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HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF DIETARY FIBER FEEDS MADE FROM DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF MILLET ON STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS.

Byline: A. Hamid and J. Hussain

ABSTRACT: The ground samples of Pearl millet, Finger millet, Foxtail millet and Proso millet were evaluated biochemically and following nutrients were determined i.e. moisture, ash, protein, fat, crude fiber, lignin and cellulose. The fiber feeds were prepared with some necessary alterations to the Basic Purified Diet 93-G for rats, recommended by American Institute of Nutrition (AIN). The rats (n=36) were divided equally into 6 groups. There were two control groups of rats comprising of normal rats and Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats which were fed on fed on Basic Purified Diet AIN-93-G, while the 4 other groups were fed on Dietary Fiber Feeds (DFF) prepared with different types of millet. All of these groups were monitored for random blood glucose (mg/dl) for a six-week time period.It was found that both Pearl Millet and Finger Millet had a significant effect on the lowering the random blood glucose (RBS) level in experimental animals.

However, Finger Millet proved to have a significantly (p0.05) in blood glucose level over the entire period of the experiment.

However, a significant (p<0.05) increase in the mean RBG value in Group II (Diabetic Group on BPD-AIN-93-G) was recorded in the first week after the induction of diabetes to be from 100.55+-12.15 mg/dl to 273.33+-12.22 mg/dl, which increased in the blood glucose level in the group which remained on the higher side almost throughout the experimental period of 6 weeks. However, a significant decrease (p0.05) in the mean RBG level in this group to be from 258.12+-12.3 mg/dl to 253.03+-13.22mg/dl. Once again there was a significant increase in the RBG of Group II in the 6th i.e. from to 253.03+-13.22mg/dl to 270.00+-24.22 mg/dl.

The blood glucose level in Diabetic Group III on Pearl Millet DFF, after the induction of diabetes in 1st week showed a great increase (p0.05) in the blood gluocse level in that group was observed (220.32+-12.00 mg/dl, 222.42+-6.21 mg/dl and 219.13+-19.45 mg/dl) in the 4th, 5th and 6th weeks of experimental period.

The Group IV (Diabetic Group on Finger Millet DFF) showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in the blood glucose level in the 1st week after the induction of diabetes (105.50+-13.99 to 252.00+-9.71). In 2nd and 3rd week, however, a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the values was observed i.e. 221.66+-4.71 mg/dl to 203.16+-15.36 mg/dl. A slight increas in the mean value of blood glucose level of this group occured in the 4th week i.e. from 203.16+-15.36 mg/dl to 208.66+-8.75 mg/dl. However, in the 5th week a significant increase (p<0.05) in the mean value of RBG level in that group (208.66+-8.75 mg/dl to 212.00+-10.41 mg/dl persisted at almost the same level till the 6th week, i.e. 214.83+-19.51.

Group V (STZ-induced diabetic rat group reared on Foxtail millet DFF) exhibited a significant increase (p<0.01) in the RBG level as recorded after the induction of diabetes (99.88+-21.44 mg/dl to 259.11+-10.22mg/dl). By the end of the 2nd week a significant (p0.05) in the RBG level in that group was recorded (238.23+-21 to 245.22+-5.1.22). However, by the end of the 4th week there was a significant (p0.05).

There was a significant increase (p<0.01) in the mean blood glucose level of rats in Group VI (STZ induced diabetic rats fed on Proso Millet FF) during the 1st week of the induction of diabetes (103.15+-9.32mg/dl to 257.67+-17.47 mg/dl). However, a significant decrease (p<0.01) in the mean RBG level was recorded in the 2nd week (257.67+-17.47 to mg/dl to 230.80+-10.10 mg/dl).

Similarly, there was a significant (p 200mg/dl)###Basic Purified Diet AIN-93-G

III###Streptozotocin induced Diabetic rats ( blood glucose > 200mg/dl)###Pearl Millet FF (50%)

IV###Streptozotocin induced Diabetic rats ( blood glucose > 200mg/dl)###Finger Millet FF (50%)

V###Streptozotocin induced Diabetic rats ( blood glucose > 200mg/dl)###Foxtail Millet FF (50%)

VI###Streptozotocin induced Diabetic rats ( blood glucose > 200mg/dl)###Proso Millet FF (50%)

Table-2: Proximate composition of Different Varieties of Millet g/100 g.

###Pearl Millet###Finger Millet###Foxtail Millet###Proso Millet

Moisture###9.57+-0.23###10.34+-0.34###8.99+-0.34###11.23+-0.71

Ash###1.43+-0.43###1.93+-0.91###2.01+-0.51###1.29+-0.82

Protein###14.27+-0.54###8.62+-0.34###9.98+-0.41###12.64+-0.62

Fat###3.62+-0.87###1.84+-0.23###1.38+-0.37###2.72+-0.34

Crude Fiber###3.10+-0.22###4.10+-0.51###3.99+-0.62###3.99+-0.76

Cellulose###1.69+-0.53###1.94+-0.23###1.75+-0.72###1.01+-0.23

Lignin###1.79+-0.41###2.20+-0.83###1.76+-0.43###1.02+-0.77

Table-3: Composition (% gm/kg) Purified Diet AIN-93-G, Pearl Millet DFF, Finger Millet DFF, Foxtail Millet and Proso Millet DFF

###Cornstarch###Casein###Dextrinized###Sucrose###corn###Crude###Mineral###Vitamin###L-Cystine###Choline###TBQ

###(85% protein)###cornstarch###oil###fiber/bran###mix###mix###bitartrate

Purified Diet AIN-9-G###397.486###200.000###132.000###100.00###72.00###50.000###35.000###10.000###3.00###2.500###0.014

Pearl Millet FF###195.000###200.500###130.000###100.00###72.00###252.00###35.000###10.000###3.00###2.500###0.014

Finger Millet FF###195.000###200.500###130.000###100.00###72.00###252.00###35.000###10.000###3.00###2.500###0.014

Foxtail Millet FF###195.000###200.500###130.000###100.00###72.00###252.00###35.000###10.000###3.00###2.500###0.014

Proso Millet FF###195.000###200.500###130.000###100.00###72.00###252.00###35.000###10.000###3.00###2.500###0.014

Table-4: Change in Blood Glucose Level /Week of Group I, Group II, Group II, Group IV, Group V and Group VI (Mean +-SD).

###Blood Glucose Level (mg/dl) in different weeks after induction of diabetes

###Zero###1st###2nd###3rd###4th###5th###6th

Group I###101.50+-12.00###99.33+-14.58###108.33+-10.74###102.66+-15.27###106.66+-11.94###101.50+-8.93###99.66+-13.35

Normal BPD- AIN- 93-G

Group II###100.55+-12.15a###273.33+-12.22b###252.23+-36.61c###240.26+-15.12 d###258.12+-12.3 eh###253.03+-13.22fh###270.00+-24.22 gh

Diabetic BPD- AIN- 93-G

Group III###100.46+-12.46a###248.33+-15.95b###235.15+-18.62###222.33+-12.80###220.32+-12.00###222.42+-6.21###219.13+-19.45

Diabetic Expt. Pearl Millet

FF

Group IV###105.50+-13.99a###252.00+-9.71b###221.66+-4.71c###203.16+-15.36dh###208.66+-8.75eh###212.00+-10.41fi###214.83+-19.51gi

Diabetic Finger Millet FF

Group V###99.88+-21.44a###259.11+-10,22bh###238.23+-21ci###245.22+-5.1.22di###218.33+-9.22ej###200.11+-13.90fj###198.12+-19.22gj

Diabetic Foxtail Millet FF

Group VI###103.16+-9.33a###257.76+-17.47b###230.80+-10.10ch###215.35+-15.14di###220.22+-9.50ehij###222.03+-13.19fij###224.42+-11.33gij

Diabetic Proso Millet FF

Conclusion: The nutritional evaluation of four different varieties of millet showed that Proso millet had highest moisture content, highest percentage of protein and fat was found in Pearl millet. The highest percentage of crude dietary fiber along with cellulose and lignin was found in finger millet. However when the rat feed prepared from the different varieties of millet were fed to the Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats, Foxtail millet FF proved to be the most effective feed in lowering the random blood glucose level. Finger millet FF was the second most effective millet variety to lower the blood glucose level in the experimental animals, whereas Pearl millet FF and Proso millet FF had almost the same results. In the light of the results of the present study it can be said that all the above mentioned varieties if incorporated in the daily diet of the diabetic patients may prove beneficial in lowering the random blood glucose level of the patients.

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