larger volcano using an inverted bucket as a base. On top of the bucket, place either a large cup or a plastic soft drink bottle with the neck cut off (be sure to smooth any sharp edges). Paper or plastic trash bags can be taped around the crater and arranged around the base. These can be stuffed with newspaper to create the sides of the volcano. If you use papier-mache, the sides can be painted more realistically. Have them vary the terrain (the folds, grooves, and crevices) to watch how they affect the lava flow. If your class has access to a sandbox, building volcanoes with sand and cups is a great "no-mess" way to experiment. Be sure to have lots of vinegar and baking soda for the larger models.

Weekly Problem

Answers: Kauai -- 10,150, Niihau -- 10,250, Oahu -- 9,800, Molokai -- 10,400, Lanai -- 9,990, Mai -- 10,500, Kahoolawe -- 10,200, Hawaii -- 10,350. Maui is circled.

Writing for Science

Tell your students that the first ancestors of today's Hawaiians followed the stars and birds across long distances of dangerous ocean to Hawaii, which they called "The Land of Raging Fire." Ask why they chose those words to describe Hawaii. Discuss what it must have been like for these sailors to leave their homes and travel so far in canoes. Ask them to imagine that they are among these first settlers. What would they have been feeling and thinking on their adventure?

Challenge

This is a model of a tiltmeter, an instrument used by scientists to help predict volcanic eruptions. A tiltmeter is placed on a volcano, with one end pointing toward the volcano's cone and the other end pointing away. A swelling in the volcano (rising lava) is detected when the water in the end pointing towards the cone goes down. A large swelling in a short period of time tells scientists that an eruption is likely to occur soon.

Puzzle

Answers: Flag A) Maryland (Black-Eyed Susan), Flag B) Arizona (Saguaro Cactus Flower), Flag C) Hawaii (Hibiscus), Flag D) Texas (Blue Bonnet), Flag E) New Mexico (Yucca), Flag F) Alaska (Forget-Me-Not). The 8 stripes on Hawaii's flag represent the state's main islands. In the upper left corner, a small version of Britain's flag honors a British captain who gave Hawaii its first flag in 1794. Go over the post office state abbreviations for other states.

Level F

Main Concepts: The same forces that made our 50th state are forming a new island in the Pacific Ocean near Hawaii. Hawaii is a great place to see colorful beaches and unique plants, animals, and fish, including Humpback whales. Astronomers from all over the world come to Hawaii to study the stars.

Weekly Lab

Lab A: See TN Level E -- WEEKLY LAB. Lab B: This is a model of a tiltmeter, an instrument used by scientists to help predict volcanic eruptions. A tiltmeter is placed on a volcano, with one end pointing toward the volcano's cone and the other end pointing away. A swelling in the volcano (rising lava) is detected when the water in the end pointing towards the cone goes down. A large swelling in a short period of time tells scientists that an eruption is likely to occur soon.

Weekly Problem

Answers: Kauai -- 24.5, Niihau -- 32.4, Oahu -- 26.45, Molokai -- 24.75, Lanai -- 25.2, Maui -- 36, Kahoolawe -- 26.65, Hawaii -- 22.5. Maui is circled.

Writing for Science

Tell your students that the first ancestors of today's Hawaiians followed the stars and birds across long distances of dangerous ocean to Hawaii, which they called "The Land of Raging Fire." Ask why they chose those words to describe Hawaii. Discuss what it must have been like for these sailors to leave their homes and travel so far in canoes. Ask them to imagine that they are among these first settlers. What would they have been feeling and thinking on their adventure?

Challenge

The purpose of this activity is to show how hot liquids, such as the lava from underwater volcanoes, rise in water. The large, clear container can be a fish bowl or large beaker. Fill the large container with very cold water (ice cubes may be added if needed). Fill the small jar with water as hot as can be handled safely. Remind your students to slowly and carefully lower the small jar into the cold water with the tongs. They will observe an interesting display of the hot colored water rising to the top of the cold water. If the water is very still, the colored water may form a distinct layer on the top. Also, point out the clear, cold water flowing into the small jar, as the hot water rises up and out of it.

Puzzle

Answers: Flag A) Maryland (Black-Eyed Susan), Flag B) Arizona (Saguaro Cactus Flower), Flag C) Hawaii (Hibiscus), Flag D) Texas (Blue Bonnet), Flag E) New Mexico (Yucca), Flag F) Alaska (Forget-Me-Not). The 8 stripes on Hawaii's flag represent the state's main islands. The small version of Britain's flag in the upper corner honors a British captain who gave Hawaii its first flag in 1794. Go over the post office abbreviations for other states.

Hawaii

Islands Born

Scientists have discovered a fiery volcano deep under the Pacific Ocean. Boiling lava -- liquid rock -- is oozing out of cracks in the ocean floor. The lava will erupt and build up for thousands of years, making a mountain. Finally, the mountain will grow tall enough to rise above the surface of the ocean. The mountain will become a new Hawaiian island. That's how each of the islands that make up our 50th and newest state was born!

Hawaii is a chain of islands far out in the Pacific Ocean. There are many small islands and 8 big ones. The biggest of these is the island of Hawaii. The state is named after this island. The others are Maui, Lanai, Molokai, Oahu, Kauai, Niihau, and Kahoolawe.

Hawaii is isolated, which means it is far away from any other land, including the United States. It is so far away that it would take about 5 days to sail a ship to Hawaii from the coast of California!

Life Begins

Long ago, there were no living things on the islands. Then seeds carried by wind, birds; and waves began to grow in the cooled lava. When the first explorers arrived about 1,500 years ago, thousands of different kinds of plants, birds, and insects were already living there! Some of those unique species have disappeared, but there are still many plants and animals that live only in Hawaii!

Tropical Paradise

Hawaii is famous for its beautiful sandy beaches and rainforests. Half of the state is covered with tropical forests, where most of the rain falls. There are also dry deserts and cold, snowy mountaintops. The clear blue waters off the islands are like giant aquariums, filled with beautiful plants and colorful fish. In the winter, humpback whales leave Alaska's icy waters and swim to Hawaii to have their babies. Hawaii is the best place in the world to stargaze, especially from the peak of one of its volcanoes. The night skies are almost never cloudy! Millions of people visit this tropical paradise every year.

Level E

DID YOU KNOW??

Almost all of Hawaii's native plants and animals live nowhere else on Earth.

DID YOU KNOW??

Some of the endangered plants in Hawaii produce life-saving medicines.

DID YOU KNOW??

Tourism is the No.1 business in Hawaii.

DID YOU KNOW??

The Hawaiian volcano Mauna Kea is the tallest mountain in the world, if you measure it from its base on the ocean floor.

DID YOU KNOW??

Every island in Hawaii has its own special flower lei.

Vocabulary

Surfing was invented long ago in ancient Hawaii. Surfboard is a compound word. Draw lines to make compound words.

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DID YOU KNOW??

The hula-hoop toy was named after the Hawaiian dance.

DID YOU KNOW??

Hawaii is the only U.S. state made up of islands.

DID YOU KNOW??

Hawaiians had no written language until the 1800's.

Weekly Lab

Try these 3 recipes for "lava." Be sure to place your cup in the center of a pan or bowl. Cover your work area.

You need: baking soda, white vinegar, red and yellow food coloring, carbonated cherry soft drink (or club soda with red food coloring), a small cup, a bowl, alum, unflavored gelatin, salt

Foamy Lava

Pour about 1/4 cup of carbonated cherry soft drink (or club soda with red food coloring added) into a small cup. Yellow food coloring may be added also. Now add 1 tsp. of salt.

Slow Lava

Place 1 Tbl. each of baking soda, alum powder, and unflavored gelatin into a cup. Mix well. Add 4 drops each of red and yellow food coloring. Now pour about 1/4 cup of white vinegar into the mixture.

Quick Lava

Place 1 Tbl. of baking soda in a small cup. Add 4 drops each of red and yellow food coloring. Now pour in about 1/4 cup of white vinegar.

DID YOU KNOW??

Astronauts trained for moon voyages by walking on Hawaii's lava fields.

Weekly Problem

Humpback whales come to the warm waters of Hawaii to have their babies. Find their favorite island. It will have the greatest product. Circle it.

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DID YOU KNOW??

The Reef Triggerfish is called humuhumunukunukuapua'a in Hawaiian.

DID YOU KNOW??

Hawaii is 2,500 miles away from its closest neighbor!

Writing for Science

The first people to come to Hawaii were from other islands in the Pacific Ocean called Polynesia. They were expert sailors who used the sun, stars, wind, and even the moon to find land.

Imagine that you are one of these adventurous early sailors. What do you think it would have been like to travel to a place no one had ever seen before? What would it have been like to leave your family and home? Write a story.

DID YOU KNOW??

In folklore, a sailor named Hawai'i Loa led the first Polynesians to Hawaii.

DID YOU KNOW??

Liliuokalani was Hawaii's only ruling queen.

Challenge

Scientists use a tiltmeter to help predict when a volcano will erupt.

You need: two 5 ounce (150 ml) paper cups, a pencil, a drinking straw, clay, a shallow baking pan, water

* Use the pencil to make a hole through the side of each paper cup near the bottom edge. Make holes small enough that the straw fits tightly.

* Insert about 1/2 inch (1.25 cm) of the straw into each hole. Seal around with clay.

* Place the connected cups in the center of your pan.

* Fill both cups half full with water.

* Lift one end of the pan so that it is about 2 inches (5 cm) above the table.

What happens to the water in each cup?

Puzzle

Hawaii has its own flag. So do the other states. Match each state abbreviation to its state flower. Then add both numbers to discover the flag for that state.

HI (420) AZ (222) TX (324) AK (426) NM (528) MD (630)

+ (42) Yucca New Mexico

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+ (63) Forget Me Not Alaska

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+ (58) Hibiscus - Hawaii

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+ (99) Saguaro Arizona

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+ (50) Black-eyed Susan Maryland

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+ (35) Bluebonnet Texas

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(A) 680

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(B) 321

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(C) 478

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(D) 359

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(E) 570

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(F) 489

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DID YOU KNOW??

There are 1,400 species of plants and flowers growing in Hawaii.

DID YOU KNOW??

The Hawaiian alphabet has only 12 letters.

Weekly Resources

Helpful Sources for Planning Your Science Weekly Classroom Activities

Recommended Resources

* Feeney, Stephanie. Hawaii is a Rainbow. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1985

* Gilbreath, Alice. Ring of Fire. Minneapolis, MN: Dillon Press, 1986

* Johnson, Joyce. Hawaii. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications, 1995

* Nelson, Sharlene and Ted Nelson. Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (A True Book). New York: Children's Press, 1998

* Sly, Alexandra. Hawaiian Islands. New York: Dillon Press, 1991

Internet Resources

Find out more about the Hawaiian Language -- http://www.hisurf.com/hawaiian/dictionary.html http://www.hookele.com/kuhikuhi/olelo.html

Hawaii's Endagered Animals -- http://www.hisurf.com/~enchanted

Learn more about Hawaii's History -- http://www.hawaiianhistory.org/

Hawaii's Volcanoes -- http://www.germantown.k12.il.us/html/volcanoes1.html http://www.uhh.hawaii.edu/~csav/images/imgal.html http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/hawaii/page03.html

Hula Links -- http://geocities.com/~olelo/hulalinks.html

Hawaii's Coral Reefs -- http://www.epa.gov/ owow/oceans/coral/about.html http://library.thinkquest.org/J002237/

Lots of Humpback Whale facts from PBS -- http://pbs.org/wnet/nature/humpback

Materials Needed for Issue 14 -- Fabrics and Fibers

Pre-A, A -- samples of fibers and fabrics -- these might include cotton balls, spools of cotton thread, yarn, a variety of both knitted and woven fabrics as knitted wool sweaters, woven wool scarves or jackets, cotton tee shirts, blue jeans, cheese cloth (a loosely woven cotton fabric), construction paper, scissors, glue or paste, magnifying glasses

B, C, D -- samples of fibers and fabrics -- these might include cotton balls, spools of cotton thread, yarn, a variety of both knitted and woven fabrics as knitted wool sweaters, woven wool scarves or jackets, cotton tee shirts, blue jeans, cheese cloth (a loosely woven cotton fabric), rubber bands, sand paper (grit 100 or 150), tennis balls or other small balls, shoe-box tops, 2 colors of yarn, tape, scissors, magnifying glasses

E -- samples of fibers and fabrics -- these might include cotton balls, spools of cotton thread, yarn, a variety of both knitted and woven fabrics as knitted wool sweaters, woven wool scarves or jackets, cotton tee shirts, blue jeans, cheese cloth (a loosely woven cotton fabric), sand paper (grit 100 or 150), tennis balls or other small balls, tape, scissors

F -- samples of fibers and fabrics -- these might include cotton balls, spools of cotton thread, yarn, a variety of both knitted and woven fabrics as knitted wool sweaters, woven wool scarves or jackets, cotton tee shirts, blue jeans, cheese cloth (a loosely woven cotton fabric), rubber bands, shoe-box tops, 3 colors of yarn, sand paper (grit 100 or 150), tennis balls or other small balls, tape, scissors
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Publication:Science Weekly
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 8, 2002
Words:6183
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