HOW ARE DYNAMIC CAPABILITIES AND DIGITAL MARKETING RELATED? A REFLECTION FROM LITERATURE/COMO ESTAO AS CAPACIDADES DINAMICAS E O MARKETING DIGITAL RELACIONADOS? UMA REFLEXAO DA LITERATURA/?COMO ESTAN LAS CAPACIDADES DINAMICAS Y EL MARKETING DIGITAL RELACIONADOS? UNA REFLEXION DE LA LITERATURA.
The increase in the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in business activities invites us to broaden our knowledge on their relationship and impact on firm strategies. In particular, being marketing a key strategic element, questions arise such as: What changes do ICTs generate in the marketing strategy? How do they affect marketing resources and capabilities? What marketing capabilities do companies need in the nowadays context? How does digital marketing relate to marketing capabilities?
The infrastructure of some businesses has become digital with the continuous growth in interconnections between products, processes and services. Bharadwaj and other authors (2013, p.471) indicate that digital technologies are "fundamentally transforming business strategies, business processes, firm capabilities, products and services, and key interfirm relationships in extended business networks." The use of ICTs should no longer be seen as part of a functional level strategy, but aligned with the business strategy. Hence the need to study strategies derived from ICTs and the need to identify the marketing capabilities required by firms as part of their business strategy.
Marketing, which is a social and administrative process through which individuals and organizations obtain what they need and want by creating and exchanging value with others (KOTLER; ARMSTRONG, 2012) is in continuous evolution and transformation as a consequence of technological advances. However, firms have not evolved in the same way (DE SWAAN ARONS et al., 2014; CHAFFEY, 2015).
Digital marketing is the strategic process of creating, distributing, promoting and fixing the prices of goods and services for a target market on the Internet or through digital tools (BOONE; KURTZ, 2011). These tools (email, videos, search engines, social networks, among others) directly contribute to strategy development of firms (RYAN, 2014). However, for some authors, there is no difference between traditional marketing and digital or electronic marketing, it is simply the current marketing (STOKES, 2013; CHAFFEY; SMITH, 2013; RYAN, 2014).
More over, context has a greater participation and is essential in the design of the marketing strategy. According to Gordon and Perrey (2015), the new dynamic contextual conditions call for marketing practice to rely more on science and be more substantial through research and data analysis. The current marketing must also have the characteristics of simplicity and speed, as well as the emotional factor that involves the consumer.
Therefore, due to the dynamic and dependent nature on the environment in which many firms operate today, the strategic approach of dynamic capabilities (TEECE; PISANO; SHUEN, 1997; WANG; AHMED, 2007) was considered ideal to reflect on its relationship with digital marketing.
From literature review, several studies that link the theory of dynamic capabilities with digital marketing or related concepts were identified. The search for articles was limited to peer-reviewed journals using initially the keywords dynamic capabilities and digital marketing. Then, it was expanded to dynamic capabilities and ICTs in marketing and ebusiness, since this last concept includes digital marketing (KALAKOTA, 2000).
This reflection begins with the concept of dynamic capabilities, then, the relationship between dynamic capabilities and digital marketing, ICTs and e-business is analyzed considering the three component factors of dynamic capabilities (adaptive, absorptive and innovative) identified by authors Wang and Ahmed (2007) with the purpose of establishing a frame of reference. Finally, more recent concepts that relate specifically to dynamic capabilities and digital marketing are described and compared.
2 DYNAMIC CAPABILITIES
Several theories have been developed as part of the study of firm strategy. The Resource-based view theory (BARNEY, 1991) explains that a sustained competitive advantage is obtained with the internal resources of a business; resources that are rare, valuable, difficult to imitate and irreplaceable. However, resources and capabilities change over time and the environment influences them (HELFAT; PETERAF, 2003). The concept of dynamic capabilities arises as a complement to the resource-based view theory by addressing the dynamism of the market and the evolution of firms, seeking to explain the transformation mechanisms in business (WANG; AHMED, 2007).
Teece, Pisano and Shuen, (1997, p.515) explain that the term capabilites emphasizes "the key role of strategic management in appropriately adapting, integrating, and reconfiguring internal and external organizational skills, resources and functional competences to match the requirements of a changing environment", mentioning that dynamic capabilities are directed to a rapidly changing environment. Some authors refer to them as processes (EISENHARDT; MARTIN, 2000) and others as abilities to develop coordinated tasks (HELFAT; PETERAF, 2003).
Dynamic capabilities help firms to be more flexible, adaptable and renewed. In this regard, Wang and Ahmed (2007, p.10) explain that dynamic capabilities are "the orientation of a behavior in the firm to constantly integrate, reconfigure, renew and recreate its resources and capabilities and above all update and rebuild its key capabilities in response to a changing environment to obtain and maintain a competitive advantage". They identify three component factors of dynamic capabilities: adaptive, absorptive and innovative capabilities.
The adaptive capability refers to the ability to identify and capitalize on market opportunities based on strategic flexibility. This implies an evolution in organizational forms, continuous changes in products, services, resources and capabilities, as well as the alignment of resources with external demands (WANG; AHMED, 2007). The absorptive capability refers to the ability to recognize the value of new external information, assimilate it and apply it for commercial purposes, that is, transform it into knowledge. The innovative capability is the ability of the firm to develop new products and markets by aligning innovative guidance with innovative behaviors and procedures (WANG; AHMED, 2007). The more innovative the firm, the more dynamic capabilities it has.
Zaidi and Othman (2012) analyzed the most cited definition of dynamic capabilities, that is 1997 Teece, Pisano and Shuen's, and although they do not necessarily support the definition, they conclude that dynamic capabilities are high order capabilities generally in the form of intangibles, such as processes, skills, routines and capabilities.
The arguments of Zaidi and Othman (2012) indicate that dynamic capabilities are designed to change the internal and external resources of a firm, but only those over which it has control. Besides being used to renew resources, they can also be used to reposition, replicate, reduce or destroy resources. They can effectively help to respond to rapidly changing environments, as well as any type of environment. Its main objective is not only to obtain a competitive advantage but to also maintain it under changing environmental conditions.
The above descriptions help to more clearly understand the concept of dynamic capabilities. They also reveal the potential of this perspective in firms and the reason why strategic management is keen on its research.
3 DYNAMIC CAPABILITIES AND DIGITAL MARKETING
Until recently, not many studies had addressed the link between dynamic capabilities and digital marketing. These capabilities were studied to a greater degree in relation to ebusiness, now called digital business (CHAFFEY, 2015; RYAN, 2014). Given that digital marketing is part of digital business (CHAFFEY, 2015), these studies were reviewed with the aim of having a preliminary frame of reference to identify its relationship with dynamic capabilities. Taking the classification of the component factors of dynamic capabilities of Wang and Ahmed (2007) (adaptive, absorptive and innovative), diverse studies were analyzed in their connection with e-business and digital marketing.
The adaptive capability intends to identify and capitalize market opportunities adapting them to a firm (WANG; AHMED, 2007). Firms that use digital marketing need to evolve their technological infrastructure, for example in databases (COVIELLO et al., 2001). This continuous improvement in technological competences is what leads companies to achieve the efficiency it requires. Technology must be aligned with internal capabilities and processes (CONSOLI, 2012), so that processes such as sales, promotion, distribution, customer service, among others can be integrated and allow access to information. Likewise, firms take the advantage of e-business of offering complementary products and services to their customers (AMIT; ZOTT, 2001).
The learning ability of the organization is highly considered for the adoption of ebusiness (WU et al., 2003, RINDOVA; KOTHA, 2001; WU; HISA, 2008). This means that managers and employees must have the necessary knowledge and training for change (BRODIE et al. 2007). This ability is an adaptive capability since it implies that the firm is prepared to seize the market opportunities it detects.
In order to develop digital marketing in a firm, it is essential that owners and high-level managers have a favorable and open vision to technology (NOVAES; BRAZ DE ARAUJO, 2012, WU et al., 2003, OMAR et al., 2011), which is an adaptive capability, by requiring that these individuals be the ones that detect the market opportunities that technology offers. Leaders are the ones who determine strategy and, adjusting it with the use of technology, is how e-business is achieved (LEVY et al., 2001). Firm values and past experiences are the most relevant factors in the adoption of e-business (LUQMAN; ABDULLAH, 2011).
Communication through digital media optimizes the ability to communicate with suppliers (NOAVAEZ; BRAZ DE ARAUJO, 2012) and the construction of relationships with all stakeholders (WU; HISA, 2008) to make strategic alliances and benefit from complementary assets such as distribution channels. Communication capacity also allows the firm to identify new industrial value networks and create a commitment to strategic change for stakeholders (WU; HISA, 2008).
One of the essential characteristics of the environment for digital marketing is the level of use of technology by consumers, suppliers, competitors and institutions (WU et al., 2003). All of them influence the adoption of digital marketing. The power of the consumer refers to the demands he can make to a firm to implement certain practices, demanding products and services that are related to e-business. Wu et al. (2003) consider this power of a reactive nature more than proactive. Firms must also be able to react to competition. Regulatory pressures, such as those of government institutions that, for example, demand digital invoicing, or of suppliers that require the use of a specific information system, have an impact on the technological adjustment that companies must make to their internal capabilities. From the above it is inferred that adjusting to the level of use of technology in the environment is an adaptive capability.
The scope and size of a firm influence in particular the adoption of digital marketing (ZHU, et al., 2003; DHOLAKIA; KSHETRI, 2004). Given that mainly companies with greater scope and size are those that use technology for their marketing activities, the ability to modify this scope may be considered as an adaptive capability, for example through exports (BRODIE et al., 2007).
The absorptive capability refers to the ability to obtain external information and take advantage of the knowledge it provides. An orientation towards the market along with marketing capabilities (price, product, place, promotion, sales, planning and implementation of marketing) is a necessary condition for firms to have dynamic capabilities (MORGAN; VORHIES; MASON, 2009). Market orientation indicates that a firm places a high value on the consumer, his behavior and interests (WU; HISA, 2008; DUBELAAR et al., 2005; ZHU et al., 2003). It has a proactive nature by using the consumer information and knowledge to anticipate his needs. For Rust et al. (2004), adopting appropriate marketing strategies and tactics requires a broad knowledge of the consumer, since in many cases the resources are not directed to the right customer, with the best offer and at the right time.
Several authors mention the need to obtain and use valuable external information and knowledge for the development of digital marketing (WU et al., 2003; BRODIE et al., 2007, MORGAN et al., 2009). Digital marketing requires absorbing as much knowledge as possible in order to interact and relate effectively.
Raymond and Bergeron (2008) consider that digital intelligence is a capability based on the use of information to improve decision making and detect new opportunities. The monitoring of internal activities (e.g. performance measures) as well as what happens externally (activity of the competition), are factors of adoption of e-business (DUBELAAR et al., 2005). Taking advantage of the information and knowledge generated by ICTs is a common factor in the studies on the adoption of digital marketing or e-business.
Finally, for the innovation capability, some authors (NOVAES; BRAZ DE ARAUJO, 2012; LUQMAN; ABDULLAH, 2011) consider that the adoption of e-business, and therefore of digital marketing, is part of an innovation mechanism in the organization.
Innovation is usually part of the most advanced firms. Levy et al. (2001) consider that e-business contributes to innovation through greater strategic focus and consumer domination. Top managers also have to do with the capability of innovation, if when defining the firm's principles, they are based on evolution and innovation in such a way that they can obtain and regenerate competitive advantages derived from the use of technology (RINDOVA; KOTHA, 2001).
For Wu and Hisa (2008), one of the dynamic capabilities required by e-business is also this capability of innovation. E-commerce is evolving from commerce in a traditional online market, to a mobile commerce with transactions carried out through wireless communication networks, towards a trade of "ubiquity" and "universality" in such a way that communication can occur in a transparent, integrated, convenient and adaptable way, from any place, at any time and with any device.
The evolution of e-business implies, among other capabilities, the integration of existing and new channels towards a universal market and a unified channel; using the strengths of each channel (communication and distribution) to specialize and avoid conflicts between channels; creating flexible pricing models; and developing new marketing skills to serve market needs (WU; HISA, 2008).
The innovation capability implies the strategic flexibility to evolve by giving new uses to existing resources and adopting new resources (RINDOVA; KOTHA, 2001). The creation of value in e-business is given, not only by the introduction of new products and services, new methods of production, distribution or marketing, but also by the innovation in the way of doing business, in the structure, processes, participants, etc. (AMIT; ZOTT, 2001). The more ICTs are used in the marketing practice, the more they will strategically contribute to the transformation of organizations (BRADY et al., 2008).
4 DYNAMIC MARKETING CAPABILITIES
Several authors study marketing capabilities since their valuable contribution to the performance of firms has been demonstrated (VORHIES; MORGAN, 2005; WEERAWARDENA; O'CASS, 2004; CRUZ-ROS et al., 2009; MURRAY et al., 2010). Within the first studies, Day (1994) defined marketing capabilities as the integrated process designed to apply knowledge, skills and collective resources of the firm to business needs related to the market, in such way that they would add value to goods and services and meet the competitive demands.
However, literature review reflects the difference between dynamic marketing capabilities and marketing capabilities is vague. Fang and Zou (2008) define dynamic marketing capabilities as the responsiveness and efficiency of cross-functional business processes to create and deliver value to customer as a result of market changes; and consider three cross-functional business processes: product development, customer relationship management and supply chain management.
Barrales-Molina et al. (2013) detect two dynamic marketing capabilities through an integrating model of the absorption capacity and knowledge management, these are: the development of new products and the proactive orientation towards the market. On the other hand Cruz-Ros et al. (2014) distinguish marketing capabilities as operational in reference to activities related to price, advertising and costs, among others, while dynamic marketing capabilities are those that identify and obtain information of customers and markets, competitors, business trends, as well as achieve the accuracy of sales and profitability forecasts.
Morgan (2012) explains the distinction between dynamic marketing capabilities and marketing capabilities by classifying the latter into specialized ones, in reference to functional ones such as product, price and distribution channels management, among others; cros-functional, that integrate diverse areas of specialization such as customer relationship management, brand management and the development of new products; architectural, which are the processes such as the planning and implementation of the market strategy; and finally the dynamic marketing capabilities which include continuous learning, reconfiguration of resources and optimization of capabilities.
From these studies it is identified that there is not a general agreement among authors on what dynamic marketing capabilities are, the need to deepen into the research of this subject is emphasized in order to identify other dynamic capabilities in this discipline (VOHRIES et al., 2011; BARRALES-MOLINA et al., 2013).
Nevertheless, these capabilities have evolved with the increase in the use of ICTs by firms, consumers and all incumbents. The most recent scientific research addresses the concept of both, marketing capabilities, dynamic marketing capabilities, and it is observed that they implicitly include the use of ICTs and digital tools for the marketing practice. There is even information on digital marketing capabilities (CHAFFEY, 2015).
5 THE NEW MARKETING CAPABILITIES
Day (2011) indicates that dynamic capabilities are useful for dynamic markets, but not enough for chaotic market environments that require specific capabilities to anticipate trends and events and that can be effectively adapted. To Day (2011), the marketing capabilities gap is the difference between available and necessary resources, mainly caused by the evolution of the Internet and the decrease in communication costs. At the same time, these elements (Internet and communication costs) are the ones that can help reduce that gap, as well as through the adaptive marketing capabilities.
Dynamic marketing capabilities have an exploratory function and limit the firm's ability to anticipate to rapid market changes and deal with volatility and complexity, meanwhile, adaptive capabilities increase and extend existing dynamic capabilities to adjust faster (DAY, 2011).
These capabilities mentioned by Day (2011) are part of an evolution where first, capabilities are static, with characteristics of stability, routine processes, an 'inside out' focus of the organization and internal efficiency. Secondly, they are dynamic since they can be reconfigured and increased; new capabilities are also created according to opportunities, but the focus remains 'inside out'.
The capabilities that Day (2011) proposes on a third stage, superior to the dynamic capabilities, are those already mentioned as adaptive. These capabilities are based on experimental learning; they allow anticipation of events and a rapid reconfiguration of processes. The approach is totally from 'outside in' and anticipation and agile responses are the most relevant factors.
The dynamic marketing capabilities must be more proactive than reactive, and technology becomes an important factor for their development. The adaptive marketing capabilities which are vigilant learning, continuous experimentation and open marketing, require the advanced use of ICTs for the analysis of databases and social networks, data mining, adaptive experiments and optimization in search engines, among other activities (DAY, 2011).
Other authors study marketing capabilities, and although they do not refer to them as dynamic, when describing them they include characteristics of dynamic capabilities. In the study by De Swaan Arons et al. (2014) to more than ten thousand marketing executives worldwide, it is identified that marketers should take advantage of consumer knowledge, have brands with purpose (which aligns the organization with consistent messages) and offer a valuable experience to the consumer.
Among the marketing capabilities that De Swaan Arons et al. (2014) detected as necessary for firms are: to generate a connection between collaborators to allow an integrated teamwork of marketing and other local, regional or global areas; to inspire both consumers and employees with a brand with purpose that generates some pride; to have a realistic view of the firm and its environment through the monitoring of key performance indicators; to have an organizational structure that can scale globally, but at the same time be agile, and allow to plan and execute fast; finally, to continually build new capabilities through training programs tailored to the needs of the firm.
In essence, these marketing capabilities reflect characteristics consistent with the dynamic capabilities approach, as they are intangibles focused on transforming internal and external resources of a firm in order to obtain and maintain a sustainable competitive advantage facing changing environmental conditions (WANG; AHMED, 2007; ZAIDI; OTHMAN, 2012), likewise, they require technological tools to achieve it.
Of the studies analyzed, very few addressed the digital dynamic marketing capabilities. Among these, Trainor et al. (2011) consider digital a marketing capability itself, that of using the Internet and other ICTs to facilitate interaction and relationship with consumers to improve the performance of firms. Moreover, Chaffey (2015) makes a proposal of diverse specific capabilities of digital marketing. These are having a strategic focus, a process of performance improvement, management commitment, structure and adequate resources, data and technological infrastructure, comprehensive communication with the consumer and an overall experience of the consumer.
In certain way, these capabilities coincide with those analyzed at the beginning; they refer to the dynamic capability of information absorption through technology; to the adaptation of the company considering processes, structure, and communication; and to innovation, with a strategic approach and considering the consumer's experience. It is thus again observed that, although they are not referred to as dynamic capabilities, they sychronize with their characteristics, and also require digital tools for their better performance (table 1).
When compared, it is observed that these capabilities coincide in their perspectives, and although they are denominated differently, they agree on the vitality of information and knowledge to achieve continuous learning, also, in that firms require an agile and flexible organizational and technological structure that anticipates the needs of the market. For this, they approve the strategic focus and drive that managers bring as an essential capability. Likewise, the optimization of the capabilities stands out, seen also as the benefit that the extension of the firm provides when connecting with collaborators and offering an integral experience to the consumer. These capabilities are not visualized without the use of ICTs, so digital marketing tools become relevant.
This literature review identifies the link between dynamic capabilities and digital marketing. Initially, it provides a frame of reference that outlines the relationship between dynamic capabilities, e-business and ICTs. In essence, it is identified that the use of ICTs in the marketing practice entails capabilities to adjust the firm's technology to market needs; integrate processes; develop an organization that learns; strengthen the thrust of top management; have an strategic orientation aimed at the evolution and transformation of the firm; have communication and relationship with the context; analyze the scope of the firm; have a market orientation; access to information and its intelligent use; develop strategic flexibility; and above all, innovate.
Subsequently, when addressing specific scientific research on marketing capabilities and dynamic marketing capabilities, and the use of digital tools as part of the business strategy, various results are obtained. Given that several authors (STOKES, 2013; RYAN, 2014; CHAFFEY; SMITH, 2013) do not differentiate digital marketing from traditional marketing, but consider it as the current marketing, this may be the reason for the little reference to digital marketing capabilities (dynamic or not). In addition, it could be pondered if those who study marketing capabilities consider that the characteristics of dynamic capabilities are already comprised. It is important to delimit the dynamic marketing capabilities, given that not all organizations have had a similar evolution on the use of digital tools to potentiate the strategic use of marketing.
More over, studies suggest that marketing capabilities require and take for granted the use of ICTs for their development. Current digital trends lead firms to redefine their product portfolio and business through the digitalization of products and services. Firms should also open their borders, form networks and achieve rapidity in actions through permanent connectivity and use of information to create value in the client (BHARADWAJ et al., 2013). This way, business strategy can no longer be separated from the use of ICTs and marketing, and therefore, of digital marketing. The marketing capabilities and dynamic marketing capabilities proposed by the authors analyzed in this study demand the use of digital tools.
The resources and marketing capabilities are highly significant for the performance of firms and their impact is greater when they complement each other (VIET NGO; O'CASS, 2012). This implies that the use of digital marketing resources in the execution of dynamic marketing capabilities can not only contribute to a better performance of firms, but also help these capabilities to have the characteristics required by the context.
Dynamic capabilities are closely related to digital marketing since the dynamism of capabilities can result from the use of ICTs and current digital tools. In particular, the dynamic capabilities of adaptation, absorption and innovation proposed by Wang and Ahmed (2007) are identified in the marketing capabilities and dynamic marketing capabilities studied, which demand the use of technology.
The strategy of firms has evolved as the use of ICTs has increased. So far, little academic research that directly relates dynamic capabilities and digital marketing has been found. However, it was possible to demonstrate that there is a link between them based on studies that relate initial concepts such as e-business and the adoption of ICTs in marketing with dynamic capabilities.
Few authors differentiate between dynamic marketing capabilities and marketing capabilities, which suggests that they already consider the dynamism in marketing. Likewise, more recent scientific research addresses the concept of marketing capabilities and implicitly includes the use of ICTs in the marketing practice. This suggests that marketing capabilities require and already take for granted the use of ICTs for its development, hence the importance of digital marketing.
Marketing or digital marketing capabilities proposed by diverse authors agree on aspects such as continuous learning, having a more proactive than reactive approach and to continuously monitor external factors of the firm, while observing the internal. The comprehension of the consumer is considered fundamental and above all, the ability to use information to generate knowledge for detecting opportunities and enhancing areas such as logistics and new product development as well as the connection with stakeholders. Firms must also have the ability to reconfigure themselves through an agile and flexible structure. All this optimized with the use of ICTs.
This study confers deeper knowledge on marketing capabilities and how they include the adaptive, absorptive and innovative factors of dynamic capabilities and the use of digital tools. Consequently, it is concluded that digital marketing directly supports the marketing capabilities required by the current context and therefore a business strategy that goes towards the best performance of firms.
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Doutora em Ciencias Economico-Administrativas pela Faculdade de Contabilidade e Administracao
Professora na Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico
Endereco: Escola de Contabilidade e Administracao, Cerro de Coatepec s/n. Toluca, Mexico
Telefone: 52 (722) 5126833
Rosa Maria Nava-Rogel
Doutora em Ciencias Economico-Administrativas pela Faculdade de Contabilidade e Administracao
Professora na Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico
Endereco: Escola de Contabilidade e Administracao, Cerro de Coatepec s/n. Toluca, Mexico
Telefone: 52 (722) 5126833
Maria Andrea Trujillo-Leon
Doutora em Administracao de Empresas com especializacao em Marketing
Professora no Tec de Monterrey Campus Santa Fe (ITESM) Endereco: ITESM Campus Santa Fe, Av
Carlos Lazo 100, Santa Fe, La Loma, 01389 Ciudad de Mexico, CDMX, Mexico
Telefone: +52 55 9177 8000
Artigo recebido em 28/09/2018. Revisado por pares em 14/10/2018. Reformulado em 27/10/2018. Recomendado para publicacao em 07/12/2018. Publicado em 28/12/2018. Avaliado pelo Sistema double blind review.
Frame 1--Relation of Marketing Capabilities and Dynamic Capabilities Component Factors Author Denomination Capabilities Adaptive capabilities Fang and Dynamic marketing Product Zou (2008) capabilities development. Customer X relationship management. Supply chain X management. Day (2011) Adaptive marketing Vigilant learning. capabilities Open marketing. X Continuous experimentation in the market. Morgan Dynamic marketing Continuous (2012) capabilities learning. Reconfiguration X of resources. Optimization of capabilities. Barrales- Dynamic marketing New products Molina et capabilities development. al. (2013) Proactive X orientation towards the market. Cruz-Ros Dynamic marketing Identify and et al. capabilities obtain (2014) information from current clients and markets, from competitors and business trends. Achieve the accuracy of sales forecasts and X profitability. De Swaan New marketing Realistic approach Arons et. capabilities to the company al. (2014) and its environment. Generate a X connection between collaborators. Agile X organizational structure that can scale. Inspire consumers X and employees with a brand with purpose. Consistently build new capabilities. Chaffey Digital marketing Data and (2015) capabilities technological infrastructure. Comprehensive communication with the consumer. Strategic X approach. Management X commitment. Adequate structure X and resources. Performance X improvement process. Comprehensive X consumer experience. Author Denomination Capabilities Absorptive capabilities Fang and Dynamic marketing Product Zou (2008) capabilities development. Customer X relationship management. Supply chain X management. Day (2011) Adaptive marketing Vigilant learning. X capabilities Open marketing. Continuous experimentation in the market. Morgan Dynamic marketing Continuous X (2012) capabilities learning. Reconfiguration of resources. Optimization of capabilities. Barrales- Dynamic marketing New products Molina et capabilities development. al. (2013) Proactive X orientation towards the market. Cruz-Ros Dynamic marketing Identify and X et al. capabilities obtain (2014) information from current clients and markets, from competitors and business trends. Achieve the accuracy of sales forecasts and profitability. De Swaan New marketing Realistic approach X Arons et. capabilities to the company al. (2014) and its environment. Generate a connection between collaborators. Agile organizational structure that can scale. Inspire consumers X and employees with a brand with purpose. Consistently build new capabilities. Chaffey Digital marketing Data and X (2015) capabilities technological X infrastructure. Comprehensive communication with the consumer. Strategic approach. Management commitment. Adequate structure and resources. Performance improvement process. Comprehensive consumer experience. Author Denomination Capabilities Innovative capabilities Fang and Dynamic marketing Product X Zou (2008) capabilities development. Customer X relationship management. Supply chain X management. Day (2011) Adaptive marketing Vigilant learning. capabilities Open marketing. Continuous X experimentation in the market. Morgan Dynamic marketing Continuous (2012) capabilities learning. Reconfiguration of resources. Optimization of X capabilities. Barrales- Dynamic marketing New products X Molina et capabilities development. al. (2013) Proactive orientation towards the market. Cruz-Ros Dynamic marketing Identify and et al. capabilities obtain (2014) information from current clients and markets, from competitors and business trends. Achieve the accuracy of sales forecasts and profitability. De Swaan New marketing Realistic approach Arons et. capabilities to the company al. (2014) and its environment. Generate a connection between collaborators. Agile organizational structure that can scale. Inspire consumers and employees with a brand with purpose. Consistently X build new capabilities. Chaffey Digital marketing Data and (2015) capabilities technological infrastructure. Comprehensive communication with the consumer. Strategic X approach. Management commitment. Adequate structure and resources. Performance improvement process. Comprehensive X consumer experience. Source: own elaboration from the authors (2018).
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|Author:||Gutierrez-Leefmans, Catalina; Nava-Rogel, Rosa Maria; Trujillo-Leon, Maria Andrea|
|Publication:||Revista Eletronica de Estrategia e Negocios|
|Date:||Sep 1, 2018|
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