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HINDKO SYLLABIFICATION AND THE MAXIMAL ONSET PRINCIPLE (MOP).

Byline: Muhammad Nawaz and Ayaz Afsar

Abstract

This paper aims to examine the syllabification of Hind ko dialect spoken in Tanawal Mansehra. The data was collected from two sources; first from two dictionaries written in other dialects of Hindko and secondly by recording the daily conversations of the native speakers of TanawaL The data was transcribed into International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) and then the sailable boundaries were marked in light of Maximal Onset Principle (IVIOP). The findings show that the Tanawal dialect general/y follows the Maximal Onset Principle of syllabification. The results also indicate that most of the words sati~j5i the Law of Initial (LOI) and Law of Finals (LOF).

Keywords: syllable syllabification Hindko dialect Tanawal Maximal Onset Princztle (MOP)

1. Introduction

Hindko has various dialects which are mainly spoken in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. The dialect chosen for the present research is spoken by around 0.8 million people in the region of Tanawal known as Tanoli dialect. The study explores the syllable boundaries of Hindko words which have either not been explored before or not been put to systematic analysis. It gives a detailed account of marking the syllable boundaries in light of MOP and thus sets out the syllabification rules of the dialect.

In the phonological description of a language many aspects are taken into account such as if a language allows templates above CV such as CVCV or CVCCV in its words. If it does then the question arises how to mark the syllables boundaries of such words It implies whether medial C or CC of a word is the part of the preceding syllable or the following. This debatable issue about marking the exact boundaries of syllables can be seen in the works of Haugen (1956) Hoard (1971) Vennemann (1972) Hooper (1972) and Kahn (1976) among others. A brief review of literature on the syllabification is given in the following section.

2. Literature Review

Phonologists have different views on the syllabification of a language in terms of marking the syllable boundary. They propose some principles to mark the boundaries of consonants and vowels (CV) in a syllable for example Haughen (1956) and Halle (1962) state that a native speaker can easily judge the syllables in a word and tell the well and ill-formed ness of the sequence of the segments. Chomsky (1957) opines that a native speaker has an intuition to judge the well-formed and ill-formed structure of his language. Halle (1962) states that speakers have intuition to judge a well formed sound sequence though the word not a real e.g. /Ood/ /blk/ /vnig/ and /gnait/. The first two are possible English words whereas following two words are not. Hammond (1999) claims that it is hard to mark the accurate boundary of a syllable. Duanmu (2008) states that the results of native speakers about marking the syllable boundaries cannot be consistent.

Studies have been carried out to explain whether a native speaker can judge the exact boundaries of syllables or not. Duanmu tested some speakers and found out that their judgments vary. He proposed that only natives' intuitive knowledge was not sufficient for defining syllable boundaries. Some phonologists such as Clements and Keyser (1983) propose that the boundary of VCV is to be marked as V.CV. Duanmu (2008) concludes "If a language allows CVC CV and VC syllables as English does how would CVCVC be syllabified Both CV.CVC and CVC.VC seem to be possible" (p.52).

On the whole numerous models have been introduced by the phonologists to mark the syllable boundaries. However the model of MOP introduced by Pulgram (1970) and Kahn (1976) is popular among several phonologists due to its well-established nature.This model proposes that in marking the syllable boundaries of words maximize consonants to the left of vowel until syllable structure conditions of the language in question and the n maximize syllable final consonants to the extent in agreement with the syllable structure conditions of the language in question (Katamba 1989). Goldsmith (1990) states that in the principle of maximal onset consonants are preferred at onset position not on coda except word finally. Duanmu (2008) states "Under the Maximal Onset rule there is no ambiguity in syllabification" (p.56).

3. Methodology

Data was collected from two Hindko dictionaries written by Sakoon (2002) and Awan (2008). In addition data was also gathered from the recordings of native speakers of Tanawal Hindko dialect by recording their daily conversation at public places. In some cases where boundaries of the syllables seemed ambiguous native speaker's help was also taken into consideration to find out syllabification of some of the words. They were asked to utter the words four to five times. During this experiment the syllable boundaries of words were marked on a piece of paper. Overall data consisting of 5000 root words was taken into account and then it was transcribed into International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Only the root words of the dialect were selected in order to find out whether medial consonant(s) of a word was/were the onset of second syllable or the coda of the first. The dialect has many such words in the mono- and bi-syllabic patterns.

In the analysis section a sample of each pattern was structured diagrammatically in light of MOP and then further data was given in the tables after the diagram. Long vowels were treated as VV short vowel as V geminate consonants as CC while singleton consonants were marked as C. In the diagrams colon (:) has been placed after geminate consonants1 at word final position whereas this method was not applied word medially for the reason that does not show clearer picture of syllable boundaries. Similarly the detail of data provided in the tables for geminate consonants is also shown as a cluster not as a colon.

4. Data Analysis

This part describes boundaries of Hind ko syllables in view of MOP. As mentioned above according to this principle possible consonants of a syllable are maximized to the left of V (peak) and then the operation of final consonants is carried out maximally to the right of V (peak). The analysis begins with the words which have no consonantal cluster at word medial position.

4.1 No Consonant Cluster Word Medially in Terms of Long Vowels

The dialect has various types of syllabic patterns. The words which have simple onset i.e. no consonantal cluster are analyzed in the following way.

Table 1: Data for Syllable Boundary CVV.CVCC

Words###Boundaries###Gloss###Words###Boundaries###Gloss

tf~:n~kk###tJ7a~: .n~kk###Kettle###fa:r~L###Ja: ~###Sign

1J7o:ross###tj7o: .r~ss###Square###~a:voll###La: .v~ii###Haste

h~:moLL###h~: .mOLL###Courage###sa:bo~L###sa: .b~LL###Complete

xa:Lorr###xa: .L~rr###Because of###pi:lokk###pi: .l~kk###A kind of

###bird

Table 2: Data for Syllable Boundary CVC.CVCC

Words###Boundaries###Gloss###Words###Boundaries###Gloss

d~nn~kk###d~n. n~kk###Children###follokk###Jul. lukk###Move

rott~nn###rat. t~nn A kind of red bird mussukk###mus. sukk###Smile

###~ ~rr###Partridge###phIphph~rr p~hIph1. ph~rr Lungs

In such type of words both long and short vowels are possible syllables; however each type of vowel carries different structure. First data of long vowels in the first syllable of words is provided to find out syllabification system in light of MOP.

Table 1 shows examples of bi-syllabic words of Hindko. Since word medial consonants are complex phenomenon as whether medial consonants are the onset of the second syllable or the coda of the first syllable; therefore syllable boundaries of the given words are marked by the application of MOP. According to this principle it syllabifies the consonant maximally as the onset of the syllable because languages prefer the onset rather than coda. Hindko word /t~f~:n~kk/ `kettle' is therefore not syllabified as/tf~:n.~kk/ rather as /tj'a~:. n~kk/ because /n/ is the possible onset of a syllable. So word medial sounds In! In /t/ /mI /vI /bI and /1/ are placed as the onset of the second syllable not the coda of the first syllable.

In Hindko if a short vowel occurs in CVC form the following consonant geminates such as CVCC (e.g. second syllable of the examples in Table 1) whereas this rule is not applicable for long vowels (e.g. first syllable of Diagram 1 and Table 1). Short vowels in Hindko can only be found in closed syllables while long vowels are permissible in both open and closed syllables.

Data in Table 1 shows long vowels in the first and short vowels in the second syllable of the words. In the following section short vowels are shown in the syllabification of words.

4.2 Medial Consonants in Terms of Short Vowels

Tanawal Hindko dialect allows short vowels in case of bi-syllabic words. In such cases if there is a short vowel in the first syllable it attracts the onset of the second syllable and makes the coda of the first and onset of the second syllable simultaneously in the form of germination. Unlike final geminate consonant in the following structure the medial geminate consonant is not shown with colon (:) instead CC is used so that a clear view of the words in light of MOP be presented.

In the above diagram (a) shows that the first consonants of both syllables are linked with syllable nodes. Then in 2(b) medial consonant /n/ and final consonant /k/ are marked as the coda of the first and the second syllables respectively. Medial ml is not maximized as the onset of second syllable because combination of In! and /11/ are not possible consonantal cluster at onset position in the dialect. The geminate /k:I which segments word finally is marked as the coda due to word boundary.

On the subject of such a structure of the syllables Puigram (1970) and Selkirk (1983) suggest that change V.CV to VC.V if the first V is lax and stressed. However many other studies such as Halle and Vergnaud (1987); Baayen et al. (1993) strictly follow the rules of MOP (cited in Duanmu 2008). Regardless of these divergent views Hindko has different structure for such cases. If a short vowel is found in the first syllable the onset of the second syllable gets geminated and becomes coda of the first syllable and the onset of the second syllable. More data is given in the following table which covers all three short vowels of Hindko dialect.

Table 2 shows the examples of three short vowels of Hindko /1 ~ and the medial consonants of the words geminate and function as the coda of the prior and the onset of the subsequent syllable. Hence law of finals (LOF)2 is not violated in Hind ko rather germination process occurs. The analysis of the data shows if the first syllable of a word has the second syllable will always be /~/. However if the second syllable is open or followed by third syllable in a word the previously mentioned rule may or may not be followed. Conversely for the other two short vowels there is no strict rule.

Generally the syllabification process of marking the syllable boundaries in simple syllable structure (CVCV or CVCVC) is not a complex phenomenon; however the problem of syllabification arises when a cluster of two or three consonants is found word medially. In addition to simple onset words Hindko also allows clusters of two consonants (without germination) at the word medial position. These clusters can be found in the form of well- formed and ill-formed syllables. First the analysis of well-formed clusters is carried out in light of MOP in the following section.

4.3 Well-formed Bi-consonants Word Medially

In Tanawal Hindko when possible bipartite consonant cluster (CC) at intervocalic position in the words is preceded by short vowels; the first C of the intervocalic cluster gets geminated. Thus the boundaries of such words are marked in light of MOP in the following way:

Data in the above table shows some examples containing two consonants word medially. The first syllable in each word consists of onset and coda whereas second syllable has no coda. At intervocalic position of the words the first C which is the by-product of germination becomes the coda of the preceding syllable whereas the second C gets the position of onset in the following syllable. So the second C is maximized to the left of second syllable which combines with MOP. Data shows that approximants i.e. /1/ In and /t/ in combination with stops fricatives and affricates make possible clusters at word medial position. Such words are therefore found in the form of CVC.CCVV templates. Similar to this pattern the data also shows some examples in the form of closed syllables instead of open syllables e.g. /nof.fro~:/ `hate' in the form of CVC.CCVCC template.

Some medial consonant clusters such as zr and `~t~ are not found word initially whereas other clusters in the above given examples above are well-formed clusters word initially. Overall results of the data satisfy the syllabification rule of LOT. Some fricative segments Ifi y v/ do not make consonant clusters word medially that is why the above table does not show examples of these three segments.

Table 3: Data for Syllable Boundary CVC. CCVV

Words###Boundaries###Gloss###Words###Boundaries###Gloss

tobbri:###tab. bri:###Wife###v~k'~k~ra:###vok". k"ra:###Separate

t~oppri:###lf'~p.pri:###Cottage###s~cI3d3ra:###socl3. d3ra:###Fresh

1j~'ottri:###tf'~ot. tn:###Umbrella###tj~utJ~~tg'la: tf"utJ~'. tj"la: Clever

ko~ra:###k~. ~ra:###Comparatively###kuijijia:###koif. tjia:###Poison

mu~~'ri:###mu~. thri: Defeated badly###mossla:###mos. sla:###Problem

kottta:###kot. t[a:###Buffalo calf###muzzra:###muz. zra:###Result

ko44ta:###ko~. 4ta:###Swelling###bojjra:###boj'. J'ra:###Face

kUthtltti:###k0th. t"tt:###A small###boxxra:###box. xra:###Part

###room

~rokk~i:###Lrok. kti:###Weight scale

Syllabification system for the well-formed bi-consonantal clusters can be concluded in the following way: When a short vowel occurs in the first syllable of a bi- consonant cluster word medially the first C of medial consonant cluster at intervocalic position of the word is geminated and the C is marked as the coda of first and the onset of the second syllable respectively. Nevertheless this rule is not applicable for ill-formed bi- consonantal (see Diagram 4) and tn-consonantal clusters (see Diagram

5) word medially.

Unlike well-formed bi-consonantal cluster syllabification of ill-formed consonantal cluster word medially is different in Tanawal Hindko. The syllable boundaries of such words can be structured in the following diagram:

Table 4: Data for syllable boundary CVC.CVVC CVC.CVV and cvvc. cvv

Words###Boundaries###Gloss###Words###Boundaries###Gloss

t~nfi~:1###t5n. fi~:1###Coriander noxsa:n###flux. sa:n###Loss

kuf~:###kuf. ~:###Late###sobbA1/4:rt###sob. bi3:n~###Soap

###evening

kho~7ka:t###khotf. ka:t###Too much###yo1b~:1###yol. b~:1###A tool used for

###laughing###flour

~orbu:k###~or. bu:k###Wasp###z5nzi:r###z~n. zi:r###Zip

odma:J'###bod. ma:f###Wicked###ti~korr###ti1j~. korr###Joke

1~o:fila:###tj1'o:fi. la:###Quick###fitn~:###fit. n~:###Issue

s~:mla:###sAPound :m. la:###Black###xu:r~a:###xu:r. cia:###Edible things

###from sacred

###places

u:znAPound :###bu:z. nAPound :###Monkey

Table 4 shows syllable boundaries in-between the ill-formed consonant cluster at intervocalic position of the words. First C of medial cluster is placed as the coda of the preceding syllable and the second C of cluster is marked as the onset of the following syllable. This method of marking boundaries is in line with MOP which states that if a language allows the cluster maximize C towards left of V (peak) otherwise place them at the right side of V i.e. at coda position. In such type of Hindko words both short and long vowels can be found in the first and the second syllables in the form of open and closed syllables.

4.4 Tn-consonant Cluster Word Medially

Hindko has also tn-consonantal clusters word medially. The boundaries of such words are marked in the following way:

The above diagram depicts three consonants word medially. First the onsets of each syllable are marked in 5(a). In 5(b) onset cluster of It! is connected with the second syllable because /~r/ is the possible cluster in Hindko word initially. So it does not violate the syllabification rule of LOl. In part(c) consonant /5/ is marked as the coda of first syllable because the clusters of /str/ is ill-formed in Hindko. Further data for such words is presented in the following table:

Table 5: Data for Syllable Boundary CVC.CCVV

Words###Boundaries###Gloss###Words###Boundaries###Gloss

istra:###bis. tra:###Mattress etc###d35~ndri:###d3~n. dri:###Flat

ustra:###us. tra:###A tool used for###mojicri:###mof. kri:###Jokes

###cutting hair

dofkra:###doJ'. kra:###Fashionable###p"otk~i:###p~bot. kti:###Alum

###young boy

s~'ntri###s~'n.~ri:###Watchman###birnjlo:###bin. ~lo:###Firefly

~nd~i###gin. dii:###Luggage in a small blirjg~a:###binj. g~a: Zig-zag line

###bag/shaper

~r~rJg~i:###~r~1]. g~i:###A net for grass###Lozkra:###~oz. kra:###Mentioning

tobsra:###tob. sra:###Comment

Table 5 shows words containing three consonants cluster word medially; however such words have low frequency in Hindko. By applying MOP three consonantal segments at intervocalic position are first marked as the onset of second syllable i.e. first element within three consonants. The data shows that combination of three consonants is impossible clusters either word medially or initially in Hindko.

Only possible clusters of two consonants are therefore connected with second syllable whereas first C of the medial cluster is placed as the coda of the first syllable. Similarly Trommelen (1983) and van der Hulst (1984) state that in Dutch if a syllable contains tn-consonantal clusters word medially and at left edge it has Is! followed by obstruent and liquids it is split up by a division like /mistral as mis.tral/ /castro as cas.trol and Iesplanade as es.planade/. Conversely the first C of tn- consonantal clusters word medially in Hindko can be astop fricative affricate or nasal but third C at the right edge is always a liquid or a flap.

4.5 Words without onsets

Contrasting to the data in the preceding sections Hindko has also words which begin with vowels initially. This can be illustrated in the following diagram:

Diagram 6 displays a word having a vowel word initially and the second syllable of the word has an onset which is linked with the syllable node in 6 (a). Then in part (b) medial /r/ is marked as the coda of the first syllable because rz is not a possible word initial cluster thus it is syllabified as /~r. z~:n/ not /~. rz~:n/. Finally /n/ is marked as the coda of second syllable because it is a closed syllable and there are no further syllables. More data is presented in the following table:

Table 6: Data for syllable boundary for the words beginning with a vowel

Words###Boundaries###Gloss###Words###Boundaries###Gloss

orzAPound :n###or. zAPound :n###Too much###a:sra:###a:s. ra:###Wait

osLa:z###us. La:z###Teacher###a:orr###a:. orr###Dry

ofna:###of. na:###Acquaintance###a:la:###a:. la:###Hole

ormAPound :n###or. m~:n###Desire###a:sta:###a:s. ta:###Slow

orm~:###or. mif:###A kind of###u~:###uL. j~i:###Up

###oulse

Table 6 depicts vowels found in word initial positions followed by consonants whereas onset of the second syllable is followed by V. When there is only one consonant between two vowels such as /a:.la:/ and /a:.t~~rr/ shown in the table Hindko prefers onset rather than coda. If initial syllable has a long vowel this rule satisfies syllabification process in light of MOP.

Data shows that some sounds in Tanawal dialect are not possible word initially e.g. retroflex /~/3 and /rij and velar /ij/ but possible word medially and finally. However retroflex I~/ and /fl/ can be the possible onset of the second or third syllable of a word. Some examples are given in the following table:

Table 7: Data for syllable boundaries CVC.CVCC and CVC.CVV

Words###Boundaries###Gloss###Words###Boundaries###Gloss

tfa:ri:###tfa:. ri:###Clapping###ku:ra:###ku:. ra:###Liar

###ii. ri:###Flat###mA1/4:rij:###mu:. nJ:###Without

###tail

korpkk###kot. rokk###Inflexible###g'rr'gg###g't. u'gg###A kind

###of bird

k5qpkk###k~fl. ~akk###Wheat###f~qpkk###J~q. rokk###Flour-

###kneading

###basin

Data in Table 7 shows syllabification having words in medial position in the bi-syllabic words of the dialect and it was found as possible onset word medially. Therefore it implies that this syllabification system follows MOP4 but violates L015.These sounds are shown in the table with short and long vowels which are in line with the above mentioned structure of the words i.e. the following C of short vowels geminates but this process of germination does not occur with long vowels. During the recording of these two sounds the native speakers were given many words with short and long vowels and they pronounced each bi-syllable word four to five times. It was found that the occurrence of I~/ and /~/ with long vowels at onset position of the second syllable is clearer than short vowels. However when /11/ occurs with short vowels in bisyllable words the coda of first syllable remains as In.! and its following consonant i.e. the onset of the second syllable turns into I~I.

Velar /`:~/ can neither occur word initially nor syllable initially; however it can occur word medially and word finally. In addition this is the only consonant which cannot occur syllable initially. The structure of IijI word medially in the bi-syllabic words with short and long vowels is similar that is the sound following always carries velar plosive /g/ or /k/. For example /xA':ij.kj~:/ `feminine partridge' /sAPound :ij.ga:/ `field' and /1j~ij.ga:/ `fine'. This syllabification violates MOP but follows LOT and LOF.

Unlike CV templates Hindko has also VV VCC VVC patterns which are not taken into consideration separately because MOP prefers onsets not codas. In such cases Hindko violates principle of maximal onset. On the whole most of Hindko syllabic templates are occupied by CV i.e. 10 patterns whereas a few patterns are found in the form of VC i.e. 3 templates: Overall the dialect allows 13 templates.

5. Discussion

The findings reveal that the dialect allows maximum three syllables in its root words. Generally in Hindko long vowels can occur at the end of syllables while short vowels cannot. However both short and long vowels can occur word initially and medially. The boundaries of the syllables show that short vowels are always followed by a consonant in the form of a closed syllable. This means that long vowels are possible to have simple rhyme while short vowels cannot make simple rhyme and this phenomenon follows LOF6. It also implies that MOP respects LOF in the Tanawal Hindko.

The analysis shows that except for /rj/ sound all consonants and possible bi-partite consonant clusters can be marked as the onset of a syllable which implies that Tanawal dialect follows the principle of maximal onset. In addition to single and bi-partite consonant clusters the dialect also allows three consonants word medially. In such cases the first C of tri-consonan cluster is marked as the coda of the first syllable and the other two Cs become the onset of the second syllable. These results of tn-consonantal clusters are similar to the views of Trommelen (1983) and van der Hulst (1984) (see description of theTable 5). However unlike Dutch there are not only /s/ but also plosives nasals and fricatives can be preceded by obstruent and liquids in Hindko. Similar to Hindko three consonant clusters are also found word medially in Urdu and Punjabi.

Hindko allows not only CV but also VC templates. The dialect allows the templates such as VV CVV VCC VVC CVCC and CVVC. In bipartite consonant clusters the templates such as CCVV; CCVCC and CCVVC; CVCC and CVVCC; and CCVCC and CCVVCC are also permissible. Therefore out of these 13 syllabic patterns VV VCC and VVC violate MOP. As far as the onset is concerned Duanmu (2008) states that in case of English every syllable needs onset and if there is no consonant at onset position a glottal stop is added e.g. out [aut] Ann [~:n] (p. 57). On the contrary many syllables in Hindko are found without onset but sound of a glottal stop is not heard (see Table 6). Overall the data shows that Hindko generally allows the onset in its syllable structure which is in line with the common assumption that languages prefer onsets rather than codas. The findings also show that in the case of bi-syllabic words if /rj/ occurs at coda position in the first syllable

the onset of the following syllable always begin with /g/ and /k/ sounds. Similarly in some varieties of English /rj/ is always followed by oral velar stop for example `thiijk and thing' (Davenport and Hannahs 2010).

Moreover for the syllable boundaries van der Huist and Ritter (1999) state that the word initial clusters are not necessary for the syllable initial cluster as can be seen in Dutch words /gnoom slaaf tjiftjaf/ that clusters of /gn sl tj/ are split while they occur word medially like /agnes ag.nes Oslo Os.lo atjar at.jar/. Thus "This shows that the only `real' branching onsets are those consisting of an obstruent (excluding Is/ followed by a liquid)" (p.16). Unlike the structure of Dutch the results show that Hindko initial clusters can occur in similar form word medially without splitting.

In line with the views of the linguists mentioned above (e.g. Haugen 1956; Chomsky 1957; Halle 1962) it was found that a native speaker of Hindko has the ability to judge the well and ill-formed syllable structure of his/her language.

6. Conclusion

The principle of maximal onset remains an effective parameter for marking the syllable boundaries of Hindko syllables. The findings show that Hindko generally follows this principle in most of its syllabic patterns i.e. syllables having onset satisfy the constraint7 however in some of the syllabic patterns (e.g.VV VCC VVC) it is violated. Data shows that Hindko allows 13 types of syllabic patterns out of three templates are without consonant in the beginning of a word. The results show except for a single case of /ij/ sound which cannot occur word initially and syllable initially word medial onsets and word initial onsets (LOT) resemble each other in Hindko. Similarly word medial and word final rhymes (LOF) also resemble each other. It seems that both laws are not violated in Tanawal Hindko. The analysis of the data reveals that three consonants /ij/ /rij /t/ cannot occur word initially in Tanawal Hindko dialect whereas /t/ is a possible sound word initially in Peshawar Hindko.

Retroflex /nj and /t' are possible sounds syllable initially in Tanawal Hindko dialect. However if the preceding sound of /rt/ is a short vowel at word medial position the following consonant i.e. the onset of second syllable turns into /r/ Hindko velar /i~/ is always followed by /g/ and /k/ at word medial position. Thus /g/ and /k/ get the onset position of the second syllable in a bi- syllabic word. Moreover when tn-consonantal cluster occur word medially the third C at the right edge of string is always found in the form of /1/ /r/ or /tI In the same way two consonant clusters word initially are possible only with these three approximants.

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