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Growth, Yield and Quality Response of Three Wheat Varieties to Foliar Spray of Micro Nutrients.

Introduction

Wheat is an important cereal crop of Pakistan. It is sown worldwide on wide range of different climatic conditions as compared to the other grain crops. Wheat is rich source of protein, vitamins, minerals and carbohydrates (Habib, 2009). Wheat contribution in diet is about 70-72% (Ali et al., 2013; Habbasha et al., 2013). Micro nutrients deficiency in world population is more than 40% (Faraji et al., 2014; Abbas et al., 2011). Growth, development and yield of wheat crop decreased due to deficiency of micro nutrients (Nadim et al., 2012; Cisse and Amar, 2000). In Pakistan about 1980 thousand hectares is wheat cultivated area and production is about 25.48 million tons. Agriculture's share in GDP is 18.9% and out of which 9.1% is contributed by wheat (Govt. of Pakistan, 2018). Different factors trigger yield losses like late sowing, non-judicious use of fertilizer, less irrigation, excess of weeds in fields and drought for long time. (Zeidan et al., 2010). These factors are responsible in various stages of crop and harmfully impact the crop yield. For various crops, micro and macro nutrients deficiencies have been examined (Hussain et al., 2006). To regulate different metabolic processes and yield, each micronutrient plays a vital role. Zinc, Boron, Iron, Copper, Manganese and Molybdenum are important for plant's optimum growth and development (Rawashdeh and Florin, 2015; Zain et al., 2015). Boron is most essential for reproductive parts, cell multiplication, cell stabilization, carbohydrate utilization and formation of cell wall in plants (Biswas et al., 2015; Khan et al., 2010). Fe functions in chlorophyll biosynthesis, respiration, chloroplast development, carbohydrate productions, enzyme activation, biological redox system and act as oxygen carrier in nitrogen fixation (Rasul et al., 2015). Manganese is compulsory for metabolic reactions, accelerates chlorophyll biosynthesis, enzyme activation, electron transport, progresses immune system, improves uptake of Ca and P and assists in photosynthesis (Abbas et al., 2011). Copper performs numerous metabolic processes, aids in physiological redox processes, lignification and improves the uptake of N and interfaces with the other micro nutrients (Monreal et al., 2015; Habbasha et al., 2013). Increase in crop production cause the micro nutrients deficiencies (Fageria et al., 2002). Pakistani soils have deficiency of different micro nutrients such as boron deficiency is about 51-60% (Rashid et al., 2002). Wheat production can be enhanced by enhancing the yield per unit area. Plants require proper amounts of macro nutrients and micro nutrients for better growth.

Materials and Methods

A field trial was conducted at Agronomic Farm University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during growing season 2016-17. Texture of soil was sandy loam. An experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangements and three replications. Plot size was 6.0 m long x 2.25 m wide. Treatments were different wheat varieties: [V.sub.1]=Jouhar 2016; [V.sub.2]=Ujala 2015; [V.sub.3]=Gold 2016 and foliar applications: [F.sub.1]=control(no spray); [F.sub.2]= water spray; [F.sub.3]= 1000 mL/ micro nutrients (Zn 4.7%, B 1.0%, Fe 2%, Mn 2%, and Cu 3%)/ ha [F.sub.4]= 1250 mL micro nutrients (Zn 4.7%, B1.0%, Fe 2%, Mn 2%, and Cu 3%)/ ha and [F.sub.3]= 1500 mL micro nutrients(Zn 4.7%, B 1.0%, Fe 2%, Mn 2%, and Cu 3%)/ha. Only single dose of spray was applied at booting stage. Recorded data was analysed statistically by Fisher's analysis of variance technique and treatments means were compared by using least significant difference (LSD) test at 5% level of probability (Steel et al, 1997).

Results and Discussion

Plant height (cm). The data showed that the plant height was significantly affected by varieties, foliar spray of micro nutrients and their interaction. The response of different wheat varieties and foliar application was found significant. The maximum plant height (105.33 cm) was obtained in treatment [V.sub.1][F.sub.4] (Jouhar 2016 + 1250 mL/ha micro nutrients). and the Minimum plant height (94.33 cm) was obtained in [V.sub.3][F.sub.1] (Gold 2016 + Control), however, it is statistically at par with treatments [V.sub.2][F.sub.1] (Ujala 2015 + Control) and [V.sub.3][F.sub.2] (Gold 2016 + Water spray). The findings of present study are corelated with Khan et al. (2010) which stated increased plant height by the micro nutrient's spray applied at different stages. Hussain et al. (2005) and Nadim et al. (2012) also described the similar results.

Number of tillers. Numbers of total and productive tillers are statistically non-significant for different wheat varieties, foliar application and their interaction.

Number of grains per spike. Statistically a greater number of grains per spike (48) was found under [V.sub.2][F.sub.4] (Ujala 2015 + 1250 mL/ha micro nutrients) followed by [V.sub.1][F.sub.4] (Jouhar 2016 + 1250 mL/ha micro nutrients) that produced 46 grains per spike. The lowest number of grains per spike (37) was in [V.sub.1][F.sub.1] (Jouhar 2016 + control) and [V.sub.3][F.sub.1] (Gold 2016 + control) that is statistically similar with [V.sub.2][F.sub.1] (Ujala 2015 + control), [V.sub.1][F.sub.2] (Jouhar 2016+ water spray) and [V.sub.3][F.sub.2] (Gold 2016 + water spray). Tahir et al. (2009) represented that foliage use of micro nutrients efficiently improved grains per spike. Micro nutrients mixture enhanced the grains per spike in wheat (Yaseen et al. 2011). Same results were described by Khan et al. (2010).

1000- grain weight (g). Treatment V2F4 (Ujala 2015 + 1250 mL/ha micro nutrients) gained significantly maximum 1000-grain weight (49 g). However, the lowest 1000-grain weight (41 g) was found under the treatment [V.sub.3][F.sub.1] (Gold 2016 + control) that is statistically at par with treatments [V.sub.1][F.sub.1] (Jouhar 2016 + control) and [V.sub.2][F.sub.1] (Ujala 2015 + control). The findings are corelated with Yaseen et al. (2010). The results are also considered by Kassab et al. (2004) and Torun et al. (2001) which stated that thousand grain weight in case of wheat was significantly increased by foliar application zinc.

Grain yield (Kg/ha). The treatment V2F4 (Ujala 2015 + 1250 mL/ha micro nutrients) produced statistically highest grain yield (5336.3 Kg/ha) followed by [V.sub.3][F.sub.4] (Gold 2016 + 1250 mL/ha micro nutrients). Whereas the lowest grain yield was showed under response of [V.sub.3][F.sub.1] (Gold 2016 + control) that is statistically same with treatments like as [V.sub.1][F.sub.1] (Jouhar 2016 + control), [V.sub.2][F.sub.1] (Ujala 2015 + control) and [V.sub.3][F.sub.2] (Gold 2016 + qater spray). Yaseen et al. (2010) stated that foliar use of all the nutrients cause enhance 24-38% yield of the wheat crop.

Biological yield (Kg/ha). The treatment [V.sub.2][F.sub.4] (Ujala 2015 + 1250 mL/ha micro nutrients) produced maximum biological yield (12829 Kg/ha). The lowest biological yield (9946 Kg/ha) was accumulated in treatment [V.sub.3][F.sub.1] (Gold 2016 + control) that is statistical similar with treatments [V.sub.1][F.sub.1] (Jouhar 2016 + control), [V.sub.2][F.sub.1] (Ujala 2015 + control), [V.sub.1][F.sub.2] (Jouhar 2016+ water spray) and [V.sub.3][F.sub.2] (Gold 2016 + water spray) which produced 10686 Kg/ha, 10484 Kg/ha, 10583 Kg/ha and 10538 Kg/ha respectively. The conclusions are union with Khan et al. (2010) and Hussain et al. (2005) they stated that total biomass enhanced with the foliar nourishing of micro nutrients. The results are also in line with Esfandiari et al. (2016).

Straw yield (Kg/ha). Treatment [V.sub.2][F.sub.4] (Ujala 2015 + 1250 mL/ha micro nutrients) collected highest straw yield amount (7492.7 Kg/ha) that is statistically at par with treatments of [V.sub.2][F.sub.3] (Ujala 2015 + 1000 mL/ha micro nutrients), [V.sub.3][F.sub.4] (Gold 2016 + 1250 mL/ha), [V.sub.1][F.sub.4] (Jouhar 2016+ 1250 mL/ha), [V.sub.2][F.sub.5] (Ujala 2015 + 1500 mL/ha), [V.sub.3][F.sub.3] (Gold 2016+ 1000 mL/ha micro nutrients) and [V.sub.1][F.sub.3] (Jouhar 2016 + 1000 mL/ha micro nutrients).

However, the lowest straw yield (6222.7 Kg/ha) was exhibited in treatment [V.sub.3][F.sub.1] (Gold 2016 + control) that is statistically same with treatments [V.sub.1][F.sub.1] (Jouhar 2016 + control), [V.sub.2][F.sub.1] (Ujala 2015 + control), [V.sub.1][F.sub.2] (Jouhar 2016 + water spray), [V.sub.2][F.sub.2] (Ujala 2015+ water spray), [V.sub.3][F.sub.2] (Gold 2016+ water spray), [V.sub.1][F.sub.5] (Jouhar 2016 + 1500 mL/ha) and [V.sub.3][F.sub.5] (Gold 2016 + 1500 mL/ha). The findings of the current study are considered by El-Ghamry et al. (2009) who documented that micronutrients application improved straw yield in wheat. The same results are also presented by Ananda and Patil (2005).

Harvest index (%). Harvest index percent is the ratio of total biological yield to economic yield. Data revealed that regarding harvest index the maximum amount (41.65%) was observed in treatment [V.sub.2][F.sub.4] (Ujala 2015 + 1250 mL/ha micro nutrients) than all other treatments but this treatment effect was statistically not differ with [V.sub.1][F.sub.4] (Jouhar 2016 + 1250 mL/ha micro nutrients), [V.sub.3][F.sub.4] (Gold 2016 + 1250 mL/ha micro nutrients), [V.sub.1][F.sub.3] (Jouhar 2016 + 1000 mL/ha micro nutrients) and [V.sub.3][F.sub.3] (Gold 2016 + 1000 mL/ha micro nutrients). Whereas, the lowest harvest index percent (37.44%) was counted in treatment [V.sub.3][F.sub.1] (Gold 2016 + control) that is statistical at par with [V.sub.2][F.sub.1] (Ujala 2015 + control), [V.sub.1][F.sub.1] (Jouhar 2016 + control), [V.sub.1][F.sub.2] (Jouhar 2016 + water spray), [V.sub.2][F.sub.2] (Ujala 2015 + water spray) and [V.sub.2][F.sub.5] (Ujala 2015 + 1500 mL/ha micro nutrients). The findings of current study are correlated with Khan et al. (2010) as they have stated that harvest index enhanced with micro nutrients application. Same findings are also reported by Zain et al. (2015) too who stated that foliar use of micro nutrients increases the harvest index.

Protein contents (%). Treatment [V.sub.2][F.sub.4] (Ujala 2015 + 1250 mL/ha micro nutrients) statistically highest protein contents (11.4%). Minimum protein percentage (9.0%) was recorded under treatment of [V.sub.3][F.sub.1] (Gold 2016 + control) that is statistically similar with treatment [V.sub.1][F.sub.1] (Jouhar 2016 + control). Micro nutrients contributions in physiological procedures plants like amino acid biosynthesis, activation of enzymes, and starch utilization, improved the accumulation of assimilates in seeds, which results in more protein contents in grain (Rasul et al., 2015; Khan et al., 2010).

Carbohydrate concentration (%). Carbohydrate concentration revealed that statistically significant effect of foliar response of wheat varieties on concentration of carbohydrates. Maximum concentration (63.7%) was found in treatment [V.sub.2][F.sub.4] (Ujala 2015 +1250 mL/ha micro nutrients) followed by [V.sub.3][F.sub.4] (Gold 2016 + 1250 mL/ha micro nutrients) that is obtained (63.1%) carbohydrates. On the other hand, the statistically lowest carbohydrates concentration was gathered under treatment [V.sub.3][F.sub.1] (Gold 2016 + control) that is statistically at par with treatments [V.sub.1][F.sub.1] (Jouhar 2106 + control) and [V.sub.2][F.sub.1] (Ujala 2015). The micro nutrient plays a vital role in several carbohydrate production, metabolic reactions, nitrogen fixation acts as an oxygen carrier, membrane integrity, starch utilization, in enzyme system acts as a co-factor and phytochrome activities (Monreal et al., 2015; Bameri et al, 2012).

Conclusion

This study concluded that foliar application of micro nutrients mixture (@1250 mL/ha) on wheat varieties produced higher yield and better quality of grains.

Conflict of Interest. The authors declare no conflict of interest

References

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Muhammad Tahir (a), Muhammad Tahir Naveed (a) * Aftab Ahmad Sheikh (b) and Rizwan Maqbool (a)

(a) Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

(b) Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, Kala Shah Kaku, Pakistan

(received April 9, 2019; revised September 17, 2019; accepted September 19, 2019)

* Author for correspondence; E-mail: mtahir187@yahoo.com
Table 1. Individual comparison of treatment means

Treatments                               Plant         No. of
                                         height (cm)   tillers/m

[V.sub.1]--Jouhar-2016                   102.80 A      306.27
[V.sub.2]--Ujala-2015                    98.73 B       307.00
[V.sub.3]--Gold-2016                     96.47 C       306.53

LSD value at 5%                          0.82          NS

[F.sub.1]--Control                       97.00 C       306.33
[F.sub.2]--Water Spray                   98.00 C       306.22
[F.sub.3]--1000 mL micro nutrients/ha    99.56 B       307.89
[F.sub.4]--1250 mL micro nutrients/ha    102.22 A      308.78
[F.sub.5]--1500 mL micro nutrients/ha    99.89 B       303.78

LSD value at 5%                          1.07          NS

[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.1]                    101.33 bc     306.00
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.2]                    101.67 b      307.00
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.3]                    103.00 b      307.00
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.4]                    105.33 a      307.00
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.5]                    102.67 b      304.00
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.1]                    95.33 fg      306.00
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.2]                    97.33 e       306.00
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.3]                    99.33 d       307.33
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.4]                    102.00 b      311.00
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.5]                    99.67 cd      304.67
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.1]                    94.33 g       308.67
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.2]                    95.00 fg      305.67
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.3]                    96.3 ef       307.67
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.4]                    99.33 d       308.33
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.5]                    97.33 e       302.67

LSD value at 5%                          1.85          NS

Treatments                               No. of       No. of
                                         productive   grains
                                         tillers/     per Spike
                                         [m.sup.2]

[V.sub.1]--Jouhar-2016                   41.60 AB     301.80
[V.sub.2]--Ujala-2015                    43.00 A      304.27
[V.sub.3]--Gold-2016                     41.20 B      303.47

LSD value at 5%                          NS           1.48

[F.sub.1]--Control                       37.33 D      300.22
[F.sub.2]--Water Spray                   39.66 C      303.89
[F.sub.3]--1000 mL micro nutrients/ha    44.00 B      305.00
[F.sub.4]--1250 mL micro nutrients/ha    46.66 AB     305.78
[F.sub.5]--1500 mL micro nutrients/ha    46.67 A      301.00

LSD value at 5%                          NS           1.91

[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.1]                    37.00 g      293.00
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.2]                    39.00 e-g    305.00
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.3]                    44.00 b-d    306.00
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.4]                    46.00 ab     304.33
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.5]                    42.00 c-e    300.67
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.1]                    38.00 fg     303.33
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.2]                    41.00 d-f    303.67
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.3]                    45.00 a-c    304.67
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.4]                    48.00 a      307.67
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.5]                    43.00 b-d    302.00
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.1]                    37.00 g      304.33
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.2]                    39.00 e-g    303.00
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.3]                    43.00 b-d    304.33
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.4]                    46.00 ab     305.33
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.5]                    41.00 d-f    300.33

LSD value at 5%                          NS           3.31

Treatments                               1000-Seed
                                         weight

[V.sub.1]--Jouhar-2016                   45.20 AB
[V.sub.2]--Ujala-2015                    45.86 A
[V.sub.3]--Gold-2016                     44.66 B

LSD value at 5%                          0.72

[F.sub.1]--Control                       41.66 E
[F.sub.2]--Water Spray                   44.44 D
[F.sub.3]--1000 mL micro nutrients/ha    46.44 B
[F.sub.4]--1250 mL micro nutrients/ha    48.22 A
[F.sub.5]--1500 mL micro nutrients/ha    45.44 C

LSD value at 5%                          0.93

[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.1]                    41.66 fg
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.2]                    45.00 e
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.3]                    46.33 c-e
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.4]                    48.00 ab
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.5]                    45.00 e
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.1]                    42.33 fg
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.2]                    45.33 e
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.3]                    47.00 b-d
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.4]                    49.00 a
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.5]                    45.66 de
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.1]                    41.00 g
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.2]                    43.00 f
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.3]                    46.00 de
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.4]                    47.66 a-c
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.5]                    45.66 de

LSD value at 5%                          1.60

Table 2. Individual comparison of treatment means

Treatments                              Grain yield   Biological
                                        (Kg/ha)       Yield (Kg/ha)

[V.sub.1]--Jouhar-2016                  4424.9 AB     11145 B
[V.sub.2]--Ujala-2015                   4555.0 A      11624 A
[V.sub.3]--Gold-2016                    4314.0 B      11057 B

LSD value at 5%                         153.08        354.19

[F.sub.1]--Control                      3848.7 E      10205 D
[F.sub.2]--Water Spray                  4065.6 D      10664 C
[F.sub.3]--1000 mL micronutrients/ha    4755.2 B      11901 B
[F.sub.4]--1250 mL micronutrients/ha    5171.1 A      12498 A
[F.sub.5]--1500 mL micronutrients/ha    4316.0 C      11108 C

LSD value at 5%                         197.62        457.26

[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.1]                   3876.0 hi     10186 de
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.2]                   4070.0 gh     10583 de
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.3]                   4745.0 c-e    11713 b
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.4]                   5170.3 ab     12411 ab
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.5]                   4263.3 fg     10830 d
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.1]                   3946.7 g-i    10484 de
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.2]                   4113.3 gh     10870 cd
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.3]                   4884.0 b-d    12306 ab
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.4]                   5336.3 a      12829 a
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.5]                   4494.7 ef     11632 bc
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.1]                   3723.3 i      9946 e
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.2]                   4013.3 gi     10538 de
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.3]                   4636.7 de     11684 b
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.4]                   5006.7 a-c    12253 ab
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.5]                   4190.0 f-h    10862 cd

LSD value at 5%                         342.29        792.00

Treatments                              Straw yield   Harvest
                                        (Kg/ha)       Index

[V.sub.1]--Jouhar-2016                  6719.6 B      39.61
[V.sub.2]--Ujala-2015                   7069.4 A      39.09
[V.sub.3]--Gold-2016                    6742.7 B      38.93

LSD value at 5%                         257.31        NS

[F.sub.1]--Control                      6356.8 C      37.71 D
[F.sub.2]--Water Spray                  6598.BC       38.11 CD
[F.sub.3]--1000 mL micronutrients/ha    7145.9 A      39.97 B
[F.sub.4]--1250 mL micronutrients/ha    7326.6 A      41.37 A
[F.sub.5]--1500 mL micronutrients/ha    6792.0 B      38.89 BC

LSD value at 5%                         332.18        1.13

[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.1]                   6310.0 e      38.06 ef
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.2]                   6537.7 de     38.43 ef
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.3]                   6967.7 a-d    40.54 a-d
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.4]                   7240.7 ab     41.57 ab
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.5]                   6567.0 c-e    39.38 c-f
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.1]                   6512.7 de     37.65 f
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.2]                   6756.7 b-e    37.84 ef
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.3]                   7422.3 a      39.689 b-e
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.4]                   7492.7 a      41.65 a
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.5]                   7137.7 a-c    38.70 d-f
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.1]                   6222.7 e      37.44 f
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.2]                   6524.7 de     38.07 ef
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.3]                   7047.7 a-d    40.544 a-d
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.4]                   7246.3 ab     40.88 a-c
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.5]                   6672.3 b-e    38.58 ef

LSD value at 5%                         575.36        0.87

Treatments                              Protein       Carbohydrates
                                        content (%)   (%)

[V.sub.1]--Jouhar-2016                  10.04 B       62.12 B
[V.sub.2]--Ujala-2015                   10.28 A       62.36 A
[V.sub.3]--Gold-2016                    9.98 B        61.92 C

LSD value at 5%                         0.11          596.26

[F.sub.1]--Control                      9.13 E        60.76 E
[F.sub.2]--Water Spray                  9.54 D        61.20 D
[F.sub.3]--1000 mL micronutrients/ha    10.53 B       62.96 B
[F.sub.4]--1250 mL micronutrients/ha    11.03 A       63.40 A
[F.sub.5]--1500 mL micronutrients/ha    10.26 C       62.33 C

LSD value at 5%                         0.14          769.76

[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.1]                   9.10 hi       60.80 gh
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.2]                   9.40 fg       61.10 fg
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.3]                   10.50 cd      63.00 cd
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.4]                   10.90 b       63.40 ab
[V.sub.1] * [F.sub.5]                   10.30 de      62.30 e
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.1]                   9.30 gh       60.90 gh
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.2]                   9.63 f        61.40 f
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.3]                   10.70 bc      63.10 bc
[V.sub.2] * [F.sub.4]                   11.40 a       63.70 a
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.5]                   10.40 d       62.70 d
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.1]                   9.00 i        60.60 h
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.2]                   9.60 f        61.10 fg
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.3]                   10.40 d       62.80 cd
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.4]                   10.80 b       63.10 bc
[V.sub.3] * [F.sub.5]                   10.10 e       62.00 e

LSD value at 5%                         0.25          1333.3
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Author:Tahir, Muhammad; Naveed, Muhammad Tahir; Sheikh, Aftab Ahmad; Maqbool, Rizwan
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Series B: Biological Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Mar 1, 2021
Words:3788
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