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Guest editor's introduction.

Canadian Jewish writing and its academic study have followed a particular course that marks both the literature and the scholarship as distinctively "Canadian" and "Jewish." This brief introduction seeks to contextualize the critical approaches to Canadian Jewish texts taken in the essays that follow. While it cannot offer a comprehensive overview of either Canadian Jewish literature or scholarly writing on the subject, it can spur deeper investigation of Canadian Jewish writing across all genres.

Although Jewish immigration to Canada dates back to 1768, with the entry of Sephardic Jews to Montreal,' the twentieth century saw the greatest increase in the country's Jewish population. Jews arrived in Canada from Eastern Europe in two great waves: in the early part of the twentieth century and immediately following the Second World War. Each group of newcomers struggled first to settle itself, but eventually many Yiddish-speaking immigrants and their English-speaking descendants took up their pens in an effort to come to terms with the difficulties they faced and the identities--both individual and collective, personal and cultural--shaped by day-to-day life in Montreal, Winnipeg, and Toronto, cities with the largest Jewish populations. Their writing included journalism, essays, poetry, drama, and fiction. Timely and vital, it reached a general audience but few scholarly readers.

Historically, Jewish writing lacked the Canadian equivalents of New York intellectuals Lionel Trilling, Alfred Kazin, Leslie Fiedler, and Irving Howe as interpretive guides, and it faced the further challenges of a dispersed population over a vast geography and a small reading public. Hence, the earliest efforts by modernist Jewish writers who wrote in English, rather than the Yiddish of their forebears, were either overlooked or neglected.

In his 1940s elegy "Portrait of the Poet as Landscape," A. M. (Abraham Moses) Klein lamented his country's disregard for the poet:
   The truth is he's not dead, but only ignored--
   like the mirroring lenses forgotten on a brow
   that shine with the guilt of their unnoticed world.
   The truth is he lives among neighbours, who, though they will allow
   him a passable fellow, think him eccentric, not solid,
   a type that one can forgive, and for that matter, forego. (2)

Literary scholars have since corroborated Klein's view of the beleaguered Canadian poet at mid-twentieth century. Jewish Studies scholars might extrapolate further to suggest that the development of Canadian Jewish literature was hampered not only by the slow maturation of Canadian literature itself, but by the dearth of critical attention to its stylistic and cultural particularities.

As Klein's poem reveals, the 1940s and early 1950s were challenging years for Canadian authors, Jewish and gentile alike, seeking a local audience. Much would change in the 1960s but Klein, who fell silent in the mid-1950s as a result of mental illness and died in 1972, would not benefit from the appreciable rise in interest in Canadian writing that characterized the decade.

The exuberant lead up to 1967, Canada's centennial year, brought new attention to Canadian culture and literature. Literature, in particular, was given a meaningful boost by the heightened nationalist sensibility that took hold during the 1960s and which gave rise gradually to the academic study of Canadian poetry and fiction. Typically, Jewish writing was subsumed under the broad category of Canadian literature, since so much of the literature, like its American cousin, was preoccupied first with the experience of immigration and settlement in a new and often hostile land, and later with situating oneself, however marginally, within the cultural imaginary. Generally, Jewish works were read and interpreted alongside other texts that also responded to the trials of adapting to life in Canada as expressed through the varied voices of poetic personae and fictional characters.

The more contemporary practice of reading Canada as expansive and culturally diverse arose, in part, out of official government policy--the federal government's Multiculturalism Policy was adopted in 1971 under Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau and recognized in 1982 as section 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms--and the concomitant rise in immigration to Canada from around the globe. One fortuitous result of politically sanctioned multiculturalism and transnational migration, which includes more recent waves of Jewish immigration from Israel, Iraq, Morocco, South Africa, and the former Soviet Union, is that Jewish writers garner greater attention from readers and critics--to say nothing of prestigious literary awards--in Canada. Moreover, their work in both English and French enjoys international recognition among an ever-widening audience of general readers and scholars, one sign of which is this special issue of SAJL devoted to Canadian Jewish writing.

The flowering of Canadian Jewish writing in English dates from the mid 1940s. (3) Poets Irving Layton and Miriam Waddington, for example, each published first volumes of verse in 1945; Leonard Cohen followed them in 1956. Henry Kreisel, Mordecai Richler, and Adele Wiseman published debut novels in 1948, 1954, and 1956, respectively. (4) These and the authors who succeeded them benefited from the nationalist agenda of the 1960s, which encouraged writers and critics who were drawn to Canadian experience as their subject.

Scholarly response to Canadian Jewish writing also emerged in the 1940s, but it was concerned primarily with the content and aesthetics of the texts under consideration and less with their distinguishable Jewish qualities. Early reaction to the work of Jewish authors who wrote in English first appeared in the little magazines First Statement (1942-45), Preview (1942-45), and their amalgam Northern Review (1945-56), all of which were based in Montreal. In addition to creative work, the magazines carried reviews that later would inform extended discussion of the authors published in their pages.

At midcentury, Montreal was the cultural hub of the country and the locus of much literary experimentation. Writers and critics gathered to revitalize Canadian writing through modernist practices that had just entered the literary imagination, later than they had in either the United States or Britain. Local critics Louis Dudek and John Sutherland, for example, were among the first to attend to the poetry of Layton and Waddington, whose earliest verse was showcased in Montreal's little magazines.

The seeds of a mature literary criticism began to emerge in the 1950s and 1960s, heralded by figures such as Northrop Frye, Desmond Pacey, Malcolm Ross, and Eli Mandel. As professors of English, their criticism showed a cosmopolitan and incisive understanding of the efforts of emerging Canadian writers, some of whom were Jewish. Frye and Pacey were among the first critics to laud the direction of Waddingtons socially conscious verse of the 1950s, for instance. Ross, through his criticism and his teaching, was especially supportive of aspiring writers. He taught Adele Wiseman when she was an undergraduate student at Winnipeg's University of Manitoba, and his encouragement led to the publication of The Sacrifice (1956), Wiseman's first work of fiction and the first Canadian Jewish novel to become an international sensation. Mandel, who was himself a poet and a Jew born and raised in the small farming community of Estevan, Saskatchewan, wrote the earliest monograph on Irving Layton, published in 1969. (5)

During the 1960s and 1970s, to accompany the general rise of Canadian writing and university courses on the subject, the scholarly study of Canadian literature grew exponentially. Deepening interest in Canadian cultural products--as opposed to the ubiquitous cultural works imported from the United States and Britain--required the interpretative skills of literary critics, journalists, and book reviewers who could discern and analyze the aesthetic qualities of work produced by Canadians with their own readership in mind. During this period, when Jewish writing was studied, it was within the larger context of Canadian literature. In the 1970s, for example, the McGraw-Hill Ryerson Critical Views on Canadian Writers series included volumes on poets A. M. Klein, Irving Layton, and Leonard Cohen, and novelist Mordecai Richler. (6) With the exception of Mandeis 1969 book on Layton and two 1970s monographs on Klein, (7) Canadian Jewish writing did not receive sustained critical treatment until the 1980s.

Somewhat ironically in light of his avowed sense of neglect throughout his writing life, the first large-scale scholarly project focused on Klein, who is now recognized as the "founding father of Canadian Jewish literature" (8) and admired as one of the country's most accomplished writers. The Collected Works of A. M. Klein was conceived as a multivolume editorial project. An editorial board, which included Canadian literature scholar Malcolm Ross and writers Henry Kreisel and Miriam Waddington, and the A. M. Klein Research and Publication Committee, which included Klein scholars Seymour Mayne (also an established poet) and Zailig Pollock, oversaw the project. Nine volumes published between 1982 and 2011 by the University of Toronto Press comprise poetry, short stories, Klein's landmark novel The Second Scroll', essays, editorials, reviews, notebooks, and letters. (9) To date, no other Canadian Jewish writer has received such focused scholarly attention, although several writers have been the subjects of book-length studies.

Irving Layton and Leonard Cohen, for example, received careful treatment in biographies by Elspeth Cameron and Ira B. Nadel, respectively. (10) Both poets have also been the subjects of scholarly conferences that gave rise to special issues of the journal Canadian Poetry: Studies/Documents/Reviews (on Layton in 2013 and Cohen in 1993). In 1993, Andrew Stubbs published a study of form in Eli Mandeis writing. (11) Much has been written about the work and life of Mordecai Richler; as a frequent contributor to the Atlantic Monthly, The New Yorker, and other American magazines, Richler was renowned as an outspoken writer in the United States, as well as in Canada. Biographies of Richler appeared in 2008 by Reinhold Kramer and 2010 by Charles Foran. (12) Foran's project, which was authorized by Richler's family, received numerous awards, including the Helen and Stan Vine Canadian Jewish Book Award for biography. In a completely different vein, Demonic to Divine: The Double Life of Shulamis Yelin (2014) reveals the Montreal writer's lifelong battle with mental illness. (13)

The first monograph dedicated to the subject of Jewish writing in Canada was Michael Greenstein's Third Solitudes: Tradition and Discontinuity in Jewish-Canadian Literature, published in 1989. (14) Greenstein explicitly approached Irving Layton, Leonard Cohen, Adele Wiseman, Eli Mandel, Jack Ludwig, Monique Bosco, and Matt Cohen as writers who formed a "third solitude" alongside the English and French of Canada (15) and whose literary preoccupations and styles marked them as Jewish. Norman Rawin, in his chapters on Mandel, Cohen, Richler, and Chava Rosenfarb in his 1997 study A House of Words: Jewish Writing, Identity and Memory, extended Greenstein's criticism but foregrounded the matter of cultural identity that is so central to contemporary literary discourse. (16)

Historically, in Canada as in the United States, scholarship concentrated on the achievement of male writers, but a belated turn toward feminist criticism sparked an ongoing interest in writing by Canadian Jewish women. A special 1993 issue of the journal Room of One's Own: A Space for Womens Writing (now Room) was devoted to the novelist Adele Wiseman. A volume of essays on Wiseman's oeuvre appeared in 2001, followed by a 2006 monograph that examined her literary career. (17) Miriam Waddington's art criticism was the subject of a 2009 book chapter by Candida Rifkind, whose examination deepens our understanding of the poet's formative artistic vision and approach to her own writerly craft. In fact, Waddington was the first Jewish woman to receive some measure of the editorial attention lavished earlier on Klein when a two-volume scholarly edition of her collected poems, along with selections of her previously unpublished verse and translations, appeared in 2014. (18)

In 2003, a special issue of Canadian Jewish Studies, published annually by the Association for Canadian Jewish Studies, was devoted to the work of Canadian Jewish women writers and included essays on Esther Shumiatcher-Hirschbein, Chava Rosenfarb, Miriam Waddington, Rhea Tregebov, and Anne Michaels. My own collection of essays, which analyzes stories, novels, and memoirs by Waddington, Wiseman, Helen Weinzweig, Nora Gold, Lilian Nattel, Fredelle Bruser Maynard, and her daughter Joyce Maynard, appeared in 2008. Julie Spergel's 2009 expansive study Canada's "Second History": The Fiction of Jewish Canadian Women Writers posits the notion of a Jewish chronotope in the fiction of Anne Michaels, Lilian Nattel, Nancy Richler, Chava Rosenfarb, and Regine Robin. (19)

Canadian Yiddish writing has also been the subject of recent study by Pierre Anctil, Frieda Johles Forman, and Rebecca Margolis, for example. (20) Taken together, their foundational works of translation and criticism contribute significantly to a renewed understanding of Yiddish writing and culture in Canada.

Today, work by Canadian Jewish writers continues to elicit scholarly response in the pages of books and journals such as Canadian Jewish Studies, Canadian Literature, Canadian Poetry, Canadian Women Studies, and Studies in Canadian Literature. The study of Canadian Jewish writing is not localized, however. In the United States, for example, Murray Baumgarten, Ruth R. Wisse, and Josh Lambert--Wisse and Lambert are transplanted Canadians--have each examined Adele Wiseman's groundbreaking 1974 novel Crackpot. A 2005 special issue of the journal Ahornblatter, published out of Marburg, Germany, includes essays by European scholars on the internment diary of Henry Kreisel and three short stories by Carl Weiselberger, contemporary Canadian plays that probe the Jewish experience, and Mordecai Richler's short story collection The Street. (21)

The essays in this issue partake of the vibrant critical discussion surrounding Canadian Jewish writing; at the same time, they seek to expand the scholarly parameters of a vital field of study. Readers of SAJL are likely familiar with the fiction of Mordecai Richler and Anne Michaels, and followers of This American Life will know the work and unmistakable voices of David Rakoff and Jonathan Goldstein--these writers are represented in the pages that follow. It is equally likely that the other writers discussed here will be less familiar. Hence, this issue should serve as an introduction to a cadre of authors new to prospective readers of the journal. Moreover, that each essay brings a fresh approach to Canadian Jewish literature confirms the value of this volume in breaking fertile critical ground.

Significantly, the issue is bookended by essays on works that do not foreground Jewish cultural identity. Rather, cultural identity is influenced in profound ways by national affiliation. Emily Robins Sharpe, for example, opens the volume with an original study of the Spanish Civil War novels of Ted Allan (This Time a Better Earth, 1939) and Charles Yale Harrison (Meet Me on the Barricades, 1938). Through an analysis of the romantic relationships in each work, Sharpe interprets the male protagonists--who downplay their own Jewishness--as responding to a particular historical moment "of Canadian, North American, and Spanish social flux; and of Jewish migration and mainstreaming." For Sharpe, the novels project a resulting national identity that is "at once patriotic and cosmopolitan." Josh Lambert, in the final essay, also problematizes "representational strategies" adopted by David Rakoff and Jonathan Goldstein in their respective "soundwork." As "New Jews" who "invoke Jewishness and Canadianness" in their radio shows, podcasts, and performances, Lambert contends that Rakoff's and Goldsteins compellingly casual approach to representation is the result of their minority position as Canadians whose work is broadcast widely in the United States. As Sharpe and Lambert show, Canadian Jewish writing often becomes the site of intuitive probing of cultural identity through geographical location.

Like Sharpe and Lambert, whose essays penetrate the complicated pairing of Jewish and Canadian affiliation, Zachary Abram focuses on the complex matter of identity in A. M. Klein's symbolic novel The Second Scroll (1951). Abram counters the prevailing view of the novel as celebrating Judaism while it explores the nature of diasporic Jewish identity. He argues instead for its rejection of a consolidated "Jewish identity or ideology" in favor of "a distinctly Canadian identity." On the surface, the satiric vision of Mordecai Richler seems to contrast the cerebral register of Klein's novel. Like Kleins writing, however, Richler's satire is informed by a deep knowledge of his faith and culture and a sense of rootedness in the city of Montreal, which accounts in large part for its authenticity. In her essay, Shana Rosenblatt Mauer considers Richler's representation of female characters--both satiric and serious--as highly circumscribed. Throughout his oeuvre, Mauer contends, Richler was wedded to traditional, "idealized patterns of male-female relations" that were "based on conventional notions of beauty, femininity, and women's subordination."

The essays by Goldie Morgen taler and Kathleen Kellett treat the subject of the Holocaust in the Yiddish novels of Chava Rosenfarb and the French biofiction of Regine Robin, respectively. Morgentaler examines Jewish-Polish relations in Rosenfarb's novels The Tree of Life: A Trilogy of Life in the Lodz Ghetto (1972) and Bociany (1983). Born and raised in Lodz, Rosenfarb survived Auschwitz and immigrated to Montreal, where all three of her novels were written. It was Poland, however, that fed her literary imagination and was the setting for much of her fiction. While Canada offered Rosenfarb refuge and security, her new home gave rise to only a handful of short stories in an otherwise vast oeuvre. Kellett probes the father-daughter relationship and the dynamics of mourning in the biofiction of Quebec author Regine Robin, born Rivka Ajzersztejn in 1939 in Paris. Like Rosenfarb, Robin felt at home in Quebec but was preoccupied with the Holocaust, which claimed fifty-one of her family members. In Robin's Le Cheval blanc de Lenine (1979) and "Manhattan Bistro" (1992), Kellett reads "an unceasing iteration of the grieving process, [and] an examination of the vagaries of memory and history" that led arbitrarily either to the death camps of Europe or safe haven in Canada.

Sara R. Horowitz and I have also foregrounded the relationship between memory and place in our respective readings of recent novels by women writers. In her analysis of Anne Michaels's The Winter Vault (2009) and Nancy Richler's The Imposter Bride (2012), Horowitz traces a connection between the memory of haunted landscapes and the "memoryscapes" of contemporary Canadian settings. In both works, the Canadian landscape is a site where multiple losses in Europe "converse and intertwine" to give rise to an abiding sense of loss. Canada holds different meaning in the three novels discussed in my own essay. It is a place of temporary refuge in Susan Glickman's The Tale-Teller (2012), imaginative freedom in Nancy Richler's Your Mouth Is Lovely (2002), and safe haven in Rhea Tregebov's The Knife Sharpener's Bell (2009). That each work is as invested in Canada as in the historical and cultural past suggests that Canada--both as literal and figurative geography--acquires meaning only in relation to past suffering.

The essays gathered in this issue gesture toward the range and depth of Canadian Jewish writing. They invite engaged readings of the works discussed and encourage exploration of a thriving field. As original works of scholarship, they also chart new critical paths that probe the aesthetics and significance of Canadian Jewish writing.



(1.) Gerri Sinclair and Morris Wolfe, ed., The Spice Box: An Anthology of Jewish Canadian 'Writing (Toronto: Lester and Orpen Dennys, 1981), v.

(2.) A. M. Klein, "Portrait of the Poet as Landscape," in Selected Poems, ed. Zailig Pollock et al. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997), 100.

(3.) On the rise of Yiddish writing in Canada, which emerged in the 1910s, see Rebecca Margolis, "Across the Border: Canadian Jewish Writing--Yiddish," in The Cambridge History of American Jewish Literature, ed. Hana Wirth-Nesher (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), 434-38.

(4.) See Irving Layton, Here and Now (Montreal: First Statement Press, 1945); Miriam Waddington, Green World (Montreal: First Statement Press, 1945); Leonard Cohen, Let Us Compare Mythologies (Montreal: Published for the McGill Poetry Series by Contact Press, 1956); Henry Kreisel, The Rich Man (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1948); Mordecai Richler, The Acrobats (London: Andre Deutsch, 1954); and Adele Wiseman, The Sacrifice (Toronto: Macmillan Company of Canada, 1956).

(5.) See Eli Mandel, Irving Layton (Toronto: Forum House, 1969).

(6.) See Tom Marshall, ed., A. M. Klein, Critical Views on Canadian Writers 4 (Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1970); Seymour Mayne, ed., Irving Layton: The Poet and His Critics, Critical Views on Canadian Writers (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1978); Michael Gnarowski, ed., Leonard Cohen: The Artist and His Critics, Critical Views on Canadian Writers (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1976); and G. David Sheps, ed., Mordecai Richler, Critical Views on Canadian Writers 6 (Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1971).

(7.) See Miriam Waddington, A. M. Klein (Toronto: Copp Clark, 1970); and G. K. Fischer, In Search of Jerusalem: Religion and Ethics in the Writings of A. M. Klein (Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1975).

(8.) Michael Greenstein, "Jewish Canadian Writing," in Encyclopedia of Literature in Canada, ed. William H. New (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002), 549-52; 549.

(9.) See A. M. Klein, Beyond Sambation: Selected Essays and Editorials Ip28-ipyy, ed. M. W. Steinberg and Usher Caplan (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1982); Short Stories, ed. M. W. Steinberg (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1983); Literary Essays and Reviews, ed. Usher Caplan and M. W. Steinberg (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1987); Complete Poems, 2 vols., ed. Zailig Pollock (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990); Notebooks: Selections from the A. M. Klein Papers, ed. Zailig Pollock and Usher Caplan (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994); Selected Poems., ed. Zailig Pollock, Seymour Mayne, and Usher Caplan (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997); The Second Scroll, ed. Elizabeth Popham and Zailig Pollock (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2000); and A. M. Klein: The Letters, ed. Elizabeth Popham (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2011). See also, Usher Caplan, Like One That Dreamed: A Portrait of A. M. Klein (Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1982); Solomon Spiro, Tapestry for Designs: Judaic Allusions in The Second Scroll and the Collected Poems of A. M. Klein (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1984); Rachel Feldhay Brenner, A. M. Klein, the Father of Canadian Jewish Literature: Essays in the Poetics of Humanistic Passion (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1990); Noreen Golfman, A. M. Klein and His Works (Toronto: ECW Press, 1991); and Zailig Pollock, A. M. Klein: The Story of the Poet (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994).

(10.) See Elspeth Cameron, Irving Layton: A Portrait (Toronto: Stoddart, 1985); and Ira B. Nadel, Various Positions: A Life of Leonard Cohen (Toronto: Random House of Canada, 1996).

(11.) See Andrew Stubbs, Myth, Origins, Magic: A Study of Form in Eli Mandel's Writing (Winnipeg: Turnstone Press, 1993).

(12.) See Reinhold Kramer, Mordecai Richler: Leaving St. Urbain (Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2008); and Charles Foran, Mordecai: The Life and Times (Toronto: Knopf Canada, 2010).

(13.) See Shulamis Yelin, Gilah Yelin Hirsch, and Nancy Marrelli, Demonic to Divine: The Double Life of Shulamis Yelin (Montreal: Vehicule Press, 2014).

(14.) See Michael Greenstein, Third Solitudes: Tradition and Discontinuity in Jewish-Canadian Literature (Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1989).

(15.) The idea that the English and French in Canada lived as separate communities with distinct identities was popularized by Hugh MacLennan's 1945 novel Two Solitudes.

(16.) See Norman Rawin, A House of Words: Jewish Writing Identity and Memory (Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1997). See also Norman Rawin and Sherry Simon, eds., Failure's Opposite: Listening to A. M. Klein (Montreal/ Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2011); and the overviews by Alex Hart, "Scrolls, Scrapbooks, and Solitudes: An Overview of Jewish Canadian Literature," in Canada's Jews: In Time, Space and Spirit, ed. Ira Robinson (Boston: Academic Studies Press, 2013), 361-411; Rebecca Margolis, "Across the Border: Canadian Jewish Writing," in The Cambridge History of American Jewish Literature, ed. Hana Wirth-Nesher (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), 432-46; and Norman Rawin, "You Say You've OD'd on Leonard Cohen: Canadian Jewish Writing and the Mainstream," in The Oxford Handbook of Canadian Literature, ed. Cynthia Sugars (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016), 602-18.

(17.) See Ruth Panofsky, ed., Adele Wiseman: Essays on Her Works (Toronto: Guernica Editions, 2001); and Panofsky, The Force of Vocation: The Literary Career of Adele Wiseman (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 2006).

(18.) See Candida Rifkind, '"A Collection of Solitary Fragments': Miriam Waddington as Critic," in Wider Boundaries of Daring: The Modernist Impulse in Canadian Woman's Poetry, ed. Di Brandt and Barbara Godard (Waterloo, Ont.: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2009), 253-73; and Ruth Panofsky, ed., The Collected Poems of Miriam Waddington: A Critical Edition, 2 vols. (Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 2014).

(19.) See Ruth Panofsky, At Odds in the World: Essays on Jewish Canadian Women Writers (Toronto: Inanna Publications, 2008); and Julie Spergel, Canada's "Second History": The Fiction of Jewish Canadian Women Writers (Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovac, 2009).

(20.) See Pierre Anctil, trans., Cent ans de litteratureyiddish et hebraique au Canada / Hunden yor Yidishe oun Hebreyshe literatur in Kanade, by Haim-Leib Fuks (Sillery, Que.: Septentrion, 2005); Pierre Anctil, Jacob-Isaac Segal (1896-1954): Un poete yiddish de Montreal et son milieu (Quebec: Presses de l'Universite Laval, 2012); Frieda Johles Forman, ed., The Exile Book of Yiddish Women Writers (Holstein, Ont.: Exile Editions, 2013); and Rebecca Margolis, Jewish Roots, Canadian Soil: Yiddish Culture in Montreal, 1905-1945 (Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2011).

(21.) See Murray Baumgarten, City Scriptures: Modern Jewish Writing (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982); Ruth R. Wisse, The Modern Jewish Canon: A Journey through Language and Culture (New York: Free Press, 2000); and Josh Lambert, "Otherfuckers and Motherfuckers: Reproduction and Allegory in Philip Roth and Adele Wiseman," in Unclean Lips: Obscenity, Jews, and American Culture (New York: New York University Press, 2014), 99-140. Ahombliitter 18 (2005) includes essays by Eugen Banauch, "'1938 Vienna, 1939-1940 England, 1941 Canada. 1942--Where?': Jewish Experience in Kreisel and Weiselberger" (14-29); Albert-Reiner Glaap, "The Jewish Experience in Contemporary Canadian Drama" (30-41); and Fabienne C. Quennet, "Mordecai Richler, Montreal and the War: Reading The Street" (69-80). A survey of American and European scholarship on Canadian Jewish writing lies outside the scope of this introduction.
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Title Annotation:Canadian Jewish literature
Author:Panofsky, Ruth
Publication:Studies in American Jewish Literature
Article Type:Column
Geographic Code:1CANA
Date:Sep 22, 2016
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