Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed aqueous extract of Abelmoschus esculentus and study of their properties.
Nanotechnology involves the characterization, fabrication and/or manipulation of structures, devices or materials that have at least one dimension (or contain components with at least one dimension) that is approximately 1-100 nm in length. When particle size is reduced below this threshold, the resulting material exhibits physical and chemical properties that are significantly different from the properties of macro scale materials composed of the same substance . It is applied to various fields such as physical, chemical, biological and engineering sciences where novel techniques are being developed to probe and manipulate single atoms and molecules. Among all NPs the metallic one have applications in diverse areas such as electronics, cosmetics, coating, packaging and biotechnology . The NPs can traverse through the vasculature and localize any target organ, this leads to novel therapeutic, imaging and biomedical application .
The NPs usually have better or different properties than the bulk material of the same elements. The effect of AgNPs is greatly enhanced because of tiny size. The NPs have immense surface area relative to volume. Therefore, minuscule amounts of AgNPs can lend antimicrobial effects to hundreds of square meters of its host material. Nanomaterials are the leading requirement of the rapidly developing field of nanomedicine, and bionanotechnology. Among noble metal NPs, the AgNPs have received considerable attention owing to their attractive physicochemical properties [4, 5].
The AgNPs have various and important applications. Historically, silver has been known having a disinfecting effect and has been found in applications ranging from traditional medicines to culinary items. It has been reported that AgNPs are non-toxic to human and most effective against bacteria, virus and other eukaryotic micro-organism at low concentrations and without any side effects [6, 7]. Moreover, several salts of silver and their derivatives are commercially manufactured as antimicrobial agents. A small concentration of silver is safe for human cells, but lethal for micro organisms. Antimicrobial capability of AgNPs allows them to be suitably employed in numerous household applications such as textiles disinfection in water treatment, food storage containers, home appliances and in medical devices. The most important application of silver and AgNPs is in medical industry such as tropical ointments to prevent infection against burn and open wounds . Thus, the advancement of green syntheses of NPs is progressing as a key branch of nanotechnology; where the use of biological entities like microorganisms, plant extractor plant biomass for the production of NPs could be an alternative to chemical and physical methods in an eco-friendly manner .
It is significant that the NPs production using plants described in the present review displays important advantages over other biological systems. The low cost of cultivation, short production time, safety, and the ability to up production volumes make plants an attractive platform for NPs synthesis . Biological synthesis of NPs by plant extracts is at present under exploitation as some researchers worked on it. For the last two decades, extensive work has been done to develop new drugs from natural products because of the resistance of micro-organisms to the existing drugs. Nature has been an important source of a products currently being used in medical practice [5, 10].
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is an important vegetable which is widely distributed from Africa to Asia, Southern European and America. The A. esculentus plays an important role in the humam deit by supplying carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins. Seeds could serve as alternate rich sources of protein, fat, fiber and sugar. The natural phenolic content of seeds has been reported [11, 12].
In a previous study, high-molecular glycosylated compounds (polysaccharides and glycoproteins) from the immature fruits of A. esculentus were shown to have a strong in vitro anti-adhesive activity against Helicobacter pylori . So far, we aimed to synthesis of NPs by utilizing the seed aqueous extract of A. esculentus and used to synthesize AgNPs without addition of any external surfactant, reducing agent, capping agent or template. The efficacy of the synthesized AgNPs as antibacterial agent, with its effect against GOT and GPT were studied.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Silver nitrate AgN[O.sub.3] was obtained from Sigma-Aldrich chemicals and used as received. All other reagents used in the reaction were of analytical grade with maximum purity. Deionized water was used throughout the reactions. All glass and magnetic bars, used in the synthesis, were washed with dilute nitric acid HN[O.sub.3] and rinsed in distilled water, then dried in hot air oven prior to used, to avoid un wanted nucleation during the synthesis of NPs. Fresh seeds of A. esculentus were obtained from local market at adhamiya, Baghdad, Iraq.
2. Preparation of the seed of A. esculentus powder:
The obtained seeds were washed thoroughly in tap water and finally rinsed with distilled water until no foreign material remained. The freshly cleaned seeds were left to dry for 15 days at room temperature. The dried seeds were pulverized with a sterile electrical blender to obtain a powdered form. The powdered samples were stored in an air tight container and protected from sunlight for further use.
3. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles:
Two grams of finely powdered seed was mixed with 100 ml of deionized water into 500-ml beaker and then the mixture was boiled for 30 min, cooled and filtered, three times, through Whatman filter paper no.1. The extract was used fresh within 1 h. 40 ml of A. esculentus seed aqueous broth was added to 60 ml of 1 mM aqueous AgN[O.sub.3] solution in Erlenmeyer flask and the solution was placed in orbital shaker at room temperature, for reduction of [Ag.sup.+] to [Ag.sup.0]. The bio-reduction of the silver ions in the solution was monitored periodically by measuring the UV-visible spectroscopy of the solutions. Reduction of silver nitrate to silver ions was confirmed by the color change from colorless (AgN[O.sub.3]) to yellowish (AgN[O.sub.3]+extract) to bright yellow, then dark brown. The formation of AgNPs was also confirmed by spectrophotometric determination.
3. Fixation of different parameters:
The above mentioned procedure was repeated for optimization of temperature, where the reaction temperature was maintained at 25, 35, 45, 55, 65 and 75[degrees]C, respectively, using shaker water bath. Other optimized conditions were used, as followed previously. The absorbance of the resulting solutions was measured spectrophotometrically.
The above mentioned procedure was repeated to optimize the time required for the completion of reaction, where the reaction was monitored from 0 to 60 min at 10 min time interval. Other optimized conditions were used, as followed previously. The absorbance of the resulting solutions was measured spectrophotometrically.
The above mentioned procedure was repeated for optimization of pH where the reaction pH was maintained at 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, respectively. The pH was adjusted by using 0.1 N HCl and 0.1 N NaOH. Other optimized conditions were used, as followed previously. The absorbance of the resulting solutions was measured spectrophotometrically.
3.4. Concentration of AgN[O.sub.3] solution:
The above mentioned procedure was repeated for optimization of AgN[O.sub.3] concentration, where the reaction was maintained using different concentration of AgN[O.sub.3] (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 mM), respectively. Other optimized conditions were used, as followed previously. The absorbance of the resulting solutions was measured spectrophotometrically.
3.5. Stability study:
The stability of the resultant solution was determined at room temperature, at interval of 48 h, for 30 days.
4. Characterization of AgNPs:
4.1. UV-Vis spectra analysis:
UV-Vis spectral analysis was done by using Perkin Elmer, UV-Visible Lambda 25 spectrophotometer. The UV-Visible absorption spectrophotometer with a resolution of 1 nm between 300 and 800 nm. The reduction of pure [Ag.sup.+] ions was monitored by measuring the UV-Vis spectrum of the reaction medium after diluting a small aliquot of the sample into deionized water. One milliliter of the sample was pipetted into a test tube and diluted with 3 ml or 4ml of deionized water and subsequently analyzed at room temperature. The deionized water used as the blank. The NPs solution showed maximum absorbance at near 440 nm
4.2. FTIR analysis:
To remove any free biomass residue or compound that is not the capping ligand of the NPs, the residual solution of 100 ml after reaction was centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 10 min the supernatant liquid was decanted. The resulting suspension was redispersed in 10 ml sterile distilled water and centrifugation process was repeated for 3-4 times. Thereafter, the purified suspension was dried to obtain dry powder. The dried NPs were analyzed by FTIR-shimadzu-8400S spectrophotometer, the spectrum was recorded in the range of 4000-500 cm-1. Finally, for comparison, the extract was subjected to FTIR spectroscopy measurement.
4.3. AFM analysis:
Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) (Model AA3000, Angstrom Advance Inc., USA) was used to examine the size and size distributions of the metals NPs (14), (15). Droplet-evaporation method was used for preparing AFM samples from liquid suspensions. A droplet of liquid is deposited on glass cover slide (2x2 [cm.sup.2]). To dry the sample before scanning, either leave it overnight in a dust protected environment or use a furnace/heater (at low temperature) to accelerate the drying process.
4.4. SEM analysis:
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been employed to characterize the shape and morphologies of formed biogenic synthesized of AgNPs, using (SEM-Angstrom Advanced Inc.-AIS2300C), and Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis for the confirmation of elemental silver was carried out for the detection of elemental silver, using (OXFORD instrument).
4.5. Zeta potential analysis:
Zeta potential measurement has been used to characterize the synthesized nanomateria. Zeta potential was measured by light scattering using a ZetaPlus instrument (Brookhaven Instruments Corp., USA). The data were averaged with five measurements.
4.6. Atomic Absorption analysis:
The AgNPs concentration was characterized by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AA-680, Shimadzu-Japan). Standard solution was prepared for Ag, then the corresponding absorbance values of the above samples were measured from these calibration curve.
5. GC-MS analysis:
Two grams of finely powdered seed was mixed with 100 ml of deionized water into 500-ml beaker and then the mixture was boiled for 30 min, cooled and filtered (three times) through Whatman filter paper no.1. The water extract subsequently extracted by separating funnel with ethyl acetate (2 X 10). The obtained EtOAc fraction was collected, concentrated by evaporating under a vacuum at 50[degrees]C using a rotary evaporator.
The GC-MS analysis was performed on GCMS (QP2010Ultra, Shimadzu Co., Kyoto, Japan). Analyte was separated on capillary column (30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 [micro]m) by applying the following temperature program: Column Oven temperature: 70.0[degrees]C, Injection temperature: 240[degrees]C, Injection Mode: Splitless, Sampling Time: 1.00 min, Pressure: 100.0 kPa, Total Flow: 19.9 mL/min, Column Flow: 1.53 mL/min, Linear Velocity: 45.4 cm/sec, Purge Flow: 3.0 mL/min, Split Ratio: 10.0. The GC Program, [GCMS-QP2010 Ultra], Ion Source Temperature: 200[degrees]C, Interface temperature: 240[degrees]C, Solvent Cut Time: 3.00 min, Ionization Mode: SEI, Detector Gain Mode: Relative, Detector Gain: 1.10 kV +0.00 kV. The MS Table, Start Time: 3.50min, End Time: 27min, ACQ Mode: Scan, Event Time: 0.30sec, Scan Speed: 2500, Start m/z: 35.00, End m/z: 700.00.
Interpretation on mass spectrum GC-MS was conducted using the database of National Institute Standard and Technology (NIST). The spectrum of the unknown component was compared with the spectrum of the known components stored in the NIST library. The name, molecular weight and structure of the components of the test materials were ascertained.
6. Antimicrobial activity by well diffusion method:
The AgNPs synthesized from A. esculentus were tested for their antimicrobial activity by well diffusion method against pathogenic organisms like Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Klebsiella pneumonia (k. pneumoniae) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Using micropipette, the samples (S1=AgNPs 53.65 ppm, S2=AgNPs 25 ppm, S3=AgNPs 5 ppm, S4=AgNPs 1 ppm, S5=AgN[O.sub.3] (1mM) 169.9 ppm and S6=Extract of A. esculentus) respectively, were prepared by serial dilution from the stock solution (S1 =53.65 ppm, from AA spectroscopy) with deionized water and poured into wells on all plates. After incubation, the different levels of zone of inhibition were measured by millimeter .
7. Effect of AgNPs on GOT and GPT activities:
The activities of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), also called aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), also called alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were assayed by the method of Reitman and Frankel as outline in Randox Kit. The activities were measured by monitoring the following information of oxaloacetate hydrazine (GOT) or pyruvate hydrazine (GPT) with 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine at a wavelength of 546 nm against the reagent blank.
A- The samples (S1=AgNPs 53.65 ppm, S2=AgNPs 25 ppm, S3=AgNPs 5 ppm, S4=AgNPs 1 ppm, S5=AgN[O.sub.3] (1mM) 169.9 ppm, S6=Extract of A. esculentus) respectively, were prepared by serial dilution from the stock solution (S1=53.65 ppm) with deionized water. The enzymes GOT, GPT activities were measured in human serum by using the same methods of these enzymes with adding 100[micro]l of sample (S1-S6) or deionized water (for blank). The inhibition percentage was calculated by comparing the activity with and without the inhibitor and under the same conditions, according to the equation
% Inhibition = 100-100 X The activity with inhibitor/The activity without inhibitor
The activation percentage was calculated by comparing the activity with and without the activator and under the same conditions, according to the equation
% Activator = 100 X The activitv with activator/ The activity without activator--100
B- A constant concentration of AgNPs (S1 - 53.65 ppm) was used with different substrate concentrations of (40, 80, 120, 160, 200) mM for GOT, GPT to study the type of inhibition or activation. Buffers were used to prepare different substrates concentrations of these enzymes, GOT, GPT (phosphate buffer pH 7.4, 100 mM). The enzymes activities were determined with and without AgNPs (S1), by using the Lineweaver-Burk equation and plotting 1/V against 1/[S] were evaluated values:
a) Apparent ([V.sup.app.sub.max]), b) Apperent ([K.sup.app.sub.m]), c) Type of inhibition or activation.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Chemical synthesis methods lead to the presence of some toxic chemical absorbed on the surface that may have adverse effect in the medical applications. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by plant extracts is currently under exploitation. Green synthesis provides advancement over chemical and physical method as it is environment friendly, cost effective, easily scaled up for large scale synthesis and in this method there is no need to use high pressure, energy, temperature and toxic chemicals .
The detailed study on biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by natural plants extract was employed and is reported in this work. The aqueous silver ions were reduced to AgNPs when added to natural plant extract of A. esculentus. It was observed that the color of the solution turned from yellow to bright yellow and then to brown, which indicated the formation of AgNPs (Figure 1). The formation and stability of the reduced silver NPs in the colloidal solution was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometer analysis. The UV-Vis spectra showed maximum absorbance near 440 nm, which increased with time of incubation of silver nitrate with the plants extract. The curve shows increased absorbance in various time intervals and the peaks were noticed near 430-448 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of AgNPs. The observation indicated that the reduction of the [Ag.sup.+] ions took place extracellularly and broadening of peak indicated that the particles are polydispersed . It is reported earlier that absorbance at around 430 nm for silver is a characteristic of these nobel metal particles .
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Different parameters were optimized including temperature, pH, concentration of silver nitrate, concentration ratio of silver nitrate, and time which had been identified as factors affecting the yields of AgNPs. The first factor considered was temperature, as the temperature increased, the rate of AgNPs formation also increased. The size is reduced initially due to the reduction in aggregation of the growing NPs. Increasing the temperature beyond a point (65[degrees]C) aids the growth of the crystal around the nucleus (Figure 2).
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
The second factor considered was the time required for the completion of reaction. Increasing the reaction time resulted in gradual increasing of absorbance spectrum with SPR near 445 nm and the color intensity increased with the duration of incubation. The intensity of the SPR peak increased as the reaction time increased, which indicated the increased concentrations of the AgNPs. Due to the instability of the AgNPs formed, an optimum duration is required, as AgNPs agglomeration after the optimum duration resulting in larger particle sizes. The optimum time required for the completion of reaction from our study was 60 min (Figure 3). It is pertinent to note that in previous studies the time span required for reduction of silver ions ranged from 60 min  to 48 h or longer time as one week .
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
The third factor considered was pH of the reaction medium. The (Figure 4) shows the effect of pH on formation of AgNPs. It can be seen that absorbance increases with increasing pH from 4 to 7 and then it has been stable. Furthermore, it is observed that the brown color of the NPs appeared shortly after mixing the AgN[O.sub.3] with the extract. Acidic condition suppresses the formation of AgNPs but the basic condition enhances the formation of AgNPs. Large NPs were formed at lower pH (pH 4 and 5), where as small and highly dispersed NPs were formed at high pH (pH 7-9). At low pH, the aggregation of AgNPs to form larger NPs was believed to be favored over the nucleation. At higher pH, however, the large number of functional groups available for silver binding facilitated a higher number of AgNPs to bind and subsequently form a large number of NPs with smaller diameters. But at higher pH agglomeration of NPs took place. The same results, in previous studies, shown by Veersamy et al.  and Khalil et al. . These studies shown that the size and shape of biosynthesized NPs could be manipulated by varying the pH of the reaction mixtures. A major influence of the reaction pH is its ability to change the electrical charges of biomolecules which might affect their capping and stabilizing abilities and subsequently the growth of the NPs.
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
The next factor was concentration of AgN[O.sub.3] solution. Different concentration of AgN[O.sub.3] solution was used to get maximum AgNPs. We got a maximum yield with 1 mM silver nitrate solution (Figure 5). As the concentration of AgN[O.sub.3] increased, the intensity of the color also increased from yellow to deep brown. The SPR peak for AgNPs became distinct with an increasing concentration of AgN[O.sub.3]. The plasmon bands are broad with an absorption tail in the longer wavelengths as concentration of AgN[O.sub.3] increases which indicated enhancement in size of the particles . However, the color intensity also increased as it depended upon size of AgNPs. In order to get control growth and smaller particle size, we have used 1 mM AgN[O.sub.3] for the further study and reaction were carried out under the above mentioned condition.
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
The overall optimized reaction condition was: temperature= 65C, time= 60 min, concentration of silver nitrate= 1 mM, pH = 7 (neutral), and the concentration ratio of AgN[O.sub.3] and seed extract of A. esculentus = 3:2.
The FTIR analysis was used to identify the possible bio-reducing biomolecules in the extract that were bound specifically on the synthesized AgNPs. The spectra of seed aqueous extract of A. esculentus and synthesized AgNPs (after reaction with AgN[O.sub.3]) have been shown in (Figure 6, A and B), respectively. The peaks near 686 and 669 [cm.sup.-1] is assigned to CH out of plane bending vibrations of substituted ethylene systems CH=CH. The bands at 1047 and 1064 [cm.sup.-1] are characteristic of C-OH stretching of secondary alcohols, intense bands 1637 and 1635 [cm.sup.-1] characteristic of amino acids containing NH2 groups, amide I band, while 1539 and 1541 [cm.sup.-1] for amide II. Broad peaks between 3288-3417 and 3230-3416 [cm.sup.-1] corresponds to -NH stretching in amide (II) were observed in extract of A. esculentus and AgNPs, respectively. In the case of NPs, a large shift in the absorbance peak with decreased band intensity was observed from 3288-3417 to 3230-3416 and 1450 to 1454 [cm.sup.-1], with disappear peak at 1386 [cm.sup.-1], implying the binding of silver ions with hydroxyl and carboxylate groups of the extract . The weaker band at 2926 [cm.sup.-1] corresponds to asymmetric stretching of C-H groups .
[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]
The seed of A. esculentus is a rich source of medicinally important components (shown later by GC-MS) as proteins, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins and phenolic components [11, 12]. The FTIR result clearly showed that the extracts containing OH as a functional group act in capping the NPs synthesis. Thus FTIR analysis clearly shows that capping and reducing of NPs by biomolecules present in seed could be responsible for prolonged stability.
The AgNPs were characterized by AFM for its detail size and morphology of silver. The origin of the surface morphology of the irregularly shaped particles sizes and the size distribution broaden of AgNPs synthesized by natural plants extract are shown in Figure 7. The average particle size of the AgNPs was found to be 80.61 nm.
[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]
The SEM is shown in (Figure 8 A-F) was employed to analyze the structure and morphology of the NPs to give further insight into the features of the AgNPs obtained from the proposed biogenic synthesis method, the image showed relatively spherical shape of the formed NPs with a diameter ranging from 30 to 130 nm. The relatively spherical shaped AgNPs with a diameter ranging from 30 to 40 nm were synthesized using Boswellia ; 40 nm using Shorea tumbuggaia ; plant extracts of Aloe vera ; Caricapapaya  and 91nm with orange peel extract .
[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]
The EDS microanalysis is shown in (Figure 9) and confirms the presence of AgNPs which is known to provide information on the chemical analysis of the elements or the composition at specific locations. The spectrum analysis reveals signal in the silver region and then confirms the formation of AgNPs. Metallic silver nanocrystals generally show a typical optical absorption peak at approximately 3 keV due to the SPR [20, 25]. There were also observed spectral signals for other metals (C, Al, Si, K, In) mixed precipitates present in the reaction medium indicated that the extracellular organic moieties (from extract) were adsorbed on the surface or in the vicinity of the metallic NPs.
[FIGURE 9 OMITTED]
The zeta potential distribution of synthesized AgNPs with 80.61 nm shown in (Figure 10) was employed as mean [+ or -] SD equal to -28.93.0 [+ or -] 4.25 mV (n = 5), with frequency 231.7 Hz, measured at 25[degrees]C.
[FIGURE 10 OMITTED]
The particle surface characteristics and charge play an important role in the particle's physical state, stability in different media, agglomeration tendencies, and interaction with biological systems. Zeta potential measurement provides an indirect measure of the net charge and as a tool to test batch-to-batch consistency. Also, in order to gain some insight into the mechanism of NPs size stabilization. A widely cited empirical rule holds that electrostatic stabilization requires zeta potentials of at least [+ or -] 30 mV . Stability at low zeta potential more commonly implies some degree of steric stabilization. So, these results clearly indicate that the particles in solution are relatively less stable because the zeta potential was slightly less than [+ or -] 30 mV.
The GC-MS study of ethyl acetate fraction to seed aqueous extract of A. esculentus has shown many phytochemicals which contributes to the reducing activity of the plant by the presence of different compounds containing functional groups like OH, COOH, NH ... etc, acting as capping and reducing of NPs synthesis could be responsible for prolonged stability (Figure 11 and Tables 1). The major compounds identified in the plant (red color) were shown in (Figure 12). It is evident from the Table 1 that some fractions have a complex chemical composition. The study clearly indicates that the extract was rich in antioxidants, phenolic compounds, terpenes, unsaturated fatty acid, and others. Some of the GC-MS peaks remained unidentified, because of lack of authentic samples and library data of corresponding compounds.
[FIGURE 11 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 12 OMITTED]
Many approaches are available which enables the formation, modification and organization of metal NPs. The most commonly employed methods are the incorporation of these particles onto glassy surfaces, the use of biomolecules as linker molecules, incorporating bivalent linker compounds, and the deposition of the particles on structured surfaces. The strategies for the conjugation of biomolecules to NPs generally fall into four classes:
1) Binding of the biomolecule to the surface of the inorganic particle core through ligand mediated binding, commonly by chemisorption, e.g. thiol groups.
2) Electrostatic interactions between positively charged biomolecules to negatively charged NPs or vice versa.
3) Covalent binding by conjugation chemistry, exploiting functional groups on both particle and biomolecules.
4) Non-covalent, affinity-based receptor-ligand systems.
The NPs require a suitable surface functional group for conjugating with various biomolecules. A huge large variety of organic molecules of different composition, size and complexity are available in nature that provides structure and function for the various biological processes and organisms. Examples include, on the one hand, small molecules like lipids, vitamins, peptides, sugars and larger ones such as natural polymers including proteins, enzymes, DNA and RNA. Most biomolecules have a carboxylic acid, primary amine, alcohol, phosphate, or a thiol group on their surfaces [27, 28, 29] and hence any number of molecules can be attached to the NPs surface to make the surface of the metal NPs functional, as shown in Figure 13.
[FIGURE 13 OMITTED]
On the whole, the mechanism of metal NPs synthesis in plants and plant extracts includes three main phases: 1) the activation phase during which the reduction of metal ions and nucleation of the reduced metal atoms occur; 2) the growth phase during which the small adjacent NPs spontaneously coalesce into particles of a larger size (direct formation of NPs by means of heterogeneous nucleation and growth, and further metal ion reduction; a process referred to as Ostwald ripening), which is accompanied by an increase in the thermodynamic stability of NPs; and 3) the process termination phase determining the final shape of the NPs . The process of NPs formation is shown schematically in Figure 14.
[FIGURE 14 OMITTED]
The concentration of AgNPs, measured by AAS, as a function of standard samples to make the calibration curve, showed the concentrations equal to 53.65 ppm (S1). The Figure 15 showed the inhibition zone on nutrient agar plates against S. aureus, k. pneumoniae and E. coli. as a function of concentrations of AgNPs (S1-S4), AgN[O.sub.3] (S5) and extracts of A. esculentus (S6). The results demonstrated that both gram positive (S. aureus) and gram negative (k. pneumoniae, E. coli) bacteria were inhibited by different solution with different extents.
[FIGURE 15 OMITTED]
Gram negative bacteria E. coli was less sensitive to Ag Nps compared with S. aureus, this was similar to those found by other work , however, Kim et al.  showed that S. aureus was less affected by Ag NPs compared with E. coli even in high concentrations, this was due to the characteristics of certain bacterial species. Also, it can be seen that, the highest assay of inhibition was achieved for gram negative bacteria k. pneumonia, when the concentration of (S1) was used.
Bacteria have different membrane structures on the basis of which these are classified as gram negative or gram positive. The overall charge of bacterial cells at biological pH values is negative because of excess number of carboxylic groups, which upon dissociation makes the cell surface negative. The opposite charges of bacteria and NPs are attributed to their adhesion and bioactivity due to electrostatic forces. It is logical to state that binding of NPs to the bacteria depends on the surface area available for interaction. The NPs have larger surface area available for interactions, which enhances bactericidal effect than the large sized particles; hence they impart cytotoxicity to the microorganisms . The mechanism by which the NPs are able to penetrate the bacteria is not understood completely, but studies suggest that when E: coli was treated with some NPs, changes took place in its membrane morphology that produced a significant increase in its permeability affecting proper transport through the plasma membrane, leaving the bacterial cells incapable of properly regulating transport through the plasma membrane, resulting into cell death . Heavy metals are toxic and react with proteins; therefore they bind protein molecules , heavy metal strongly interact with thiol groups of vital enzymes and inactivate them . Moreover, the Ag-Nps entered into bacteria cells and condensed DNA as a result preventing DNA from replication and cells from reproduction . The advantages of NPs are their high surface-to-volume ratios, their quantum confinement, and their nanoscale size, which allow more active site to interact with biological systems .
This research addresses to investigation the effects of AgNPs on GOT and GPT enzymes. The biochemical tests revealed that AgNPs caused inhibitory effects on these enzymes activities. These results observed that any decrease in AgNPs concentrations caused decrease in percentage of inhibition of enzymes and the greater inhibition of AgNPs were demonstrated at concentration of (S1) with (66.39%) and (73.1%) as shown in Figure 16 A and B, respectively.
Competitive, noncompetitive and uncompetitive inhibition can be easily distinguished with the use of double reciprocal plot of the Lineweaver-Burk plot. Two sets of rate determination in which enzyme concentration was held constant, were carried out. The first experiment established the velocity of enzyme without inhibitor, while the second experiment, constant amount of inhibitor was included in each enzyme assay. Varieties of substances have the ability to reduce or eliminate the catalytic activity of specific enzyme .
Table (2) and Figure 17A showed that the kinetic parameters ([V.sub.max], [K.sub.m] and type of enzyme inhibition) using Lineweaver-Burk plot for AgNPs on serum GOT activity. The [V.sub.max], [K.sub.m] without AgNPs were 38.46 U/L, 133.33 mM, respectively. A liquate concentration of (S1) 53.65 ppm of AgNPs was Non-Competitive inhibition for GOT enzyme activity. Non-Competitive inhibition changed the [V.sub.max] but not the [K.sub.m] of the enzyme. When concentration of AgNPs-Sl used, the [V.sup.app.sub.max] and [K.sup.app.sub.m] were 24.39 U/L, 133.33 mM, respectively.
Table (2) and Figure 17B showed that the kinetic parameters using Lineweaver-Burk plot for AgNPs on serum GPT activity. The [V.sub.max], [K.sub.m] without AgNPs were 35.71 U/L, 100 mM, respectively. A liquate concentration of (S1) 53.65 ppm of AgNPs was Un-Competitive inhibition for GOT enzyme activity. Un-Competitive inhibition changed both the [V.sub.max], and [K.sub.m] of the enzyme. When concentration of AgNPs-S1 used, the [V.sup.app.sub.max] and [K.sup.app.sub.m] were 22.22 U/L, 76.92 mM, respectively. Many other workers Deals with the effect of AgNPs prepared by laser ablation on these enzymes  or other enzymes .
[FIGURE 17 OMITTED]
Heavy metals are toxic and react with proteins, therefore they bind protein molecules, heavy metals strongly interact with thiol groups of vital enzymes and inactivate them. In addition, it is believed that Ag and Au bind to functional groups of proteins, resulting in protein deactivation and denaturation . We hypothesized that NPs of Ag interact with functional groups of GOT and GPT enzymes, resulting in protein denaturation and inactivate it, so AgNPs inhibited the enzymes. Therefore, it was useful to know what is the effects of AgNPs on activities of the different enzymes when enter to the human body, then it would be known what the side effects of AgNPs on the human body is. GOT and GPT are important enzymes which are found in the human body because they are responsible for the metabolism of amino acids. In view of the importance of transaminase enzymes reactions like GOT and GPT which form links between the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates and fats.
Activation or inhibition of GOT and GPT by the chemical effects on the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates and fats, we can proved that the inhibition of GOT and GPT enzymes by AgNPs will decreased the catabolism of amino acids, then the concentration of amino acids in blood would increase and cause buildup of protein in blood and effect on urea cycle and tricarboxylic acid cycle .
Present work demonstrated the rapid extracellular biogenic synthesis of green AgNPs using a seed aqueous extract of A. esculentus and study of their bioactivity against bacteria and enzymes. Obviously, the synthesis of NPs in plant extracts (plant biomasses), despite obvious limitations, has a significant potential and a number of substantial advantages relative to traditional methods of NPs synthesis. The results confirmed that the extract of A. esculentus plays an important role in the reduction and stabilization of silver. The data revealed that the rate of formation of the AgNPs increased significantly in neutral and basic medium with increasing temperature.
The formation of AgNPs was determined and characterized by UV-Vis, FT-IR, AAS, AFM, SEM equipped with EDS and Zitasizer. The AFM and SEM analysis showed the particle size between 25-130 nm, and spherical in structure. The seed contents was rich in antioxidants, phenolic compounds, terpenes, unsaturated fatty acid and others, which analyzed by using GC-MS, therefore, mechanisms of NPs synthesis has been proposed. Also, for technical view, the successfully biogenic synthesized AgNPs showed effective agents against both gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and enzymes (GOT, GPT). These properties can attributed to their total surface area, as a larger surface to volume ratio of NPs provides more efficient means for enhanced its activity against pathogenic bacteria and enzymes, and this may be useful in a wide variety of applications in pharmaceutical, biomedical fields, industrial appliances like bandage, food, water storage and wastewater treatment in a low price.
The authors thank (Polymer Research Center and Chemistry Department College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad-Iraq) for their helpful in (UV-Vis, FTIR, GC-MS) measurements; (Environment and Water Department, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq) their helpful in measuring (Zeta potential) of sample; (The Central Service Laboratory, College of Education for Pure Science/ Ibn Al-Haitham) for assistant in (SEM and EDS) measurements.
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(1) Abdulkadir Mohammed Noori Jassim, (2) Safanah Ahmed Farhan, (2) Rasha Moniem Dadoosh
(1) Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
(2) Polymer research unit, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
Address For Correspondence:
Abdulkadir Mohammed Noori Jassim, Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
Received 12 February 2016; Accepted 28 April 2016; Available online 15 May 2016
Table 1: Retention time, molecular weight and peak area of A. esculentus detected in EtOAc fraction by GC-MS. Peak R.Time Area% Name of the compound 1. 3.56 0.05 Propanoic acid, ethyl ester 2. 4.23 0.07 3,4-Dimethyldihydrofuran-2,5-dione 3. 7.58 0.06 1,1-Ethanediol, diacetate 4. 8.23 90.95 Acetic acid 5. 9.29 0.01 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-Hexanone 6. 9.58 0.06 Propanoic acid 7. 9.81 0.17 1,2-Ethanediol, diacetate 8. 10.09 0.01 1,2-Propanediol diformate 9. 10.77 2.31 Butanoic acid 10. 12.01 0.07 alpha.-Terpineol acetate 11. 15.16 0.02 Diazene, 2-methoxy-1-propyl-, 1-oxide 12. 16.45 0.03 3-Keto-isosteviol 13. 18.14 0.01 Pentanoicacid,3-hydroxy-4-methyl-,methyl ester 14. 18.24 0.05 Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester 15. 18.60 0.04 1,2,3-Propanetriol, monoacetate 16. 18.87 0.02 Glycerin 17. 19.33 0.02 1,2-Dioxetane,3,4,4-trimethyl-3- [[(trimethylsilyl)oxy] methyl]-ether 18. 20.12 0.01 Octadecanoic acid, methyl ester 19. 20.34 0.02 9-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, (E)- 20. 20.50 0.02 Dodecanoic acid 21. 20.80 0.03 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester 22. 20.96 0.01 Oxalic acid, 6-ethyloct-3-yl isobutyl ester 23. 21.16 0.03 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, ethyl ester 24. 21.66 0.02 n-Pentadecanol 25. 22.83 0.04 Tetradecanoic acid 26. 23.30 0,03 Tetratetracontane 27. 24.35 0.02 Pentadecanoic acid 28. 26.25 5.79 l-(+)-Ascorbic acid 2,6-dihexadecanoate 29. 26.94 0.02 6-Octadecenoic acid Peak Formula 1. C5H10O2 2. C6H8O3 3. C6H10O4 4. C2H4O2 5. C7H14O2 6. C3H6O2 7. C6H10O4 8. C5H8O4 9. C4H8O2 10. C12H20O2 11. C4H10N2O2 12. C20H28O4 13. C7H14O3 14. C17H34O2 15. C5H10O4 16. C3H8O3 17. C9H20O3Si 18. C19H38O2 19. C19H36O2 20. C12H24O2 21. C19H34O2 22. C16H30O4 23. C20H36O2 24. C15H32O 25. C14H28O2 26. C44H90 27. C15H30O2 28. C38H68O8 29. C18H34O2 Table 2: The kinetic properties of GOT and GPT with AgNPs Enzyme [V.sub.max] [K.sub.m] [V.sup.app.sub.max] U/L mM U/L GOT 38.46 133.33 24.39 GPT 35.71 100 22.22 Enzyme [K.sup.app.sub.m] Type of mM Inhibition GOT 133.33 Non-Competitive GPT 76.92 Un-Competitive Fig. 16: Percentage Inhibition or Activation on GOT (A) and GPT (B) by different concentrations of AgNPs (S1-S4), AgN[O.sub.3] (S5) and extracts of A. esculentus (S6). B Concentration % Inhibition of GPT 1S 73.1% 2S 68.75% 3S 51.9% 4S 33.4% 5S 50.1% 6S 35.7% A Concentration % Inhibition or Activation of GOT 1S 66.39 2S 55.56 3S 43.48 4S 30.8 5S 16.1 6S 104.95 Note: Table made from bar graph.
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|Author:||Jassim, Abdulkadir Mohammed Noori; Farhan, Safanah Ahmed; Dadoosh, Rasha Moniem|
|Publication:||Advances in Environmental Biology|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2016|
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