Gross Anatomical Studies of Digestive System of Japanese Quails (Coturnix japonica) of Different Age Groups.
Abstract.- Gross anatomy of digestive system of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) of different age groups viz., 4, 8, >12 weeks were investigated. The esophagus length was 55.14+-3.76, 59.86+-1.21, 129.71+-5.35mm in the three groups, respectively and was significantly higher in group C as compare to other age groups. The crop width and diameter, the length and greater width of proventriculus, the weight, breath circumference of gizzard the length of ilium and length of right and left ceaca followed the same pattern.
Key words: Crop, ceaca, gizzard, proventriculus, liver, macroscopy.
Poultry industry today is an mportant industry in our country. Growth is a priority trait in the poultry industry (Balcioglu et al., 2005). The Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) have been used widely as a model species in research on poultry breeding and the genetics of growth traits, because they are small, get early maturity (Qureshi, 1996), less expensive than chickens and turkeys, have a short generation interval and show genetic variation for growth traits in most populations (Wilson et al., 1961; Balcioglu et al., 2005). The present study determines the age related changes in digestive system of Japanese quails to consider it as a criteria for developing strategy for more production quail farming.
Materials and methods
A total of 24 clinically healthy Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) of both sexes, and of 3 small intestine, pancreas, large intestine, ceaca, rectum, liver) were collected from each bird immediately after slaughtering the birds. Gross anatomical parameters of all the organs of digestive system were recorded, then weights taken and dimensions record with measuring tape and a vernier caliper.
Means of parameters of all the organs of digestive system were compared with individual 95% CIs. Statistical analysis was performed by using the statistical computer software Minitab (Mtb13).
Results and discussion Table I shows the dimensions and weight of different parts of the digestive system of quails. All parameters have their weights and dimensions related to the age of the birds.
All dimensions of all parts of the G.I. tract are age dependent and also significantly increases with the increase in age.
Matthias and Rehmaan (2003) reported the length of duodenum, jejunoilium and rectum was 122.60+-4.51, 342.00+-9.54 and 39.297+-2.97 mm in quails aged up to four weeks of age respectively.
The two ceca right and left were found as blind sacs having three parts, proximal, middle and distal. The length of right and left ceaca was significantly higher (p<0.01) in group C as shown in Table I. Pliz (1937) reported the length of each ceaca was 14 to 23.5cm in chicken, 10 to 20 cm in duck and 23 to 28 cm in the goose. The difference was due to species variation. The liver was divided into two lobes i.e., right and left lobes. The gall bladder lies in the right lobe of liver. The mass of liver was significantly (p<0.01) higher in group C, 2.98+-0.269g as compare to group A, 1.89+-0.748g and group B, 1.97+-0.173g. Matthias et al. (2003) reported the fresh mass of liver 3.31+-0.29g with a range of 2.57+-0.13 to 2.61+-0.13 at two and four weeks of age in Japanese quails.
In conclusion, gross anatomy of different organs of Japanese quails differs significantly with increasing age. Most organs of digestive system showed significant higher growth in terms of increased length, width or weight in Japanese quails with age more than 12 weeks.
Table I.- Morphometric parameters (Means +- SD) of Digestive system of Japanese quails under three different age groups.
Width of crop###11.5+###13.7+###15.23+
Greater###22.4+- 31.28+- 1.70a###33.28+-
diameter of###1.90 a###095b
Length of left###64.5+-###69.37+-###73.62+-
right ceacum###572ab###9.56 ab###1.51
Balcioglu, M.S., Kizilkaya, K., Yolcu, H.I. and Karabag, K., 2005. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci., 35: 83-89.
Matthias, S.J. and Rehmaan, G.H.A., 2003. J. exp. Biol., 206, 1887-1897.
Pliz, H., 1937. Morph. Jahrb., 79:275-304. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS 841 Qureshi, M.S., 1996. Batair farming (Urdu). Department of Livestock and Dairy Development, Lahore, pp. 8-9.
Wilson, W.O., Abbott, U.K. and Abplanalp, H., 1961. Poult. Sci., 40: 651-657. (Received 14 December 2009, revised 25 January 2010)
Epidemic of Dengue Hemorrhagic ever During 2008 in Lahore, Pakistan
By: Muhammad Khurram Shahzad*, Tayyaba Ijaz, Muhammad Younus, Muhammad Athar Khan, Nasir Mahmood, Zahida Fatima and Sibtain Ahmad
_: Abstract.- Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), an acute arthropod-borne viral disease, is worldwide in distribution and caused by four antigenically distinct serotypes of Dengue virus. The disease appeared in Karachi, Pakistan in 1994 and with uninterrupted epidemics in Lahore during 2006, 2007 and 2008. In the fulminating and massive epidemic of 2008 more than 1200 suspected patients were admitted in a referral public hospital along with more than 300 patients admitted in other hospitals of Lahore. This epidemic investigation comprises 903 confirmed cases of DHFwith IgG and IgM capture ELISA by adopting the standard protocols. Among the confirmed patients 60% were males and 40% were females.
Key words: Cross protection, Dengue haemorrhage fever, Aedes aegypti.
Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) is an acute febrile disease caused by any of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV 1, DENV 2, DENV 3 and DENV 4) belonging to flaviviruses.
It is a public health (Rigau-Perez et al., 1998). Although most DENV infections are characterized as mild illnesses with low mortality, many countries report increasing incidence with high mortality (Gubler and Clark, 1995). Immunity against any of the four serotypes does not provide cross protection against each other. In the absence of an effective vaccine, the primary method of prevention is only possible through vector surveillance and its control. All ages and both sexes are susceptible to the DENV infection.
Several DENV epidemics or pandemics have been reported world wide. In Pakistan 4 of 30 sera randomly collected in the late sixties were found positive to neutralization antibodies against DENV 1 from Rawalpindi and Peshawar cities (Burney, 1966). Studies to test for antibodies to flaviviruses were done among residents of Chiniot and Changa Manga National Forest areas of Punjab Province between 1968 and 1978 in which 124 had hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies against DENV 3. Between 1983 and 1985, HI antibodies against dengue virus were reported from the sera of outpatients and healthy volunteer controls in a study at a government hospital in Karachi. In 1994, there were confirmed reports of DHF attributed to unusually heavy rainfall (Igarashi et al., 1994). During the same epidemic, acute phase sera from 16 patients in one hospital were tested by IgM capture ELISA. The results showed that 15 patients had IgM D
ENV 2 (Chan et al., 1995). Laboratory based surveillance was initiated to investigate the epidemic to asses the impact on population and to determine the secular trends of the dengue fever epidemic in Lahore, Pakistan.
Materials and methods
The study was conducted in the Microbiology Diagnostic and Research Lab for DHF diagnosis Mayo hospital, Lahore. Blood samples of clinically suspected and admitted patients and/or referred from private practitioners and family physicians were tested by using IgM and IgG capture ELISA from Nova Tec Immunodiagnostica GmbH, Dietzenbach, Germany. The epidemiological parameters like incidence rate, bar graphs and time-series graphs were made by using SPSS software (Version 16).
The blood samples from patients suspected to SHORT COMMUNICATIONS 842 have DHF were tested for the detection of IgG and IgM against Dengue viruses. The age of the dengue patients ranged from 3 months through 80 years. There was an increasing trend in the incidence of DHF up to the age of thirty years followed by a sudden decline in all the higher age groups. This trend was consistent in 2006, 2007 and 2008 in both male and female patients (Fig. 1). Similarly in 2006 a total of 186 cases were found positive against dengue serotype 1, of which 67.7% (n=126) were male and 32.3% (n=60) were female. In 2007, 57 cases were reported, of which 59.6% (n=34) were male and 40.4% (n=23) were female. In 2008, a total of 1153 blood samples were submitted of which 903(18.3%) were found reactive to the ELISA test. Amongst the 903 reactive samples, males were 541 (60%) and females were 362 (40%) (Fig. 2).
In the epidemic of 2008there was a significant rise of dengue fever confirmed patients i.e., 903 as compared to 186 and 57 in 2006 and 2007, respectively (Fig. 2). In the years 2006, 2007 and 2008 the secular trend revealed that in each year more than 80% dengue fever patients were reported during the month of November. The occasional cases start coming from mid August and epidemic terminates in mid of January as per records of 2006-07. This investigation confirmed that dengue virus was responsible for the 2008 outbreak of DHF starting from mid August 2008 (Fig. 2.).
DHF epidemic is characterised by a significant rise in the number of cases with respect to time, place and person (Thrusfield, 2005). During the current epidemic the cases started appearing from mid August 2008 through November 2008. Although there was not enough rainfall in summer 2008 yet the rise of cases beyond expectation might be attributed to the water available in different types of vessels in the effected houses which is the prerequisite for the increase in the vector population. The availability of fresh water favours the increase in vector population i.e. Aedes aegypti in contrast to the Anopheles (a malarial mosquito), which primarily reproduces in the stagnant water particularly during the rainy season.
In Lahore there was substantial evidence of exposure to mosquitoes, and the serological tests emonstrated IgM against DENV, which is a highly sensitive marker of acute dengue infection. The epidemiology of dengue virus infection is not well reported in Pakistan. In the years 2006 and 2007 there were 186 and 57 patients, respectively, as compared to 903 during the year 2008 which is a confirmed epidemic of its nature in severity and number in SHORT COMMUNICATIONS 843Lahore. As this data is derived from the referral laboratory of a public hospital the total cases in all the ther Hospitals (public and private) of Lahore city were reported to be more than 3000 (Shahzad et. al., 2007, 2008).
The epidemic since 1994 and 1995 clearly document the presence of dengue viral infections in Pakistan, most probably due to increased rainfall in Karachi that resulted in an increase in mosquito population. No information on the mosquito species and/or other vector/ reservoir involved at that time is available. Later on the most common vector of DHF was found to be Aedes aegypti. The elevation of IgM ELISA titers to DENV 1 and DENV 2 serotypes suggests that viruses in this outbreak are of two different types. Dengue is endemic in the neighbouring countries like India and Sri Lanka, and the presence of more than one dengue serotype of DHF is migrating outside Pakistan epidemic DHF is also increasingly reported (Anonymous, 1985; Kabra et al., 1992; Vitarana and Jayasekera, 1990; Halstead, 1990).
In 1996, an epidemic of DHF in India resulted in at least 227 deaths and more than 4700 persons being admitted in Delhi gover nment hospitals. Most previous episodes of DHF in India have also been reported (Anonymous, 1996; Halstead, 1992; Mudur, 1996). In tropical and subtropical Asia where dengue is reported, changing lifestyles, urbanization, explosive population growth, destruction of city water supplies, migration, and increased air travel are some of the reasons cited for increase in the prevalence of dengue infections.
As there is no vaccine available against this disease and in the absence of sentinel surveillance efforts to decrease breeding places of Aedes aegypti, community participation in capping, cleaning, or emptying water containers and eliminating hidden fresh water in the storage tanks and addition of larvicidal agents to stored water in the containers at house may control the dengue fever right in he beginning of an outbreak.
Anonymous, 1985. Arthropod-borne and rodent-borne viral diseases. WHO report, Geneva: Anonymous, 1996. Nature, 383: 654.
Burney, M.I., 1966. Pakistan J. med. Res., 5:215-225. Chan, Y.C., Salahuddin, N.I. and Khan, J., 1995. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg., 89: 619-620.
Gubler, D.J., 1993. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in the Americas. Monograph on dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever. WHO: Regional Office for South East Asia, New Delhi. Regional Publication, SEAR 22: 9-22.
Gubler D. J. and Clark, G.G., 1995. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 1: 55-57 Halstead, S.B., 1990. Southeast Asian J. trop. Med. Publ. Hlth., 21: 636-641.
Halstead, S.B., 1992. Wld. Hlth. Stat. Q., 45: 292-298. Igarashi, A., Tanaka, M. and Morita, K., 1994. Microbial Immunol., 38: 827-830.
Kabra, S.K., Verma, I.C., Arora, N.K., Jain, Y. and Kalra, V., 1992. Wld. Hlth. Org. Bull., 70: 105-108. Mudur, G., 1996. Br. med. J., 313: 1034.
Rigau-Perez, J.G., Clark, G.G., Gubler, D.J., Reiter, P., Sanders, E.J. and Vorndam, A.V., 1998. Lancet, 352(9132): 971-977. Shahzad, M.K., Ijaz, T., Ijaz, S. and Younus, M., 2007. Int. J. Agro Vet. Med. Sci., 1: 13-16
Shahzad, M. K., Ijaz, T. and Ijaz, S., 2008. Int. J. Agro Vet. Med. Sci., 2: 36
Thrusfield, M., 2005. Veterinary epidemiology; 3 rd ed. Blackwell Science Ltd, UK. Vitarana, T. and Jayasekera, N., 1990. Southeast Asian J. trop.
Med. Publ. Hlth., 21: 682 (Received 19 June 2009, revised 23 July 2009)
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|Publication:||Pakistan Journal of Zoology|
|Date:||Dec 31, 2010|
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