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HEMATOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF TICK INFESTED CATTLE OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS IN SWAT.

Byline: M. S. Sarwar, H. Khan, S. Ali, S. Hayat, T. Aziz, S. A. Jan, S. Ahmad and A. Zahoor

ABSTRACT: The research work was conducted on forty tick infested Achi cattle divided into four groups. Each group consisted of 10 animals i.e. G1 (3 years), G2 (4 years), G3 (5years) and G4 (6 years) to investigate the hematological, parameters such as erythrocytic, hemoglobin, total leukocytic and thrombocytic counts. The overall means of erythrocytic count, hemoglobin content, leukocytic count, and platelets count were 6.6551.467m/mm3, 8.5672.1270g/100ml, 6828.27917.90/mm3 and 4.3050.4224/mm3 respectively. There was no significant effect of age on various parameter of blood due to tick infestation. The results were influenced by intensity of ticks found on each animal. In light of the results of the present study proper attention should be given to managmental conditions and Acaricides should be used at regular intervals to ensure ticks control.

Key words: Cattle, Ticks, Erythrocytes count, Hemoglobin contents, Platelets, Leukocytes count

INTRODUCTION

Swat is a hilly area situated in the north of Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa (KPK) at a distance of 159 kilometers from provincial head quarter Peshawar. District Swat consists of seven tehsil i.e. Kabal, Matta, Baboozai, Barikot, Khwaza khela, Charbagh and Bahrain with 65 union councils. The total numbers of heads of cattle have been reported as 253790 (Pakistan livestock census 2006).

Pakistan is basically is an Agriculture country and its sub sector livestock contributes 11.8 % to the national GDP (Economic survey of Pakistan 2014-15). It provides principal sources of essential items of human diet and comfort. Pakistan has more than 25.5 million cattle. Beside this cattle hold a position of preeminence among domestic animals because of its nutritional status and welfare of man. Advanced countries have been markedly enhanced by highly developed breeds of cattle. Due to lack of managmental facilities and technical education, the most common problem being faced by the local farmers is tick borne diseases i.e. Babeiosis, Theleriosis, Anaplasmosis etc. (Aleyas, 2003) Highest prevalence of ticks was found in animal's less than 6 months of age while sex wise distribution of ticks were found to be more in females than males (Khajuria et al., 2015).

Ticks and tick-borne diseases are very much important for human and livestock health all over the world. (Kwak et al., 2014) Ticks are blood sucking external parasites of mammals, birds and reptiles. Approximately 850 species with two major well established families i.e. Ixodidae (Hard Ticks) and Argesidae (Soft Ticks) have been reported, both are acting as a great threat to the farmer economy, particularly the cattle owners by transmitting the tick borne diseases such as Babeiosis, Theleriosis, Anaplasmosis, Ehrlechiosis, tick paralysis, tick pyemia, looping ill, Rocky mountain spotted fever, tularemia and tick borne relapsing fever which may cause heavy economic losses to the livestock owners by bringing the changes in the blood composition (Castro et al., 1996) distribution research survey of ticks on the body surface of cattle showed highest infestation on the udder and tail (Loui et al., 2015).

The present experiment is designed to determine the blood values like red blood cells, white blood cell, hemoglobin and platelets of ticks infested cattle. The main objectives of this study is to provide base line data to the researchers and veterinary practitioners in order to introduce awareness about the blood damages caused by the ticks and to provide a future plan for controlling the ticks infestation and the losses due to ticks.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Forty ticks infested cattle were identified randomly from Jambil area of Swat and further research was carried out in the veterinary research and diagnostic laboratory Balogram, Swat, KPK.

Animals were divided into four groups (Table 1) on the bases of their ages. Each group consisted of 10 animals. The blood samples were collected during the month of October from all the animals through jugular vein with 18 gauge needle under strict aseptic conditions. Sterilized test tubes containing EDTA @ 2 mg/mL of blood were used for the collection of blood samples.

The hematological parameters were determined through following methods.

1. Erythrocytes (RBCs) count m/mm3 calculation was made by Haemocytometer (Kolmer et al., 1986) method.

2. Hemoglobin (Hb) count g/100 ml calculation was made by Sahli,s method. (Throp, 1992).

3. Leukocytes (WBCs) count 103 /mm3 was calculated by Haemocytometer method (Kolmer et al., 1986).

4. Platelets count was done through Haemocytometer method (Kolmer et al., 1986).

The collected data was analyzed statistically through Analysis of Variance (Snedecor and Cochron 1989).

Table 1. Groups of animals with their ages

###Group###Age of Animal###Animal Number

###G1###3 years###10

###G2###4 years###10

###G3###5 years###10

###G4###6 years###10

RESULTS AND DICUSSION

Number of observations, means and range of each parameters i.e. erythrocytic count, total leukocytic count, hemoglobin contents and platelets count were recorded.

Erythrocytic Count (RBCs): -The erythrocytic count of tick infested cattle under experiments are presented in table-2. The overall mean of RBCs was noted 6.65 1.46 m/mm3. The animals of (G4) had the higher values i.e. 6.930.93 m/mm3 and (G2) had lower value i.e. 6.301.15 m/mm3, however, the means of RBCs of other groups were 6.672.19, 6.651.59 m/mm3 in the age groups of G1 and G3 respectively. Analysis of variance showed that there was a non-significant difference in erythrocytes count amongst all the groups. Similar findings were observed by Aleyes et al., (2003), who reported that RBCs values were reduced to 6.75 from 8.3 m/mm3 in tick infested cattle, Schetter et al., (1998) pointed out that the values of RBCs in tick infested cattle was reduced from 9.8 to 6.5 m/mm3. In a study William et al., (1993) confirmed that the number of RBCs was reduced to 6.95 from 8.1m/mm3 in tick infested cattle in the various age groups.

Gosh et al., (2007) investigated that RBCs were reduced to 6.5 from 8.1 in tick infested cattle of various age group, Larenger et al., (2006) reported that the number of RBCs in tick infested cattle belonging to various age groups was reduced to 6.65 from 8.4 m/mm3, Martinaz et al., (2006) further reported a loss in RBCs in tick infested cattle which was reduced from 7.5 to 6.3, Swai et al., (2004) the number of RBCs were reduced to 6.75 from 8.2 in tick infested cattle belonging to different age groups and Dennis et al., (2003) reported that number of RBCs values were reduced to 6.5 from 8.1m/mm3 in thickly tick infested cattle.

Table 2. Erythrocytic count in m/mm3 in tick infested cattle

Groups###Minimum###Maximum###Mean S.D

G1###4.3###10###6.74a2.1914

G2###5.0###8.0###6.30a1.153

G3###4.0###9.3###6.65a1.593

G4###5.6###8.2###6.93a0.9333

Overall###4.73###8.87###6.651.4676

Hemoglobin Contents: -The hemoglobin contents of tick infested cattle is shown in table - 3 which indicated that overall mean of hemoglobin was 8.5672.12g/100ml of blood. The animal of group G1 had higher value 9.173.25g/100ml and G3 had a lower value of 6.751.92g/100ml. However the mean hemoglobin contents of other groups were as 8.8501.66 and 9.1401.66g/100ml in the age groups of G2 and G4 respectively. The Analysis of variance showed that there was a non-significant difference in hemoglobin amongst all age groups. The results of the present study were in agreement with the findings of Gosh et al., (2007) where Hb was reduced from 11.2 to 8.6 g/100ml as per, Swai et al., (2004) it decreased from 10.2 to 9.15 g/100ml, the results reported by Fisk and Jones, (1998) showed a reduction from 11.0 to 8.70 g/100ml. William, (1993) pointed a reduction up to 8.75 from 12.5 g/100ml and as per Escurdo et al., (1990) the Hb count was reduced from 10.0 to 8.5 g/100ml in tick infested cattle.

Table 3. Hemoglobin content g/100 mL in tick infested cattle

Groups###Minimum###Maximum###Mean SD###Variance

G1###6.0###14.5###9.17a3.2554###11.77567

G2###5.0###10.0###7.41a1.6637###2.281

G3###6.1###13.0###8.55a1.9284###4.131667

G4###6.4###12.4###9.14a1.6608###3.064889

Overall###5.857###12.475###8.5672.1270###5.313

Leukocytic Count: -Table - 4 show the leukocytes counts in tick infested cattle and indicated that overall mean value of WBCs was recorded as 6828.27917.90/mm3. The cattle in G4 had highest value of 7031.00389.27/mm3 and G3 had lowest value of 6507.10677.28/mm3. However the mean leukocyte count of other groups were 7025.002177.56 and 6750.00426.68/mm3 in age groups of G1 and G2 respectively. Analysis of variance showed that there was a non-significant difference in leukocyte count amongst various groups. Similar reduction in leukocytes was reported by Gosh et al., (2007) where total leukocytes decreased up to 7025 from 7200 in cattle having ticks. Similarly Pietzsch et al. (2005) reported that leukocyte count was reduced from 7540 to 6860, Castro et al., (1996) showed a reduction from 7200 to 6800, William et al., (1993) and Torina et al., (2006) also recorded reduction in leukocytes in ticks infested cattle.

Table 4. Leukocytic count in 103/mm3 in tick infested cattle

Groups###Minimum###Maximum###Mean S.D

G1###4500###11100###7025.00a2177.56

G2###3500###6522###5267.90a426.68

G3###3900###6640###5182.40a677.68

G4###5700###9100###7031.00a389.27

Overall###4400###8340.50###6828.28917.90

Thrombocytic count: -Results in table-5 indicated that overall mean of thrombocytes recoded was 4.300.42 m/mm3. The animals in G1 had higher thrombocytes values of 4.690.47 m/mm3 and cattle in G2 had lower thrombocytes value of 4.200.15 m/mm3. However the mean thrombocytes counts of all other groups were within the range of 4.240.35 and 4.300.40 m/mm3 in various age groups of G1 and G4 respectively. Analysis of variance showed that there was a non-significant difference in thrombocytes count amongst various groups. A little research work has been conducted on the blood values of tick infested cattle up till now however, the data on tick infestation was closely related to the findings and reported a decrease in the thrombocytes count in tick infested animals (Sendhu et al., 1999, William et al., 1993, Fisk and Jones, 1998).

Table 5. Thrombocytic count in m/mm3 of tick infested cattle

Groups###Minimum###Maximum###Mean S.D

G1###3.20###5.40###4.47a0.780

G2###4.00###4.45###4.20a0.1555

G3###3.80###4.90###4.24a0.3501

G4###3.90###5.14###4.30a0.404

Overall###3.73###4.97###4.300.4224

Conclusion and Suggestions: It is concluded from the present study that there was minimum effect of the ticks on the blood values among the different age groups of animals when other blood parasites were absent but on the other hand ticks play an important role in the transmission of parasitic diseases among the animals.

It is therefore proposed that proper attention should be given to managmental conditions of the cattle and Acaricides should be used at regular intervals for providing ticks free environment for the cattle.

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Date:Mar 31, 2016
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