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Haiti earthquake: crisis and response.

Summary

The largest earthquake ever recorded in Haiti devastated parts of the country, including the capital, on January 12, 2010. The quake, centered about 15 miles southwest of Port-au-Prince, had a magnitude of 7.0. A series of strong aftershocks followed. Witnesses are describing the damage as severe and catastrophic. Communication services were cut off by the earthquake, so detailed information has been limited. Initial reports indicate that thousands of buildings collapsed, leaving unknown numbers of people trapped, and tens of thousands of people homeless in the streets. Early estimates of casualties are constantly being updated, but already reach into the hundreds of thousands. According to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, "[o]f Haiti's 9 million people, initial reports suggest roughly a third may be affected by the disaster." About 45,000 U.S. citizens live in Haiti, and the Embassy has been asked to help account for about 3,000 of them.

Describing conditions in his country as "unimaginable" following the earthquake, President Rene Preval appealed for international assistance. The country's top priority was to conduct search and rescue operations for survivors. Other priorities included an offshore vessel medical unit and electricity generation capability. The government also requested communications equipment so that government officials can better function and coordinate response efforts. The Haitian government, the United Nations, and donor representatives met in Haiti on January 14 to coordinate their efforts.

The arrival of humanitarian supplies has begun, but access to Port-au-Prince and the distribution of aid to people in need is difficult and hampered by a number of significant challenges that are impeding rescue efforts and movement. People are gathering in open spaces and some are reportedly leaving Port-au-Prince for other areas in Haiti.

On January 12, 2010, President Obama assembled heads of agencies to begin working immediately on a coordinated response to the disaster. On January 13, 2010, U.S. Ambassador to Haiti Kenneth H. Merten issued a disaster declaration, and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) through the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) authorized $50,000 for the initial implementation of an emergency response program. The U.S. embassy in Haiti also began facilitating the evacuation of U.S. citizens. On January 14, President Obama announced $100 million in humanitarian assistance to Haiti to provide significant resources to meet the immediate needs on the ground. The relief effort is expected to last for many months, although it is anticipated that recovery and reconstruction will begin as soon as possible in a parallel effort.

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) announced on January 13, 2010, that it is temporarily halting the deportation of Haitians. On January 15, 2010, DHS Secretary Janet Napolitano granted Temporary Protected Status (TPS) for 18 months to Haitian nationals who were in the United States as of January 12, 2010.

The focus of this report is on the immediate crisis in Haiti as a result of the earthquake and the U.S. and international response to date.
Contents

Current Conditions
Haitian Government Response
Humanitarian Relief Operation
  Status of the Relief Operation
U.S. Response
  U.S. Humanitarian Assistance
    USAID
    Department of Defense
  Overall U.S. FY2010 Assistance
International Response
    Sources of International Humanitarian Assistance
    U.N. Consolidated Appeals Process
Response of International Financial Institutions
  Multilateral Lending
  Debt Relief
Regional response
Implications for Haiti
Congressional Concerns
  Funding
  Immigration
  Constituent Concerns and Private Charities
Legislation in the 111th Congress
    Regarding U.S. Citizens in Haiti
    Haitian Citizens in the U.S.

Figures

Figure 1. Haiti Earthquake Epicenter
Figure A-1. An Estimate of the Population in Haiti and Surrounding
  Areas exposed to Ground Shaking Caused by the January 12, 2010
  Magnitude 7.0 Earthquake

Tables

Table 1. Donor Contributions and Pledges to Haiti in Response to
   the January 12, 2010 Earthquake

Appendixes

Appendix A. Exposed Population
Appendix B. The U.S. Government Emergency Response Mechanism for
  International Disasters

Appendix C. How to Search for or Report on Individuals in Haiti
Appendix D. How to Contribute to Relief Efforts
Appendix E. Links for Further Information

Contacts

Author Contact Information
Key Policy Staff


Current Conditions

The largest earthquake ever recorded in Haiti devastated parts of the country, including the capital, on January 12, 2010. The quake, centered about 15 miles southwest of Port-au-Prince, had a magnitude of 7.0. A series of strong aftershocks followed. (1) Witnesses are describing the damage as severe and catastrophic. Communication services were cut off by the quake, so detailed information is difficult to come by. Initial reports indicate that thousands of buildings collapsed, leaving unknown numbers of people trapped, and tens of thousands of people homeless in the streets. Early estimates of casualties are constantly being updated, but already reach into the hundreds of thousands. According to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, "[o]f Haiti's 9 million people, initial reports suggest roughly a third may be affected by the disaster." (2) About 45,000 U.S. citizens live in Haiti, and the Embassy has been asked to help account for about 3,000 of them. Aftershocks have the potential to cause further damage, especially to structures weakened by the initial large earthquake; 14 aftershocks greater than magnitude 5 and 36 greater than magnitude 4 were felt within one day, and they could continue for weeks. In addition, steep slopes and rugged topography near the epicenter increase the chances for earthquake- and aftershock-triggered landslides, which pose a further hazard to structures and people downslope from landslide-prone regions. (3)

Recovery efforts will be made extremely difficult by the loss of personnel and infrastructure that would be part of a recovery effort. Among the missing and dead are Haitian government officials and international aid personnel, including many United Nations personnel. Housing, hospitals, schools, and many government buildings have collapsed. Basic services such as electricity and water are almost completely disrupted. Major transportation routes are damaged and/or blocked. Although the airport continues to function, the control tower was destroyed. The main port suffered heavy damage.

The roof of the Presidential Palace collapsed; President Preval is safe, but was initially unable to communicate with his Cabinet. The Parliament building collapsed, with some Members trapped inside and others dead. Buildings of the Ministries of Finance, Public Works, and Justice are also damaged or destroyed, and government officials report having difficulty finding places to meet.

The United Nations, which has a strong presence in Haiti, and would be at the forefront of on-the-ground response for security and humanitarian assistance, suffered heavy losses as well. Its headquarters collapsed, and about 300 U.N. personnel are unaccounted for, including the head of the U.N. Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), Special Representative Hedi Annabi, his deputy, Luiz Carlos da Costa, and other civilian staff and peacekeepers. U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon sent Assistant Secretary General Edmond Mulet to Haiti on January 13 to direct the U.N.'s immediate response efforts; Mulet is a former Special Representative of the Secretary

General for MINUSTAH.

All of this damage is sustained in a country that already was socially and ecologically at risk. Haiti suffers massive and deep poverty. Over one-half of the population (54%) lives in extreme poverty, living on less than $1 a day; 78% live on $2 or less a day, according to the World Bank. Hunger is also widespread: 81% of the national population does not get the minimum daily ration of food defined by the World Health Organization. Haiti was already in an acute environmental crisis. Following the hurricanes of 2008, the President of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), Luis Moreno, called Haiti the most fragile of IDB's member countries, saying that no other nation in Latin America and the Caribbean is as vulnerable to economic shocks and natural disasters as is Haiti. The United Nations already designated Haiti as one of the 50 "least developed countries" in the world, facing a higher risk than other countries of failing to come out of poverty, and therefore needing the highest degree of attention from the international community. (4)

Prior to the earthquake, the international community was providing extensive development and humanitarian assistance to Haiti. With that assistance, the Haitian government had made significant progress in recent years in many areas of its development strategy, including security; judicial reform; macroeconomic management; procurement processes and fiscal transparency; increased voter registration; and jobs creation. It had also made progress in providing broader access to clean water and other services. Parliamentary elections were scheduled for February 2010. These presumably will be delayed.

The U.N. Secretary-General had commissioned a report, published in January 2009, that recommended a strategy to move Haiti beyond recovery to economic security. (5) Indeed, the U.N. Security Council conducted a fact-finding visit to Haiti in March 2009, and concluded that there was "a window of opportunity to enable the consolidation of stability and the undertaking of a process of sustainable development." (6)

The destruction of Haiti's nascent infrastructure and other extensive damage caused by January's earthquake will set back Haiti's development significantly. U.N. Special Envoy and former President Bill Clinton said that Haiti's long-term development plans "will need to be amended ... but they cannot be abandoned." (7)

Haitian Government Response

Describing conditions in his country as "unimaginable" following the earthquake, President Preval appealed for international assistance. The country's top priority was to conduct search and rescue operations for survivors. Other priorities included an offshore vessel medical unit and electricity generation capability. The government also requested communications equipment so that government officials can better function and coordinate response efforts. The Haitian government, the United Nations, and donor representatives met in Haiti on January 14 to coordinate their efforts.

Prior to this disaster, the World Bank and others were working with the Haitian government to incorporate disaster risk management into Haiti's overall development strategy and to develop its capacity for disaster response. The capacity was still in its early stages, however, and the focus of much of its risk management efforts was not geared toward earthquakes, but toward hurricanes, which are the most common cause of natural disasters on the island. The last major earthquake in Haiti was 150 years ago, in 1860.

Humanitarian Relief Operation

The massive humanitarian relief operation already underway in Haiti is hampered by a number of significant challenges, including a general lack of transportation, extremely limited communications systems, and damaged infrastructure. In many parts of Port-au-Prince, roads are ruptured or blocked by collapsed buildings, debris, bodies, and people seeking open space, impeding rescue efforts and movement. Lack of electricity and clean water is a major problem. Hospitals that remain functioning have reached full capacity and people are also being treated in unsanitary makeshift areas. Fuel shortages also have been reported, which affect generator power for life-saving equipment.

The priority is search and rescue assistance, including teams with heavy-lift equipment and medical assistance and supplies. In addition, there is a critical need for food, clean water and sanitation, and emergency shelter. In-depth assessments are necessary to obtain a more detailed understanding of the situation on the ground. Until assessments can be completed, the humanitarian needs cannot be fully determined. The arrival of humanitarian supplies has begun, but access to Port-au-Prince and the distribution of aid to people in need is difficult. People are gathering in open spaces and some are reportedly leaving Port-au-Prince for other areas in Haiti. There are increasing concerns about security and potential for looting and violence.

The relief effort is expected to last for many months, although it is anticipated that recovery and reconstruction will begin as soon as possible in a parallel effort.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Status of the Relief Operation

The headquarters of the U.N. Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) was reportedly very badly damaged. Thirty-six military and civilian MINUSTAH personnel have died and more than 300 staff are reported missing or remain unaccounted for. U.N. staff are being deployed to Haiti to increase capacity. MINUSTAH is providing search and rescue operations, security, and assistance. With Mr. Hedi Annabi still missing, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has sent Edmond Mulet, former Special Representative to Haiti and current Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, to take command of MINUSTAH and coordinate the relief effort. The United Nations typically works with government ministries on how best to provide assistance. On January 15, 2010, Mr. Mulet met with President Preval to discuss the status of the rescue operation and to address issues of law and order.

The United Nations has also deployed Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) and U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) teams. The United Nations Resident/Humanitarian Coordinator, Kim Bolduc, was deployed to Haiti in November 2009. Traditionally, soon after a disaster, a Humanitarian Country Team, which includes U.N. agencies, international NGOs, national NGOs, and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) as observers, will be assembled. In Haiti, UNOCHA is helping to coordinate the 27 search and rescue teams and assistance effort while focusing on other humanitarian priorities. The World Food Program (WFP) is supporting immediate relief efforts and working on emergency logistics and telecommunications. Together with the United Nations Humanitarian Response Depot (UNHRD), they are providing food from El Salvador as well as distributing relief supplies and food from a depot in Panama. The World Health Organization (WHO) is coordinating medical assistance, particularly victim care. The U.N. Children's Fund (UNICEF) is focusing on identifying and reuniting children with their families.

Humanitarian relief sectors are typically established during humanitarian crises to enable the U.N. Humanitarian Country Team to coordinate partners, prioritize resources, and facilitate planning. To date in Haiti, relief sectors have been organized into five clusters led by various agencies, including: (8)

* Emergency Shelter and Non-food Items (International Organization for Migration)

* Food Assistance (WFP)

* Health (WHO)

* Logistics (WFP)

* Water/Sanitation (UNICEF)

A number of other clusters are expected to be mobilized in the coming days. Various international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that were already operating in Haiti before the earthquake are mobilizing to respond to the crisis. Reportedly hundreds of local staff are assisting with the relief effort. (9)

In addition, the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) is working with the Haitian Red Cross Society (HRCS) and other national red cross societies, including the American Red Cross, to provide assistance to earthquake survivors. The IFRC is coordinating efforts with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), which is focused on medical assistance, tracing the missing and helping to restore family links. The ICRC is also helping with the identification and collection of mortal remains.

U.S. Response

U.S. Humanitarian Assistance

On January 13, 2010, U.S. Ambassador to Haiti Kenneth H. Merten issued a disaster declaration, and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), through the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), authorized $50,000 for the initial implementation of an emergency response program. (See Appendix B for further information about the U.S. Government humanitarian response mechanism.) The embassy also facilitated the evacuation of U.S. citizens and issued a travel warning.

On January 14, 2009, President Obama announced $100 million in humanitarian assistance to Haiti to provide significant resources to meet the immediate needs on the ground. At present, there is reportedly some carryover funding expected from the International Disaster Assistance Account as well as the P.L. 480 food aid account. In addition, money in the FY2010 budget will be made available.

The U.S. government has set up an interagency task force to coordinate and facilitate the humanitarian response to the earthquake in Haiti through the Washington, DC-based Response Management Team headed by USAID/OFDA. At this point, the overall focus of the U.S. government's response is search and rescue, logistics and infrastructure support, provision of assistance where possible, and conducting needs assessments. The activities of some of the key agencies--USAID and DOD--are described below. (10)

USAID

USAID/OFDA has deployed a 17-member Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) to Haiti. The Washington, DC, Response Management Team is also in place to support the USAID/DART, which will focus on assessing humanitarian needs and coordinating assistance with the U.S. Embassy in Haiti, the Government of Haiti, and the international community. The Fairfax Urban Search and Rescue Team has deployed 72 staff, and Los Angeles County has also sent teams along with support staff, both including search and rescue canines and rescue equipment. Food aid through USAID's Food for Peace Program (FFP) will come from prepositioned stocks in Texas. In coordination with the WFP, USAID has food aid for 1.2 million people over the next two weeks.

Department of Defense (11)

In response to the crisis in Haiti, the Department of Defense (DOD) has indicated that a broad range of military assets are being deployed to support U.S. and international assistance efforts. U.S. Southern Command (SOUTHCOM), located in Miami, FL, is overseeing the Department's response efforts. SOUTHCOM is well-experienced in this type of operation, having supported 14 relief missions in the Latin American and Caribbean area since 2005. SOUTHCOM's initial assessment team consisting of military engineers, operational planners, and command and control communication specialists has deployed to Haiti. U.S. Air Force Special Operations Command personnel dispatched to the Port-au-Prince International Airport have restored air traffic control capability and are enabling round-the-clock airfield operations. These personnel from Air Force 720th Special Tactics Group can also provide emergency medical services and conduct search and rescue missions.

For updates, see SOUTHCOM at http://www.southcom.mil/appssc/index.php; the U.S. Air Force Special Operations Command at http://www.afsoc.af.mil/; and the Air Force 720th Special Tactics Group at http://www2.afsoc.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=223.

The U.S. Air Force's Air Mobility Command is providing transport aircraft, including C-17 Globemaster IIIs and C-130 Hercules. Air National Guard units from Ohio and Puerto Rico have also provided transport aircraft and, according to Air Force officials, additional transport aircraft will be provided as needed.

For updates, see the Air Force Air Mobility Command at http://www.amc.af.mil/.

The U.S. Navy has deployed eight ships to assist relief efforts: the nuclear aircraft carrier USS Carl Vinson, augmented with additional helicopters; the amphibious assault ship USS Bataan; the dock-landing ships USS Fort McHenry and USS Carter Hall; the cruiser USS Normandy; the destroyer USS Underwood; the frigate USS Higgins; and the hospital ship USNS Comfort. The Navy Expeditionary Combat Command is expected to deploy units that can provide explosive ordnance disposal, maritime and riverine security, diving/salvage experts, and naval construction personnel. U.S. Navy surveillance aircraft have performed initial aerial surveys of the earthquake damage to assist remediation efforts.

For updates, see the USS Carl Vinson at http://www.cvn70.navy.mil/; the USS Bataan at http://www.bataan.navy.mil/default.aspx; the USS Fort McHenry at http://www.fortmchenry.navy.mil/default.aspx; the USS Carter Hall at http://www.carter-hall.navy.mil/ default.aspx; the USS Normandy at http://www.normandy.navy.mil/default.aspx; the USS Underwood at http://www.underwood.navy.mil/default.aspx; the USS Higgins at http://www.higgins.navy.mil/default.aspx; the USNS Comfort at http://www.med.navy.mil/sites/ usnscomfort/Pages/default.aspx; and the Navy Expeditionary Combat Command at http://www.necc.navy.mil/.

The amphibious assault ship and the dock-landing ships are transporting the 22nd Marine Expeditionary Unit (2,000 personnel) and the initial company of an expected brigade of the 82nd Airborne Division (3,400 personnel) to conduct security/stabilization operations. Reportedly up to 10,000 members of the military will soon be deployed to Haiti.

For updates, see the 22nd Marine Expeditionary Unit at http://www.lejeune.usmc.mil/22ndMEU/; and the 82nd Airborne Division at http://www.bragg.army.mil/82DV/.

The U.S. Coast Guard has undertaken the air-medical evacuation of injured U.S. civilian personnel to the Guantanamo Naval Station, supplied two C-130 transport aircraft, and deployed

four cutters: USS Forward, USS Mohawk, USS Valiant, USS Tahoma.

Overall U.S. FY2010 Assistance

In the FY2010 Consolidated Appropriations Act (P.L. 111-117) Congress provided "not less than $295,530,000" for assistance for Haiti, about $2.7 million more than the Administration had requested. Congress also included Haiti in the Caribbean Basin Security Initiative, to provide equipment and training to combat drug trafficking and related violence and organized crime, and for judicial reform, institution building, education, anti-corruption, rule of law activities, and maritime security.

The Administration had requested $293 million in assistance for Haiti, including $21 million and $91 million for Global Health and Child Survival under USAID and State Department, respectively; $125 million in Economic Support Funds; $35.5 million in P.L. 480 food aid; $18.5 million for International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement; $0.22 million for International Military Education and Training, and $1.6 million in Foreign Military Financing. Of that funding, $1.4 million was requested for Disaster Readiness programs. (See "Legislation in the 111th Congress" section below.)

International Response

Sources of International Humanitarian Assistance

So far, through governments and the private sector, the international community has pledged millions of dollars in aid, materials, and technical support. Table 1 highlights donor contributions and in-kind pledges.

U.N. Consolidated Appeals Process

Under the U.N. Consolidated Appeals Process, on January 15, 2010, the U.N. Humanitarian Country Team in Haiti issued a Flash Appeal for emergency financial assistance in the amount of $562 million. The funds will initially support emergency food aid, health, water, sanitation, early recovery, emergency education, and other key needs. The U.N.'s Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) initially made available $10 million and this number is expected to increase.

Response of International Financial Institutions (12)

Multilateral Lending

The multilateral development banks (MDBs) have been active in Haiti in recent years, providing debt relief, loans, and grants. After the earthquake, the World Bank announced $100 million in emergency grant funding to support recovery and reconstruction, in addition to its existing $308 million portfolio of grants projects in Haiti. (13) The existing projects are in areas including disaster risk management, infrastructure, community-driven development, education, and economic governance. The World Bank is the only international financial institution providing all of its assistance as grants, thus ensuring that Haiti does not accumulate any additional debt to it. In addition to World Bank programs, the World Bank administers several donor-funded trust funds. Since 2003, trust funds administered by the World Bank have given more than $55 million to Haiti.

On January 12, 2010, Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) President Luis Alberto Moreno announced a $200,000 emergency grant for immediate relief aid. The IDB is Haiti's largest multilateral donor, with a portfolio of programs worth over $700 million, as of the end of 2009. (14) These programs include both grants and concessional loans. Of this amount, $330 million is undisbursed, of which $90 million could be quickly redirected to high-priority civil works and reconstruction projects, according to the IDB. (15) IDB management also announced that it anticipates the approval of up to $128 million in already-planned grants, potentially providing more resources for reconstruction.

Haiti receives concessional loans from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) as well as from the development banks. (16) In response to the earthquake, the IMF announced it will provide $100 million in additional concessional loans, following approval from its member countries. This would be additional debt incurred by the country. Including the new lending, total Haiti debt to the IMF would be $277.9 million. Of this amount, close to $170 million in concessional lending to Haiti has already been disbursed. (17)

Debt Relief

Haiti completed the multilateral Enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative in June 2009, making it eligible to receive debt relief from the multilateral and some bilateral creditors. Under the terms of their participation in the Enhanced HIPC program, the World Bank provided Haiti debt relief for debts incurred through December 2003. According to the World Bank, debt relief under the Enhanced HIPC Initiative amounts to $140.3 million. Haiti has no outstanding debt to the World Bank.

The IDB, in September 2009, provided $511 million in debt relief. Debts eligible for cancellation were those incurred through 2004 (compared to 2003 in the case of IDA). According to the IDB, Haiti currently owes $429 million (principal-only) to the IDB. This includes $305 million from loans made in 2005 and 2006, after the debt cancellation cut-off date of December 31, 2004, and $124 million from undisbursed balances of loans made before the cut-off date. Beginning in 2009, Haiti's payments on its debt to the IDB have been made by a U.S.-supported trust fund that currently amounts to $20 million.

Haiti has also received debt relief from its bilateral creditors. Haiti's completion of the HIPC program triggered debt relief of $62.7 million by the Paris Club group of official creditors. Haiti's Paris Club creditors agreed to go beyond the requirements of the HIPC program, however, and provide $152 million in additional debt cancellation, thus completely cancelling Haiti's external Paris Club debt of $214 million. That said, Paris Club debt relief is not automatic. Creditor nations collectively sign bilateral agreements with the debtor nation, giving effect to the multilateral debt relief agreement. On September 18, 2009, the United States cancelled $12.6 million, totaling 100% of Haiti's outstanding debt to the United States. Several countries, however, have not yet completed their debt relief agreements. While most Paris Club members have implemented the sum of their Paris Club debt relief, France has only cancelled 4 million [euro] ($5.75 million) of 58 million [euro] ($83.36 million) owed to them by Haiti. The French Finance Minister asked on January 15, 2010, that debt relief be sped up, and that Taiwan and Venezuela, two of Haiti's largest non-Paris Club creditors, forgive Haiti's debts owed to them, $71.2 million and $112 million respectively.

Regional response

Latin American countries have responded to Haiti's crisis with immediate provision of emergency supplies and personnel and pledges of financial and other assistance for its long-term recovery. Members of the Organization of American States (OAS) pledged humanitarian, financial and other support to Haiti, and its Assistant Secretary General, Ambassador Albert Ramdin, will travel to Haiti as soon as possible. The OAS Group of Friends of Haiti met on January 14 to coordinate search and rescue efforts, prompt donations, and discuss ways to promote recovery.

The 15-member Caribbean Community (CARICOM), of which Haiti is also a member, mobilized its disaster emergency response system to assist Haiti, and several members have sent emergency supplies or promised financial assistance. The Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency has assembled a response team to assess conditions in Haiti as well. (18) Some CARICOM employees already working in Haiti were missing as of January 13.

Many countries in the region already have peacekeeping troops in Haiti serving with MINUSTAH. Brazil leads the U.N. peacekeeping mission, and had 1,284 uniformed personnel already serving there as of December 2009.

Implications for Haiti

The impact of the January earthquake on Haiti's people, government, security, and economy is catastrophic. Haiti had built a foundation of social stability over the past five years. That stability was fragile, however, and a disaster of this proportion will test it to the extremes. In the initial days after the earthquake struck, there was chaos, but violence was reportedly sporadic. As hundreds of thousands of people remain without food, water, shelter, and medical services, the challenge of maintaining order will be an enormous task. Those same conditions, along with a limited ability to respond to them, will create a precarious environment.

Haiti already had a development and poverty reduction strategy in place, supported by the international donor community. The government had been making strides toward meeting goals of that strategy, and analysts were viewing its potential for sustainable development with optimism. Investors had begun to return to Haiti and the country was promoting its economic development. The earthquake has reversed years of progress. Haiti's strategy will therefore need to be reviewed, revised, and built upon to incorporate new conditions and needs.

The destruction of buildings, equipment, and loss of skilled personnel has drastically reduced the ability of the government, international organizations, and non-governmental organizations to respond rapidly. These losses, plus the difficulty of delivering and transporting material supplies, will hinder delivery of services. In much of the country the government did not provide basic services prior to the earthquake; what little basic services were available, in terms of water, health, and electricity, were mostly destroyed. The lack of medicines or medical treatment, water, and adequate sanitation in Haiti has been exacerbated by the earthquake and may increase the spread of disease.

Parliamentary elections were scheduled for February 2010. These presumably will be delayed, which may add to the political tensions already evident before the earthquake over the exclusion of several parties from the process. The elections were seen as part of the process of consolidating Haiti's democratic institutions.

Migration may become another challenging issue both domestically and internationally, as people try to leave Port-au-Prince for unaffected rural areas, the Dominican Republic, nearby islands, or the United States.

Congressional Concerns

Many Members have already expressed a strong desire to support Haiti and provide it with substantial assistance. The 111th Congress gave bipartisan support to assist the Preval government in the last session, and has continued to respond in that spirit to the crisis generated by the January earthquake. Fourteen Senators have requested that the chamber's leaders "include robust emergency funds to assist Haiti in the next legislative vehicle before the Senate." (19)

Funding

An immediate concern of many is whether there is sufficient funding for the U.S. emergency response. President Obama announced the United States would provide $100 million in immediate aid for Haiti. That aid is drawn from existing funds from across government agencies. Once USAID and other assessment teams are able to determine the extent of damage, estimates for the amount of immediate emergency and humanitarian aid needed will be determined. Other donors, such as international organizations, international financial institutions, other governments, non-governmental organizations, and the public, are also making substantial donations toward meeting that need.

If funding for the immediate emergency and humanitarian response is met, Congress will likely consider a major request to help fund Haiti's recovery and reconstruction, which will require even greater funding. Congress may reevaluate and revise priorities and approaches of U.S. assistance to Haiti in light of the changed conditions there. Issues that have previously concerned Congress have included democracy building, development assistance and poverty reduction, security enhancement and stability, counternarcotics efforts, police and judicial reform, and disaster recovery and prevention.

Humanitarian assistance generally receives strong bipartisan congressional support and the United States is typically a leader and major contributor to relief efforts in humanitarian disasters. (20) When disasters require immediate emergency relief, the Administration may fund pledges by depleting its disaster accounts intended for worldwide use throughout a fiscal year. In order to respond to future humanitarian crises, however, these resources would need to be replenished or it could curtail U.S. capacity to respond to other emergencies. These accounts are typically restored through supplemental appropriations.

Another issue of immediate concern to Congress is likely to involve arrangements regarding elections. Haiti was due to hold parliamentary elections in February 2010. In all likelihood they will be postponed, considering the extent of losses suffered by the Haitian government and the UN, which was to provide security and technical support, and massive humanitarian needs generated by the earthquake.

Immigration (21)

The devastation caused by the earthquake in Haiti prompted calls by some Members of Congress for the Obama Administration to grant Temporary Protected Status (TPS) to Haitians in the United States at the time of the earthquake. The issue of Haitian TPS has arisen several times in the past few years, but the previous Administration did not grant TPS or other forms of blanket relief to Haitians, and at that time, Congress opted not to enact legislation that would have provided TPS to Haitians, such as H.R. 522 in the 110th Congress. The scale of the current humanitarian crisis led the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to announce on January 13, 2010, that it is temporarily halting the deportation of Haitians. On January 15, 2010, DHS Secretary Janet Napolitano granted TPS for 18 months to Haitian nationals who were in the United States as of January 12, 2010. The Haitian Protection Act of 2009 (H.R. 144), which would require the Secretary of Homeland Security to designate TPS for Haitians, was introduced last year on January 6, 2009.

Many Haitians in areas devastated by the earthquake are reportedly moving to rural areas of the country. Congress may monitor immigration policy if Haitians begin to take to the seas to migrate to nearby islands or the United States as well.

Constituent Concerns and Private Charities

Lawmakers are also helping constituents find persons missing in Haiti, and helping citizens in Haiti get evacuated from Haiti. Information on how to help them do so is in Appendix C. Lawmakers may also seek to find ways for the Haitian and U.S. governments to speed pending and potential adoptions of Haitian orphans.

Many constituents want to know how to contribute to relief efforts. Information on how to do so is in Appendix D. A bipartisan group of Senators is sponsoring a bill designed to increase charitable donations to Haiti. The legislation would temporarily ease tax exemption laws, allowing taxpayers to deduct a larger amount from their annual income for charitable contributions. It would also encourage food donations by temporarily extending special tax rules for them. (22)

Legislation in the 111th Congress

P.L. 111-117. In the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, Sec. 7045(b) deals expressly with Haiti, stating that, (1) The Government of Haiti shall be eligible to purchase defense articles and services under the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.), for the Coast Guard; (2) of the funds appropriated by this Act under titles III, Bilateral Economic Assistance, and IV, International Security Assistance, not less than $295,530,000 shall be made available for assistance for Haiti; and (3) none of the funds made available by this Act under the heading "International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement" may be used to transfer excess weapons, ammunition or other lethal property of an agency of the United States Government to the Government of Haiti for use by the Haitian National Police until the Secretary of State reports to the Committees on Appropriations that any members of the Haitian National Police who have been credibly alleged to have committed serious crimes, including drug trafficking and violations of internationally recognized human rights, have been suspended.

Haiti is included in Sec. 7045(c), as part of the Caribbean Basin Security Initiative. The section reads as follows:

   Of the funds appropriated under the headings 'Development
   Assistance,' 'Economic Support Fund,' 'International Narcotics
   Control and Law Enforcement,' and 'Foreign Military Financing
   Program' in this Act, not less than $37,000,000 should be made
   available for assistance for the countries of the Caribbean Basin,
   to provide equipment and training to combat drug trafficking and
   related violence and organized crime, and for judicial reform,
   institution building, education, anti-corruption, rule of law
   activities, and maritime security, of which not less than
   $21,100,000 should be made available for social justice and
   education programs to include vocational training, workforce
   development and juvenile justice activities: Provided, That none of
   the funds made available under this subsection shall be made
   available for budget support or as cash payments.


The Act calls on the Secretary of State to provide a detailed spending plan to the Committees on Appropriations no later than 45 days after this Act is enacted, for funds appropriated or otherwise made available for the countries of the Caribbean Basin, with concrete goals, actions to be taken, budget proposals, and anticipated results. Introduced July 22, 2009, signed into law on December 16, 2009.

H.R. 144. The Haitian Protection Act of 2009 would require the Secretary of Homeland Security to designate Haiti as a country whose qualifying nationals may be eligible for temporary protected status. Introduced January 6, 2009; referred to the House Judiciary Committee's Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law February 9, 2009.

H.R. 264. The Save America Comprehensive Immigration Act of 2009 would amend the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) to provide increased protections and eligibility for family-sponsored immigrants, including to authorize adjustment of status for certain nationals or citizens of Haiti. Introduced January 7, 2009, referred to House Judiciary; House Homeland Security; House Oversight and Government Reform Committees; referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law February 9, 2009.

H.R. 417. The Next Steps for Haiti Act of 2009 would authorize the Director of Foreign Assistance, in consultation with the government of Haiti and Haitian civil society organizations, to establish the Haiti Professional Exchange Program to assign qualified Haitian Americans and others to provide technical assistance to help Haiti improve in areas vital to its growth and development, including education, energy, environment, health care, infrastructure, security, transportation, and disaster preparedness. Directs the Secretary of State to implement a student loan forgiveness program for program participants. Introduced and referred to the House Committee on Foreign Affairs January 9, 2009.

H.R. 1567. The Haitian Refugee Immigration Fairness Act (HRIFA) Improvement Act of 2009 would amend the 1998 HRIFA to (1) require determinations with respect to children to be made using the age and status of an individual on October 21, 1998 (enactment date of the HRIFA of 1998); (2) permit an application based upon child status to be filed by a parent or guardian if the child is present in the United States on such filing date; and (3) include document fraud among the grounds of inadmissibility which shall not preclude an otherwise qualifying Haitian alien from permanent resident status adjustment. It would also permit new status adjustment applications to be filed for a limited time period. Introduced March 17, 2009, referred to the House Judiciary Committee's Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law on April 27, 2009.

H.R. 4206. The Haiti Reforestation Act of 2009 seeks to authorize the Secretary of Agriculture to provide assistance to the Government of Haiti. The purpose of the Act is to end the deforestation in Haiti within five years and to restore the tropical forest cover to its state in 1990 within a 30-year time frame. The legislation was both introduced and referred to the House Committee on Foreign Affairs on December 3, 2009.

H.Con.Res. 17. The resolution addresses the humanitarian assistance provided to Caribbean countries affected by past hurricanes and tropical storms. It acknowledges the affected countries' efforts to aid their citizens in recovery. The resolution also expresses support of the international assistance received by the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, the Bahamas, Cuba and Turks and Caicos. Referred to the House Committee on Foreign Affairs January 9, 2009.

H.Con.Res. 165. Supports the yielding of temporary protected status for Haitian nationals who currently reside in the United States. Introduced July 17, 2009; referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law on August 19, 2009.

Appendix A. Exposed Population

[FIGURE A-1 OMITTED]

Appendix B. The U.S. Government Emergency Response Mechanism for International Disasters

The United States is generally a leader and major contributor to relief efforts in response to humanitarian disasters. (23) The President has broad authority to provide emergency assistance for foreign disasters and the U.S. government provides disaster assistance through several U.S. agencies. The very nature of humanitarian disasters--the need to respond quickly in order to save lives and provide relief--has resulted in a rather unrestricted definition of what this type of assistance consists of at both a policy and an operational level. While humanitarian assistance is assumed to provide for urgent food, shelter, and medical needs, the agencies within the U.S. government providing this support typically expand or contract the definition in response to circumstances. Funds may be used for U.S. agencies to deliver services or to provide grants to international organizations (IOs), international governmental and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and private or religious voluntary organizations (PVOs). The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) is the U.S. government agency charged with coordinating U.S. government and private sector assistance. It also coordinates with international organizations, the governments of countries suffering disasters, and other governments.

The Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) in USAID's Bureau of Humanitarian Response provides immediate relief materials and personnel, many of whom are already abroad on mission. It is responsible for providing non-food humanitarian assistance and can quickly assemble Disaster Assistance Response Teams (DARTs) to assess conditions. OFDA has wide authority to borrow funds, equipment, and personnel from other parts of USAID and other federal agencies. USAID has two other offices that administer U.S. humanitarian aid: Food For Peace (FFP) and the Office of Transition Initiatives (OTI). USAID administers emergency food aid under FFP (Title II of P.L. 480) and provides relief and development food aid that does not have to be repaid. OTI provides post-disaster transition assistance, which includes mainly short-term peace and democratization projects with some attention to humanitarian elements but not emergency relief.

The Department of Defense (DoD) Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster and Civic Aid (OHDACA) funds three DoD humanitarian programs: the Humanitarian Assistance Program (HAP), Humanitarian Mine Action (HMA) Program, and Foreign Disaster Relief and Emergency Response (FDR/ER). OHDACA provides humanitarian support to stabilize emergency situations and deals with a range of tasks including providing food, shelter and supplies, and medical evacuations. In addition the President has the authority to draw down defense equipment and direct military personnel to respond to disasters. The President may also use the Denton program to provide space-available transportation on military aircraft and ships to private donors who wish to transport humanitarian goods and equipment in response to a disaster. (24)

Generally, OFDA provides emergency assistance for 30 to 90 days after a disaster. The same is true for Department of Defense humanitarian assistance. After the initial emergency is over, assistance is provided through other channels, such as the regular country development programs of USAID.

The State Department also administers programs for humanitarian relief with a focus on refugees and the displaced. The Emergency Refugee and Migration Account (ERMA) is a contingency fund that provides wide latitude to the President in responding to refugee emergencies. Assistance to address emergencies lasting more than a year comes out of the regular Migration and Refugee Account (MRA) through the Population, Migration and Refugees (PRM) bureau. PRM assists refugees worldwide, conflict victims, and populations of concern to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), often extended to include internally displaced people (IDPs). Humanitarian assistance includes a range of services from basic needs to community services.

Appendix C. How to Search for or Report on Individuals in Haiti

Regarding U.S. Citizens in Haiti

The U.S. Embassy in Port Au Prince has set up a task force at the Embassy which is taking calls as conditions permit. The Embassy is working to identify U.S. citizens in Haiti who need urgent assistance and to identify sources of emergency help. U.S. citizens in Haiti are urged to contact the Embassy via email (ACSPaP@state.gov) to request assistance. U.S. citizens in Haiti can call the Embassy's Consular Task Force at 509-2229-8942, 509-2229-8089, 509-2229-8322, or 509-2229-8672.

The State Department has also created a task force to monitor the emergency. People in the U.S. or Canada with information or inquiries about U.S. citizens in Haiti may reach the Haiti Task Force at 888-407-4747, or email Haiti-Earthquake@state.gov. Outside of the U.S. and Canada, call 202-501-4444. For further information and updates, please see the State Department's Consular Affairs website at http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/pa/pa_haiti_info_number.html.

Have available the following information related to the person about whom you are inquiring: full name; date of birth; citizenship; time, date, and place of last known location; any contact information, such as a cell phone number or hotel/church number where the person could be reached; or the person's e-mail address.

According to the Voice of America, people wishing to contact someone in Haiti may record a message in English, Creole, or French, to be broadcast by VOA radio, by calling 202-205-9442, code 42.

Haitian Citizens in the U.S.

Haitian citizens in the U.S. trying to locate people in Haiti can register their names with the International Committee for the Red Cross at http://www.icrc.org/web/doc/siterfl0.nsf/htmlall/ familylinks-haiti-eng7opendocument (25). They can also call the Haitian Embassy in Washington, DC, at 202-332-4090, or the Haitian Consulate in New York City, 305-859-2003.

According to the Washington Post, the Miami Herald provides a page to help families connect with family members at http://www. miamiherald.com/ news/americas/ haiti/connect/#vmix_media_id=9304036.

Appendix D. How to Contribute to Relief Efforts

How to Make Donations

According to Inter Action and other relief agencies, the best way to help is to donate financially to organizations responding to a disaster. Cash allows relief professionals to procure exactly what is needed in a disaster situation and ensure that donations are culturally, dietary, and environmentally appropriate. Cash donations do not use up other scarce resources, such as transportation, staff time or warehouse space. As needed, cash can also be transferred quickly to where it is needed, helping bolster the economy of the disaster-stricken region. (26)

The White House suggests that those wishing to make a donation to relief efforts, text "HAITI" to 90999, and $10 will be given automatically to the Red Cross, charged to your cell phone bill, or visit InterAction at http://www.interaction.org to contribute to other non-governmental organizations.

Volunteer Opportunities

Persons who wish to provide assistance or expertise in Haiti are asked to contact the Center for International Disaster Information at http://www.cidi.org/incident/haiti-10a/. The Center, operated under a grant from the United States Agency for International Development's Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance, has established a dedicated page to coordinate Haiti support.

Appendix E. Links for Further Information

U.S. Government Agencies

Department of Defense

http://www. defense. gov/home/features/2010/0110_haiti/

State Department

http://www.travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/pa/pa_4630.html and

http://www. state.gov/p/wha/ci/ha/index.htm

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)

http://www.usaid.gov/ and http://www.usaid.gov/locations/

latin_america_caribbean/country/haiti/eq/

U.S. Geological Survey

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/ earthquakes/eqinthenews/

2010/us2010rja6/#details

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

http://www.hhs.gov/disasters/emergency/naturaldisasters/

earthquake/haiti/index.html

White House: Help for Haiti

http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2010/01/13/help-haiti

Other Resources

Red Cross Movement

The International Committee of the Red Cross

http://www. icrc. org

The Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

http://www.ifrc.org

Haitian Red Cross

http ://www. icrc.org/Web/Eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/haiti

The American Red Cross:

http ://www. redcross. org

Caribbean Community (CARICOM)

http://www.caricom.org/jsp/pressreleases/pres04_10.jsp?null&prnf=1

Center for International Disaster Information (CIDI)

http://www. cidi. org/ reg_offr. htm;

http ://www. cidi. org/ news/haiti-quake. htm

European Commission for Humanitarian Aid (ECHO)

http:// ec. europa.eu/ echo/index_en.htm

Inter Action/Haiti Earthquake Humanitarian Emergency

http://www.interaction.org/article/

interaction-members-respond-earthquake-haiti

Organization of American States: Pan American Disaster Foundation

http://www.panamericanrelief.org/

United Nations

http://www.un.org/apps/news/infocusRel.asp?infocusID=91&Body=Haiti&Body1= and

http://www.un.org/ohrlls/

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

http://www.unicef. org/index.php

United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)

http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/minustah/

United Nations World Food Program

http://www.wfp.org/stories/haiti-wfp-bring-food-devastating-quake

Organization of American States: Pan American Disaster Foundation

http://www.panamericanrelief.org/

U.N. Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)

http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/minustah/

World Health Organization (WHO)/Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2010/ haiti_earthquake_20100113/en/index.html

Information on the Haitian Earthquake

Haiti Earthquake Damage Map

http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/fullmaps_am.nsf/luFullMap/ 0573522688593A18C12576AA00483368/$File/100112_07.45NYT_Haiti_Epicenter.pdf? OpenElement

Haiti Earthquake Epicentre Map

http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/fullmaps_am.nsf/luFullMap/ 4E193026CC1680C7052576AA00125C F6/$File/EQ-2010-000009-HTI_0112.pdf?OpenElement

Haiti Earthquake Intensity Map

http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/fullmaps_am.nsf/luFullMap/

A4228B2905DCFFE6C12576AB0028581B/$File/map.pdf?OpenElement

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsww/Quakes/ us2010rja6.php

Maureen Taft-Morales

Specialist in Latin American Affairs

Rhoda Margesson

Specialist in International Humanitarian Policy

Author Contact Information

Maureen Taft-Morales

Specialist in Latin American Affairs

mtmorales@crs.loc.gov, 7-7659

Rhoda Margesson

Specialist in International Humanitarian Policy

rmargesson@crs.loc.gov, 7-0425

(1) U.S. Geological Survey http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2010rja6.php, Jan. 13, 2010.

(2) United Nations, Secretary-General, Briefing General Assembly on Haiti Disaster, Announces Release of $10 million in emergency Funds to Kick-Start Response, SG/SM/12701; GA/10912, New York, NY, January 13, 2010.

(3) See CRS Report RL33861, Earthquakes: Risk, Detection, Warning, and Research, by Peter Folger for further information.

(4) United Nations Office for Least Developed Countries. Facts About Least Developed Countries (LDCs) available at http://www.unohrlls.org/UserFiles/File/Publications/Factsheet.pdf, accessed January 15, 2010.

(5) Paul Collier, "Haiti: From Natural Catastrophe to Economic Security, A Report for the Secretary-General of the United Nations," Jan. 2009, available at http://www.securitycouncilreport.org.

(6) "Haiti: UN Council Mission reports strides in security, worrisome poverty," States News Service, Mar. 19, 2009.

(7) Bill Clinton, "How We Can Help Rebuild Haiti's Promise," The Washington Post, January 14, 2010.

(8) The head of each cluster (indicated in parentheses) reports to the Resident/Humanitarian Coordinator and works in partnership with all relevant actors in that particular sector.

(9) The airport in the Dominican Republic is also being used as a humanitarian staging area to help with the coordination effort and allow for relief teams and supplies to get to Haiti.

(10) This section does not include all agencies responding to the crisis, such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which has also sent six search and rescue teams.

(11) Prepared by Stephen Bowman, CRS Specialist in National Security, Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division.

(12) Prepared by Martin Weiss, Specialist in International Trade and Finance, Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division.

(13) "World Bank to Provide an Additional $100 Million to Haiti, Following Earthquake," World Bank, January 13, 2010.

(14) "December 2009--IDB Portfolio in Haiti, Inter-American Development Bank, December 17, 2009.

(15) "Haiti earthquake: IDB redirects resources for emergency assistance and reconstruction" Inter-American Development Bank, January 13, 2010.

(16) Financing under the IMF's concessional lending facility, the Extended Credit Facility, carries a zero interest rate, with a grace period of 5 1/2 years, and a final maturity of 10 years. The Fund reviews the level of interest rates for all concessional facilities under the PRGT every two years.

(17) "IMF to Provide US$100 Million in Emergency Assistance to Haiti," International Monetary Fund, January 14, 2009.

(18) Caribbean Media Corporation, "Caribbean heads of state to visit Haiti to assess quake damage," BBC Monitoring Americas, January 14, 2010.

(19) Tim Starks, "Lawmakers Look to Aid Haiti Following Earthquake," CQ Today Online News, January 13, 2010.

(20) For background information see CRS Report RL33769, International Crises and Disasters: U.S. Humanitarian Assistance, Budget Trends, and Issues for Congress, by Rhoda Margesson.

(21) Prepared by Ruth Ellen Wasem, Specialist in Immigration Policy, Domestic Social Policy Division. For further information, see CRS Report RS21349, U.S. Immigration Policy on Haitian Migrants, by Ruth Ellen Wasem.

(22) Jessica Brady, "Senators Look to Speed Up Charitable Giving to Haiti," Roll Call, January 14, 2010.

(23) For more information, see CRS Report RL33769 International Crises and Disasters: U.S. Humanitarian Assistance, Budget Trends, and Issues for Congress by Rhoda Margesson.

(24) Section 402 of Title 10, named after former Senator Jeremiah Denton, authorizes shipment of privately donated humanitarian goods on U.S. military aircraft provided there is space and they are certified as appropriate for the disaster by USAID/OFDA. The goods can be bumped from the transport if other U.S. government aid must be transported.

(25) Liz Heron, The Washington Post , "Web Sites Offer Help for Reuniting Families Separated by Quake," January 15, 2010, pA9

(26) Inter Action at http://www.interaction.org/how-help
Table 1. Donor Contributions and Pledges to Haiti in Response to the
January 12, 2010 Earthquake

    Country/Agency        Monetary Pledge
         Donor                 (USD)

Australia                 $9 million
Brazil                    $10 million
Britain                   $9.92 million
Canada                    $5 million
Chile
China                     $ 1 million
Costa Rica
Colombia
Cuba
France
Germany                   $2.2 million
Guatemala
Italy
Israel
Iceland
Japan                     $5 million
Mexico
Netherlands               $2.9 million
New Zealand               $ 1 million
Norway                    $5.3 million
Peru
Russia
South Korea
Spain
United States             $100 million
Venezuela
European Union            $4.3 million
Inter-American            $200 million
Development Bank
Pan American
Development Foundation
Pan American Health
Organization (PAHO) and
World Health
Organization (WHO)
United Nations (CERF)     $10 million
United Nations World
Food Program
World Bank                $100 million

    Country/Agency
         Donor                       In-kind Support Pledge

Australia
Brazil                    28 tons of drinking water and food
Britain                   government assessment team, search-and-
                          rescue team, doctors, firefighters, 10 tons
                          of rescue equipment
Canada                    search and rescue team, medical personnel,
                          engineers, helicopters, supplies and
                          equipment, two navy ships and 500 Canadian
                          troops
Chile                     15 metric tons of food and medicines,
                          search-and rescue team, 20 doctors
China                     60-member team of medical staff, rescuers
                          and engineers
Costa Rica                engineers, health care workers, doctors, and
                          disaster experts
Colombia                  rescue team
Cuba                      30 doctors
France                    three military transport planes, aid
                          supplies, and 100 troops
Germany                   government assessment team
Guatemala                 rescue team
Italy                     emergency medical team
Israel                    220 medical personnel
Iceland                   search and rescue team
Japan
Mexico                    rescue team
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Peru                      two planes with 50 metric tons of
                          humanitarian aid, mainly food, 18 doctors
                          and nurses, two field hospitals
Russia                    mobile air hospital, 20 doctors, rescue team,
South Korea               emergency relief workers and supplies
Spain                     40 disaster relief experts, surgeons,
                          medical equipment, field hospitals, sending
                          150 tons of humanitarian aid to its
                          logistics base in Panama
United States             search-and-rescue team, ships, transport
                          planes, helicopters and thousands of Marines
Venezuela                 search and rescue team, including doctors
                          and firefighters
European Union
Inter-American
Development Bank
Pan American              shelter kits with tents, tarps, water
Development Foundation    purification tables; food; medical supplies;
                          family tool kits, including shovels;
                          telecommunications equipment
Pan American Health       12-member team of health and logistics
Organization (PAHO) and   experts, including specialists in mass
World Health              casualty management, coordination of
Organization (WHO)        emergency health response and the management
                          of dead bodies
United Nations (CERF)

United Nations World      86 metric tons of ready-to-eat meals and
Food Program              high energy biscuits to feed 30,000 for up
                          to 7 days; first aid kits and satellite
                          phones for Rapid Response Teams
World Bank

Source: Factiva and LEXISNEXIS.com news databases.

Prepared by Julissa Gomez-Granger and Anne Leland, Knowledges
Services Group, Foreign Affairs, Defense and Trade Division.

Key Policy Staff

   Area of Expertise              Name/Title            Telephone

                          Maureen Taft-Morales
General                   Specialist in Latin            7-7659
                          American and Caribbean
                          Affairs

                          Rhoda Margesson
Humanitarian Assistance   Specialist in International    7-0425
                          Humanitarian Policy

                          Steve Bowman
Military Assistance       Specialist in National         7-5841
                          Security

                          Marjorie Ann Browne,
United Nations            Specialist in International    7-7695
                          Affairs

                          Peter Folger
Earthquakes               Specialist in Energy and       7-1517
                          Natural Resources Policy

                          Julissa Gomez Granger,
General                   Information Research           7-8981
                          Specialist

                          J.F. Hornbeck
Trade                     Specialist in International    7-7782
                          Trade and Finance

                          Anne Leland, Information
General                   Research Specialist            7-4704

                          Allison Snell, Presidential
General                   Management Fellow              7-7525

                          Ruth Ellen Wasem
Immigration               Specialist in Immigration      7-7342
                          Policy

                          Martin A. Weiss
Debt Relief               Specialist in International    7-5407
                          Trade and Finance

   Area of Expertise               E-mail

General                     mtmorales@crs.loc.gov

Humanitarian Assistance    rmargesson@crs.loc.gov

Military Assistance          sbowman@crs.loc.gov

United Nations               mbrowne@crs.loc.gov

Earthquakes                  pfolger@crs.loc.gov

General                   jgomezgranger@crs.loc.gov

Trade                       jhornbeck@crs.loc.gov

General                      aleland@crs.loc.gov

General                      asnell@crs.loc.gov

Immigration                  rwasem@crs.loc.gov

Debt Relief                  mweiss@crs.loc.gov
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Title Annotation:Congressional Research Service
Author:Taft-Morales, Maureen; Margesson, Rhoda
Publication:Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports and Issue Briefs
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 4, 2010
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