Green human resource management in the east and west/Gestao verde de recursos humanos no oriente e ocidente/Gestion de recursos humanos verdes en el este y el oeste.
Nowadays we are witnessing increased attentions paid to sustainable development and green organizations in managerial plans (Gonzalez-Benito & Gonzalez-Benito, 2006). The main purpose of sustainable development is to integrate economic, social, and environmental objectives with the aim of maximization of the welfare of current human beings without harming the environment or diminishing the abilities of the generations to come to satisfy their needs. In the other words, the main principle in sustainable development is that natural resources must be preserved in a way that next generations too are able to produce/consume as much as done by the current generation (OECD, 2011:11). More recently in the context of the role of human resources in sustainable development the issue of green human resource management has been proposed which is considered as a new research line (Jackson et al., 2011; Renwick et al., 2008, 2012). The purpose of green models in work life is to upgrade the compatibility and welfare capacities of both the work systems and the employees. Currently employees are more interested in organizations that support greenness (Gonzalez- Benito & Gonzalez-Benito, 2006). A green corporation is an organization that provides products and services that are consistent with the goals of more effective exploitation of resources, generation of renewable energy resources, reduction of emission of greenhouse gases, and minimization of environmental impacts. In the other words, GHRM is an effort towards the satisfaction of needs in a way that a balance is created between organizational growth for capital production and, preservation of the natural environment so that building a successful future is made possible (Daily & Hung, 2001).
The phrase of "Green Human Resource Management" is a roughly new concept in the eyes of most academics and professionals active in the context of human resource management. However, the roots of this topic date back to 1996 and Wehrmeyer's (1996) proposed characteristics. In years to come, there were also other studies conducted by other researchers among whom it can be referred to Jackson, Jabbour, and Ehnert Renwick.
Through the application of GHRM one can benefit from its positive outcomes which not only preserve the environment, but also are followed by increased efficiency and certain positive financial influences among which it can be referred to the following:
--Growth, welfare and well-being of employees (Ehnert, 2009; Mohd Yusoff et al., 2015; Hamilton and Gioia, 2009).
--Improvement of employees' creativity and variability (Shipon et al., 2012).
--Establishment of a balance between financial performance and environment preservation (Daily & Hung, 2001; O'Donohuea et al., 2016).
--Attraction of more dexterous employees due to the advantageousness of the organization's reputation in the society, retention of dexterous employees as well as improvement of motivations, employees' commitment and loyalty to the organization and improved competitive advantage (Abbasi et al., 2016, Gonzalez-Benito & Gonzalez-Benito, 2006; Milliman, 2013; Renwich & et.al, 2012 & 2016; Davis & Smith, 2007; Mohd Yusoff & et.al, 2015; Jabbour & Jabbour, 2016; Renwick & et.al, 2016).
--Reduced water and energy consumption, reduced paper consumption, reduced waste production, and recycling and usage of recycled materials as fertilizers; all of which are followed by reduced expenses (Opatha & Arul rajah, 2014).
--Reduced transportation which leads to reduced air pollution and reduced expenses as well (Opatha & Arul rajah, 2014; Renwick, 2012; Milliman, 2013).
--Reduced environmentally destructive impacts (Scheiner & Willige, 2011)
--Establishment of green structures and workplaces (Opatha & Arul rajah, 2014).
--Reduced CO2 emission (Mehta et al., 2015).
--Propagation of green culture and lifestyle in the society (Milliman, 2013; Russell, 2008; Ahmad, 2015; Jabbour & Jabbour, 2016).
Among the possible negative outcomes it can be referred to not paying attention to proper stimulation of individuals and or even negatively reinforcing them which will interrupt green performance and therefore an outcome paradoxical to what was expected would be resulted. Therefore there is a need to pay significant attention to these issues (Renwick et al., 2012).
The purpose of the present study was to execute a systematic review on management of human resources in the east and west through investigating the scientific studies conducted in the field of GHRM during the past ten years. By doing so, not only new material is added to the literature of the subject matter, but also through the reviewing of the studies conducted in the past decade, the differences and similarities between the findings of eastern and western researchers would be stressed out. In addition a comparison can be made between the east and the west in terms of number of studies related to GHRM, and both the mutual and different gaps of western and eastern studies would be specified as well. Therefore, it seems necessary for the purposes of improvement of HRM and sustainable development in organizations to review and classify the previously conducted studies in the east and west, and to investigate the outcomes and functions of interest, as well as scrutinizing the existing gaps in the domain of GHRM which have been cited in table 3. Hence considering the fact that the subject of GHRM is a roughly new one and that there are no previously conducted systematic reviews on the functions, outcomes, and gaps of scientific studies related to GHRM, it has been tries to review the GHRM related articles published during the past ten years in order to systematically review the literature of the subject matter, and to provide the result of the present study to researchers interested in this domain as well as students and managers who have a tendency towards propagation of green activities in their organizations, so that our part in the spread of green culture and preservation of the environment is delivered, and also managers are enabled to implement GHRM in proportion to the conditions of their organizations. A summary of the several definitions proposed for green human resource management is given in Figure 1.
Functions of GHRM
Green Recruitment: HR can prove its commitment to greenness through virtual screening of applicants instead of holding face-to-face interviews. The range of this effort can include simple methods such as using Skype for initial screening interviews, and even more complex electronic methods for the purposes of undertaking group interviews and expansive virtual business exhibitions (Rokos et al., 2012).
Green Training and Development: HR must guarantee that preparatory programs in the early stages of recruitment will include information regarding organization's green goals and methods as well as the manner of employees' participation in voluntary and environment improvement programs (Bauer et al., 2012).
Management of Green Performance: one of the initial important steps that can be taken by the HR towards the development of a comprehensive green approach is persuading managers towards adding environment related goals to the job descriptions and job goals of employees. for example, the Sherwin-William Corporation guarantees that its' most important green criteria such as energy consumption, waste production, and recycling are stated in job descriptions and will be considered as employees' special tasks (e.g. following up, reporting, certificate granting, site evaluation, research, and education) (Dubois, 2012).
Green Rewarding and Compensation: development of effective financial incentives can be challenging through fair and proper evaluation of performance and behavior (Fernandez et al., 2003). If the green reward and compensation systems are adjusted with the process of HRM, green culture can be amplified. Through combining the elements of green management in the reward system, managers are able to propagate green behaviors among the employees (Ahmad, 2015).
Green Employee Motivation: regarding green employee motivation previous studies have shown that negative reinforcement yields inverse results for green performance and even in some cases results in occurrence of environmental problems by the individual. Development of the reward system is highly important for stimulation towards execution of green functions. In this regard, certain moral or material rewards would be considered in the reward system in case of achievement of predetermined green goals (Renwick et al., 2012).
Green Participation and Employment Relationships: the management must try to establish a workplace in which the employees are able to freely
express their opinions regarding green issues because it's them who are really in charge of realization of ethical guidelines in the routine life of the organization (Collier & Esteban, 2007). A study on 214 British organizations shows that managers' support and employees' possibility of participation result in interest in the environment as the most prevalent encouragement methods (Ahmad, 2015).
According to the goals, the present study is based on systematic reviewing (Tranfield et al., 2003). First of all, we have searched in credible data bases and conferences for online published articles with keywords including sustainable development and HRM, GHRM, GHR, sustainable HRM, sustainable development and HR, sustainable HR, environmentally concerned HRM, environmentally compatible HRM, and HR and sustainability in the timespan between the years 2009 and 2018. The articles were searched for in data bases including Sid, MagIran, Noor-Mags, Civilica, Emerald, Springer link, Wiley Online Library, Taylor and Francis Online (Rout-ledge), and Elsevier. Considering the restriction on access to entire articles for researchers in Iran, 250 articles were selected. Afterwards, the abstracts of the articles were reviewed and once the nonrelated articles were excluded, 80 articles remained and their full texts were reviewed and again another round of exclusion based on relatedness was performed. Finally, 38 remaining articles were subjected to final investigation the protocol for which is shown in the following (Figure 3). These 38 articles have been classified based on author(s), publish date, country, journal title, article title, methods, functions, outcomes, and gaps. The data analysis and preparation stages are depicted in tables 3, 4, and 5, as well as diagrams 2, 3, 4, and 5. According to the former and latter, the data yielding from the articles were compared and conclusions were made. In the present research, the countries located in the continent of Asia are referred to as the east (eastern countries), whereas the countries located in the continents of America and Europe are referred to as the west (western countries).
The first step was to search for articles based on the mentioned keywords in the mentioned data bases during the timespan between 2009 and 2018. This initial search yielded 250 articles. Afterwards, the abstracts of the inquired articles were reviewed and once the irrelevant articles were excluded, 80 articles remained and their full texts were reviewed and then another round of exclusion based on relatedness was performed. Finally, 38 remaining articles were subjected to final investigation.
Once the full texts of the selected articles were reviewed, we categorized them based on authors, publish dates, countries, journal titles, and article titles (Figure 4) and we have also specified the methods of each article in addition to the functions, outcomes, and gaps of GHRM they have focused on. This way we have compared the previously conducted studios and reviewed the existing gaps in the east and the west. In addition, Figure 5 presents an investigation of the articles under investigation based on the functions of GHRM. In Figure 5 we have presented the encoding of functions of GHRM based on terms related to the functions of HRM stated in the texts of investigated articles.
Figure 5 shows the number of studies conducted in the east and west and Figure 5 compares these numbers in respect of dates. These diagrams show that although the main pillars of GHRM studies are in west, but during the past few years the tendency towards GHRM has been higher in the west compared to the east.
In Figures 9 and 10 you can observe the GHRM functions stated in table 3 for each article for both groups of east and west in terms of percentages. These diagrams specify which functions have been more paid attention to in west and which have been more paid attention to in east.
Discussion and conclusions
Although GHRM is still in its initial phases and organizations are increasingly becoming aware of it, the importance of the subject matter has moved organizations towards GHRM methods more than before (Ahmad, 2015). Therefore through conducting a systematic review on the previously conducted studies, we have categorized the articles based on authors, journal titles, methods, functions, outcomes, and gaps. While performing the present study it was tried to take a positive step towards advancement of the philosophy of GHRM and development of the related knowledge. In fact the results of the present study can be the context for future researchers who would want to investigate the existing gaps and those areas of GHRM that are still in need of more studying. In addition through the investigation of the differences between the studies conducted in the east and west which has been done by the present study, future studies are able to seek for the causes of these differences. According to the findings of the present study and by taking into account the contents of table 3, and diagrams 4 and 5 it turns out that the most interesting functions for eastern researchers were respectively education and development (72%), performance management (60%), and rewarding and compensation (56%) as well as other more attention requiring functions including socialization (12%), job analysis (8%), employee retention (8%), and discipline management (4%). On the other hand, the most interesting functions for western researchers were respectively selection and recruiting (61.54%), education and development (53.85%), performance management (53.85%), compensation (53.85%) in addition to other more attention requiring functions including discipline management (0%), socialization (7.69%), employee retention (7.69%), and job analysis (15.38%). As you can see, the functions of job analysis, socialization, retention of employees, and discipline management are in need of more investigation in both the east and the west. Therefore the future researchers are recommended to investigate the cause of this difference. Investigating diagrams 2 and 3 shows that paying attention to GHRM and doing research in this field has increased in the east during the past few years, but before that, it was more stressed out by western researchers since it was in the west where the concept of GHRM was initially proposed. Hence, the need for conduction of more studies in the east is felt clearly.
As you can see in table 3, the mutual gap between the east and the west which has been referred to more than other gaps is the lack of comprehensive studies in the east and the lack of a cross-cultural model between the east and the west; a cross-cultural model which can be used for execution of GHRM proportional to different countries' cultures. This is a sign that future GHRM interested researchers should work on designing such a cultural model. This issue is however in need of further investigation and study regarding the effects of eastern and western cultures on the implementation of GHRM. As another mentioned major gap it can be referred to inadequate efforts for provision of green culture not only in organizations, but also throughout the entire society. For example in eastern countries there are still weaknesses regarding the implementation of GHRM which need to be flattened. Among these weaknesses it can be referred to: cumbersome rules, excessive bureaucracy and hierarchy, lack of managerial support for green programs and lack of GHRM training courses. In addition, there is a lack of comparison between sustainable and non-sustainable corporations in the west in addition to a lacking of GHRM related studies in long term, existence of overwhelming hierarchies in some countries including Brazil, and inadequate attention to GHRM details such as the manner of recruitment of green employees, especially those who are willing to work for lower wages, and inadequacy of case studies are considered as the most important stated gaps. Hence it is recommended to perform more studies in these areas so that these gaps are gradually filled and as GHRM philosophy becomes more prevalent, organizations start to take advantage for the financial and environmental benefits of it. Tariq et al (2016) stated that the new concept of GHRM not only is an applicable subject for organizations, but also plays a crucial role in developing countries and requires more studies so that the issue of GHRM is further developed and made applicable. In anyways, the findings of the present study help with the evaluation of some issues that have been neglected so far. As an example, Tavakoli et al., (2018); Rajabpoor (2017), Seyed Javadin et al., (2017); and Mohammadnejad et al., (2017) have pointed to the inadequacy of related studies in Iran as well as lack of a codified program. On the other hand, Mishra, Masri and Jaroon (2017), Tariq et al., (2016), Mohd Yusoff et al., (2015), Wagner (2013), and Renwick et al., (2012) have stated that most of GHRM related studies have been performed in developed countries especially American and European countries. In addition, Gholami et al., (2016), Subramanian et al., (2016), and Opatha and Arul raja (2014) have pointed out the lacking of comprehensive studies in Malaysia, China, and Sri Lanka respectively. Chima et al., (2015) believe that lack of proper familiarity with the benefits of GHRM is a major gap in Pakistan. On the other hand, Tang et al., (2018), Patil and Sarvood (2018), Subramanian et al., (2016), and Chima et al (2015) have pointed to the lacking of a cross-cultural model in international levels; while Miller et al., (2016) have pointed to the lack of comparative studies regarding GHRM in international levels.
In addition, the major need for paying more attention to the issues of leadership, rewarding, training and development, development of green culture, and increased managers' attention to GHRM are stated in the studies conducted by Tang et al., (2018); Hassanpoor et al., (2017); Mishra (2017); Masri and Jaroon (2017); Paro Ragas et al., (2017), Zhao and Zhou (2015), Ahmad (2015), and Renwick et al., (2012). In addition the following studies have pointed out to the lacking of comparative studies between sustainable and non- sustainable organziations in long term: Renwick et al., (2016); O'Donohuea et al., (2016); Jones and Wong (2016), and Ehnert (2009). Nevertheless, lack of attention to green innovation, dimensions of green innovation, and the negative effect of bureaucracy and hierarchies on the implementation of GHRM, green commitment, and green participation have been respectively pointed out by the following studies: Zahari and Thurasamy (2012), Zhao and Zhou (2015), Jones and Wong (2016), and Skully-Russ (2015).
The findings of the present study show that we still need more studies in the domain of GHRM as well as the needs and gaps that exist in it. The present study has pointed out a large portion of these gaps and needs which will enable us to make more and more efforts towards further development of the concept of GHRM and the methods of applying it. In this way, GHRM will help with preservation of the environment in addition to its advantages for HR and the organization. Nevertheless, among the limitations of the present study it can be referred to the limited access to the entire published articles in credible international websites, as well as lack of access to researches in African countries which is why this study only includes Asian, American, and European countries.
Recebido em 13.11.2018
Aprovado em 25.01.2019
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Faculty Member of Management, PNU University, Tehran, Iran
Assistant Professor in Management faculty, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
Caption: Figure 3--the protocol of work process.
Table 8, encoding and classifying the functions cited in reviewed articles Job analysis Job analysis, job design, job description Selection and recruitment Selection, recruitment, attraction Socialization Management of organizational culture Training and development Training, development, learning, empowerment, management of organizational culture Performance management Performance evaluation, performance management Rewarding and compensation Rewards, benefits, compensation, incentives, motivation Retention Retention Participation and working Participation, employees' relationships relationships, work teams, innovations, leadership, communications Discipline management Discipline, discipline management Figure 1--Definitions of GHRM Tang et al., He considers GHRM as a scale for (2018) credibility and development which results in employees' green behavior and awareness through adoption of a green perspective and making use of green communication channels. Seyed Javadin They consider GHRM as an approach for et al., (2017) sustainable investment and development and state that through focusing of its human capital and environment management plans, organizations obtain both their economic and environmental goals. Jabbour & Jabbour They believe that the functions and (2016) measures of GHRM are highly tangible and cause the green issues to be considered for in employees' daily tasks, and also have positive effects on employees' lives and performances. Renwick et GHRM improves the credibility of al., (2016) organizations and causes the labor force to show more willingness to stay in their organizations, and also causes better labor forces to be willing towards getting recruited by green corporations Ahmad (2015) GHRM is responsible for creation of awareness, informing, and establishment of interactions between the employees, especially regarding environmental issues. In addition, through green policy making it orients the employees towards fulfilling their green duties. Mohd Yusef He believes that GHRM is a complex set (2015) of the following counts: A--Electronic GHRM: 1--electronic recruitment, 2--e- mails, 3--electronic training, 4-- electronic users, and 5--electronic job description; B--Flexible Work including: 1--part--time job, and 2-- working at home; C--Social responsibility including: 1--recycling, 2--social responsibilities, and 3-- green cafeteria; D--Green Policies including: 1--security, well-being, consideration for the environment, and 2--green organizational policies (ISO 14001-2); E--Additional care programs including: Mothers' rooms and parking lots, and 2--Childcare room. Opatha & Arul By GHRM it is referred to the entire Rajah (2014) activities involve with development, execution, and maintenance of a system aiming to keep green employees in the organization. Transforming regular employees into green employees is the duty of HRM and its aim is to achieve environmental goals and ultimately to achieve a significant share in environmental sustainability which points to methods, policies, and systems that benefit individuals, societies, environments, and workplaces. Dutta (2012) GHRM is comprised of two main elements namely as the ecofriendly functions of HR, and safekeeping of knowledge capital. He states that GHRM is a resolution that helps with creation of green labor forces who are able to both perceive and appreciate green culture in their organziations. Such a green innovation can apply its green goals to the entire process of HRM in the contexts of recruitment, selection, training, compensation, growth and development, and retention of HR Figure 2--Green HRM methods Job Analysis Considering for environmental dimensions as a duty in job description Considering green competency as a special component in conditions for recruitment Recruitment Considering for environmental criteria in recruitment notices Relating to the concerns of employees regarding environmental issues Selection Selection of applicants who are well aware of green issues in their jobs Selection of applicants who in their personal lives behave as green consumers Socialization Familiarizing the new employees with organization's green activities Development for socialization programs related to green citizenship behavior for current employees Training and Proper statement of knowledge and skill performance regarding green roles through the evaluation training programs designed in this regard Consideration for separate components for the purpose of progression in the context of greenness through reviewing the performance feedbacks Reward Providing financial incentives for management employees who have undertaken their green tasks in their jobs well Granting non-financial rewards such as venerating and introducing the green employees Discipline Compilation and publication of rules management related to greenness Development of an advanced disciplinary system for punishment of employees who violate green rules Figure 4--A summary of previously conducted studies on GHRM during the past ten years NO Researcher Journal Title Article Title /Date/ Country 1 Patil & International Green Human Sarode/20 Journal of Resource 18/India Creative Management: Research Role of HR Thoughts Managers To (IJCRT) Achieve Sustainability 2 Tang et Asia Pacific Green human al/2018/ Journal of resource China Human management Resources practices: scale development and validity 3 Tavakoli Journal of Development et al Research in of a structural /2018/Iran Human model for Resources GHRM based Management on HRM systems 4 Hassanpo Journal of Identification or et al/ Environmental and 2017/Iran Education & prioritization Sustainable of employees' Development green educational needs using the ANP method 5 Rajabpoor Journal of The effect of /2017/Iran Research in HRM on Human development Resources of Management environmental management 6 Mohamm Journal of Developing a adnejad et public framework for al/2017/ administration GHRM Iran 7 Seyed Journal of GHRM: an Javadin et management investment and al/2017/ Systems sustainable Iran development approach 8 Abbasi et Third Role-playing al/2016/ International of state Iran Conference on organziations Green in green Economics efficiency in the view of GHRM 9 Mishra/20 International Green human 17/India Journal of resource Organizational Management Analysis A framework (Emerald) for sustainable organizational development in an emerging economy 10 Masri & Journal of Assessing Jaroon/20 Cleaner green human 17/ Production resources Palestine (Elsevier) management practices in Palestinian manufacturing context: An empirical study 11 Paro International Green lifestyle Ragas et Journal of moderates al/2017/ Productivity GHRM's Philippines and impact to job Performance performance Management (Emerald) 12 Gholami Journal of State-of-the-art et Cleaner Green HRM al/2016/ Production System: Malaysia (Elsevier) sustainability in the sports center in Malaysia using a multi- methods approach and opportunities for future research 13 Jabbour & Journal of Green Human Jabbour/2 Cleaner Resource 016/Brazil Production Management (Elsevier) and Green Supply Chain Management: linking two emerging agendas 14 Jones & Library More than just Wong/201 Management a green 6/China (Emerald) building-- developing green strategies at the Chinese University of Hong Kong Library 15 O'Donohuea The The & Torugsa/ International moderating 2016/ Journal of effect of Australia Human Green' HRM Resource on the Management association (Routledge) between proactive environmental management and financial performance in small firms 16 Guerci & The A paradox Carollo/20 International view on green 16/Italy Journal of human Human resource Resource management: Management insights from (Routledge) the Italian context 17 Haddock The Green human & International resource Millar/201 Journal of management: a 6/America Human comparative Resource qualitative Management case study of a (Routledge) United States multinational corporation 18 Subraman The Green ian et al/ International competence 2016/China Journal of framework: Human evidence from Resource China Management (Routledge) 19 Renwick The Contemporary et International developments al/2016/ Journal of in Green Britain Human (environmental) Resource HRM Management scholarship (Routledge) 20 Tariq et al/ Qual Quant Green 2016/ (Springer) employee Pakistan empowerment: a systematic Literature review on state-of-art in green human resource management 21 Yi Yong Industrial and Studying the & Mohd Commercial Influence of Yusoff/20 Training Strategic 16/ (Emerald) Human Malaysia Resource Competencies on the Adoption of Green Human Resource Management Practices 22 Arz European Effects of Bhutto & Journal of Green Human Aurangzeb Business and Resources /2016/ Management Management Pakistan (IISTE) on Firm Performance: An Empirical Study on Pakistani Firms 23 Ahmad/20 Cogent Green Human 15/Arabia Business & Resource Management Management: Policies and practices 24 Mehta & Universal Green HRM in Chugan/2 Journal of Pursuit of 015/India Industrial and Environmentally Business Sustainable Management Business 25 Mohd International Conceptualization Yusoff et Journal of of Green al/2015/ Business Human Malaysia Management Resource and Economic Management: Research(IJBM An ER) Exploratory Study from Malaysian- based Multinational Companies 26 Zhao & International Green Zou/2015/ Journal of university China Sustainability in initiatives in Higher China: a case Education of Tsinghua (Emerald) University 27 Scully- Advances in The Contours Russ/2015 Developing of Green /America Human Human Resources Resource (Sage) Development 28 Cheema et Journal of Green Human al/2015/ Business Resource Pakistan Studies Practices: Quarterly Implementations (JBSQ) and Hurdles of SMEs in Pakistan 29 Opatha & International Green Human Arul Business Resource rajah/2014 Research Management: /Sri Lanka Simplified General Reflections 30 Milliman/ Environmental Leading-Edge 2013/ Quality Green Human America Management Resource (Wiley) Practices: Vital Components to Advancing Environmental Sustainability 31 Marques International Greening the Pereira et Journal of campus of a al/2013/ Sustainability in Brazilian Brazil Higher university: Education cultural (Emerald) challenges 32 Wagner/2 J Bus Ethics Green Human 013/ (Springer) Resource Germany Benefits: Do they Matter as Determinants of Environmental Management System Implementation? 33 Renwick International Green Human et Journal of Resource al/2012/ Management Management: Britain Reviews A Review and (IJMR) Research Agenda 34 Dubois & Human Strategic HRM Dubois/20 Resource as Social 12/America Management design for (Wiley) environmental sustainability in organization 35 Zahari & International Linking Green Thurasam Conference on Product y/2012/ Innovation, Innovation, Malaysia Management Technological and Technology and Human Research Resource (ICIMTR) capabilities: A conceptual model 36 Jackson et Zeitschrift fur State-of-the-art al/2011/ Personalforschung and future USA, UK, directions for and Brazil green human resource management: introduction to the special issue 37 Jabbour et The Contributions al/2012/ International of HRM Brazil Journal of throughout the Human stages of Resource environmental Management management: (Routledge) methodological triangulation applied to companies in Brazil 38 Ehnert/20 European J. Sustainability 09/Germany International and human Management resource management: reasoning and applications on corporate websites NO 1 * Method: systematic review * Function: green recruitment, green performance management, green training and development, green compensation and participation * Outcome: prevention of environmental pollution 2 * Method: exploratory analysis (library- questionnaire study) * Function: green selection and recruitment, green training, green performance management, green salary system, green participation * Outcome: authenticating a tool for measurement of GHRM and development of a local model * Gap: lack of cross-cultural models between the east and west; inadequate attention to the issue of leadership in GHRM 3 * Method: descriptive-survey; library studies and questionnaires * Function: retention, compensation, performance management, HR training and development, employees' relations * Outcomes: 1--the HRM system positively impacts GHR through the variables of compensation, education and development, retention, employees; relations and performance evaluation. 2--Dynamic retention of GHR is the result of providing the necessary contexts in management. 3--The components of compensation will have more effects on employees' behaviors and motivation as long as green behaviors are institutionalized. 4-- facilitation of the processes of green management through training and development of HR. 5-- performance management results in improved quality of advancement of plans and the extent of realization of green goals, and that through providing suitable feedbacks the employees will adjust and reform their actions * Gap: inadequacy of number of studies regarding GHRM and green management in Iran; lack of codified programs in Iranian organizations regarding green management and GHRM; existence of green programs based on legal requirements of titled organizations in the domain of environment 4 * Method: descriptive-survey * Function: retention, compensation, performance management * Outcome: among the 8 important educational needs, the sustainable development, ISO 14001, and green procurement have been identified as the most important needs. * Gap: the necessity for authorities' more attention to green education, updating the needs and training courses, as well as holding green training courses in coordination with international standards 5 * Method: field, survey * Function: recruitment, training and development, performance evaluation, compensation, benefits and rewards, employees' relations * Outcome: 1--functions of HR have positive effects on adoption of environmental management; 2--forming the behavior and stability of the social system of organizations is effective on the factors involved with environmental standards; 3- -the elements of training course are effective on managers' attitude towards environmental culture- building * Gap: inadequacy of studies in Iran 6 * Method: qualitative; library studies and interviews. * Function: green attraction, green performance evaluation, green development, and green retention. * Outcome: individual, organizational and ultra-organizational outcomes, GHRM in personal, organizational, and social levels includes process, strategy, support, and green culture whereas green process is defined as employees' green lives which lead to formation of green culture * Gap: more emphasis is put on GHRM in other countries, we are still in need of more studies regarding GHRM contexts and outcomes, and organizational aspect requires more support (the managers and stakeholders are required to pay more attention to supplication of GHRM budgets). 7 * Method: qualitative; content analysis * Function: green selection and recruitment, green training, reward system. * Outcome: identification and development of characteristics of GHRM. * Gap: lack of empirical studies in Iran 8 * Method: Review Study * Function: green analysis, green selection and recruitment, green socialization, green education, green performance evaluation, green reward management, green discipline management, green work relationships * Outcome: 1//better understanding of the position of GHRM in state organizations; 2//paying attention to selection, recruitment, training, performance management, and establishment of fit reward/punishment systems that give individuals incentives to preserve the environment and reduce undesirable behaviors, as well as establishment of a suitable feedback system 9 * Method: combined (library studies, interviews with HR experts in paint, automobile and electronics production corporations. * Function: green selection and recruitment, green training, green performance evaluation, green participation and compensation * Outcome: 1-green strategies such as GHRM and green social responsibility result in improved competitive advantage, innovation, reduced expenses, establishment of positive credibility, and improvement of brand value, improved sales, absorption of talented individuals, creativity, and retention of employees * Gap: lack of consistence between managers' behaviors and the organization's policies, and green issues; most of the studies have been conducted in developed countries (managers' lack of support for green policies and existence of overwhelming hierarchies) 10 * Method: Experimental; Exploratory * Function: green selection and recruitment, green training and development, green management and performance evaluation, green rewarding and compensation, green participation and empowerment, green management of organizational culture. * Outcome: 1--existence of a mutual relationship between environment management and HRM in Palestinian manufacturing organizations; 2--positive relationships between the six functions of GHRM and preservation of environment; 3--the function of green selection and recruitment is cheaper than the function of green training and development; 4--most applicable function: green selection and recruitment; the least applicable function: green training and development; 5--the size of the manufacturing organization has no impact on achievement of environmental sustainability; 6--green management of organizational culture, green reward system, and green training and development are usually applicable in larger organizations rather than smaller ones * Gap: the most applicable function of GHRM in Mexican manufacturing organizations was found out to be development and training whereas for Palestinian manufacturing organziations it was the least applicable function; inadequacy of GHRM related studies in developing countries 11 * Method: modeling; exploratory factor analysis * Outcome: 1--execution of GHRM methods has positive effects on employees' lifestyles and job performance and also improves their satisfaction and loyalty and enhances organizational efficiency as well; 2--organizations can both pay attention to the environment and keep their employees' performance at high levels; 3--execution of GHRM methods at the workplace institutionalizes GHRM in the employees and makes them stick to these methods at home as well. * Gap: lack of attention to the factor of rewarding 12 * Method: combined * Function: performance management, participation and empowerment, payment and rewarding system, attraction and recruitment, training and development * Outcome: 1--there is a significant relationship between the above mentioned seven factors for the purpose of execution of GHRM; 2--there is a more robust correlation between performance management, empowerment, and participation of players; 3--the GHRM system plays a significant role in execution of green strategy which in turn affects employees' welfare and long-term performance. * Gap: lack of comprehensive studies in Malaysia 13 * Method: Review study * Outcome: 1--reduction of the barriers of execution of supply chain management has resulted in the success of HRM and also the main barriers of HRM are effective on the execution of GSCM; 2--Flattening of the barriers amplifies the relationship between GHRM and GSCM and results in improved supply chain sustainability; 3--GSCM has a positive effect on corporate performance and investments in development of HR and social responsibility; 4--The connection between GHRM and GSCM results in improved sustainability of corporations and supply chains and enhances the achievement of sustainable development * Gap: significant delay in combination of GHRM and GSCM in today's world is due to an even larger gap in combination of HRM and supply chain management; lack of qualitative and quantitative investigations of the relationship between GHRM and GSCM 14 * Method: Case study * Outcome: 1--Propagation of green training in the Hong Kong University; 2--the libraries are in need of precise information regarding energy consumption of production and storage of their published collections and electronic sources; 3--technology plays a positive role in energy consumption in libraries; 4--requiring high levels of supervision regarding using technologies; 5--culture building and reduction of power and paper consumption * Gap: lack of information for long-ter, comparison; inadequacy of awareness about and commitment to sustainability issues in Hong Kong 15 * Method: Research paper * Outcome: 1--GHRM continually moderates the relationship between financial performance and environmental management; 2--environmental management has a positive and direct relationship with financial performance in the studies small corporations; 3--higher levels of GHRM improve the financial benefits of environmental management; 4--GHRM is followed by added value; 5--reduction of small corporations' concerns regarding facing with state and public demands regarding environmental sustainability * Gap: lack of hiring of expert HR managers in small sized corporations in Australia; the generalizability of the result obtained for larger corps to smaller corps must be evaluated; more investigation needs to eb done on the awareness of senior managers regarding effects of GHRM on financial performance of corporations that are involved with more green activities than other corporations 16 * Method: qualitative, with an interpretative approach * Function: recruitment, selection, training, performance management, incentives and compensation, participation, job design * Paradoxes: 1--green performance against social and economic performance; 2--Open vs. Closed GHRM systems; 3--focus of GHRM system on daily work against symbolic events; 4--collective GHRM measures against individual measures; 5--participation of the staff based on value and standard against ignoring value and standard; 6--top-down instead of bottom-up evolution process; 7--centralized against decentralized GHRM system; 8--personal credibility against professional credibility (the traditional role of HRM against managers' participation and support for green activities) * Outcome: 1--young people are more interested in green issues; 2--green communication has a positive effect on applicants; 3--being required to have green knowledge, skill, and ability during recruitment, selection, and training; 4--application of green training in all sectors; 5--advantageousness of more investment in recruitment rather than training; 6--financial and non- financial incentives have positive effects on employees' green actions; 7--green performance management has a positive effect on reduction of costs; 8--green participation programs have positive effects on improvement of employees' green participation; 9--lack of attention to job design and description 17 * Method: Research paper (case study) * Outcome: 1--existence of active managers in the context of environment; 2--wide participation of individuals in green issues; 3--commitment to the environment; 4--existence of differences in environmental position and coordination and, HR performance in the context of sustainability of environment; 5--difference in GHRM approaches is due to strategic, performance-related, and individual dimensions; 6--green functions are the key elements of corporate green performance; 7--corporate green performance is effective on the costumers and propagation of green citizenship behavior as well. * Gap: lack of international comparative studies regarding GHRM; lack of attention to strategic levels regarding environment sustainability; ignoring the strategic role of HR managers in green issues; limitation of studies to Europe; review of ideas and views in form of vertical hierarchies and lack of extraction of views of people who had had strategic, managerial, and operational roles. 18 * Method: Research paper (quantitative) * Function: green selection and recruitment, green development and training, green performance evaluation * Outcome: 1--the considered green competencies have a positive relationship with the green behaviors and competencies of the staff; 2--advantageousness of characteristics of green competencies such as environmental knowledge, green procurement attitude, and selection of green employees have been approved; 3--natural and considered competencies are of different effects for different individuals; 4--personal, behavioral, skill-related, knowledge-related, and attitudinal characteristics are effective on professional performance and competencies as well. * Gap: lack of a systematic approach towards improvement of perceptions and development of green competencies; the need for green culture (green leadership, participation, proper communications, staff independence); shortage of GHRM studies in China 19 * Method: Theme analysis * Function: green selection and recruitment; training and development; participation; motivation; performance evaluation, leadership, communications, compensation * Outcome: 1--asking environmentally concerned questions during recruitment and ultimately attraction of those who have green tendencies, and existence of moral leaders towards improvement of recruitment efficiency; 2--having a green statement for establishment of organizational commitment and designing green strategies and goals that improve employees' tendency for having a green performance; 3--if the organization cares about environmental issues, HR managers would consider for it in performance planning, training of required skills, performance evaluation, and rewarding. Therefore green culture propagates through the organization * Gap: instead of the generalities, more focus most be converged on the details of GHRM; more attention must be paid to issues such as climatic changes, expenses of professional employees, and individuals personal responsibilities and domestic lives. 20 * Method: systematic review * Outcome: 1--empowered employees are more motivated for execution of green duties; 2--motivated Green HR has significant effects on improvement of efficiency and social profitability of the organization * Gap: ignoring the role of GHRM in creation of competitive advantage in developing countries 21 * Method: quantitative * Outcome: investigation of the relationship between six strategic HR skills and GHRM methods; 2--the skills of HR experts have positive effects on the acceptance of GHRM methods; 3--the strategic active and change hero were the only ones involved with green methods * Gap: shortage of studies on combination of environmental perspectives of HRM and GHRM; the gap between the current literature and new concepts; more attention to strategic HR skills towards green methods and building green structures 22 * Method: review study; closed questionnaires * Function: green recruitment, green training and development, green learning * Outcome: green recruitment, training, development, and learning improve the corporation's green performance; employees' green behavior in their workplace leads in success of the organization in achievement of its green goals and policies; 3--most employees prefer green organizations; 4--green activities are accompanied by commitment and job satisfaction 23 * Method: Systematic review * Function: green selection and recruitment, green performance management, green development and training; green compensation; green working relationships; Green innovations * Outcome: GHR measures result in increased efficiency, reduced costs, improved working relationships, developed efficiency and profitability, and improved commitment and job satisfaction; 2--HR plays an important role in creation of incentive for the employees and facilitation of the conditions for execution of green measures * Gap: the gap between academic training and practices; the need for education of green management; gap between expert GHRM measures and the suggestions proposed by studies; the need for more attention to recruitment of individuals with green views 24 * Method: Review study * Function: selection and recruitment, performance management system, training and development, participation, compensation * Outcome: 1--green programs result in propagation of social responsibility among the employees and helps with the retention of talented individuals; 2--providing the staff with the contexts to participate in problem solving and green decision making in addition to innovations; 3--lower rates of staff shift and more tendency to stay in green corporations compared to non-green ones; 4--creation of competitive advantage for corporations in addition to improved brand credibility; 5--improved sales and reduced costs 25 * Method: qualitative * Function: recruitment, training, performance evaluation, motivation, compensation * Outcome: 1--most of the corporations paid high attention to the 5 concepts of GHRM; 2--only one corporation had evaluated the effect of GHRM on the environment * Gap: lagging of the academic studies in the context of GHRM; existence of more studies in western countries 26 * Method: case study * Outcome: 1--the innovations of the green university show its strategy with the aim of realization of higher responsibility in promotion of a sustainable society; 2--improved awareness regarding sustainable development among the students, professors, and staff * Gap: green innovation must be investigated in terms of the three dimensions of social, economic, and environmental; however in China it is only studies in terms of environmental dimension; inadequate attention to the role of bureaucracy and existence of overwhelming hierarchies; the need to pay more attention to the role of green training 27 * Method: review study, empirical * Outcome: 1--provision of a conceptual framework for perception of the role of development of HR in green activities and its effects on solvation of environmental challenges * Gap: limited study regarding the effect of HR participation in environmental programs; greening is not merely restricted to commercial organizations; it rather covers the whole society. 28 * Method: quantitative * Function: recruitment, training and development, performance management * Outcome: 1--there is a positive relationship between GHR measures and performance of the staff; 2--there is a positive relationship between training and development of employees' performance; 4--GHRM measures are affected by demographic features such as age, gender, and experience; 5--Pakistani small sized developing corporations can benefit from the advantages of paying more attention to staff's performance; 6--in order to execute green approaches in organizations we need to establish green skills and capabilities for green management; 7--green capabilities of the HR result in development and innovation; 8--GHRM is effective on income, profitability, learning, and participation in green approaches * Gap: lack of investigation of GHR measures in different organizations with different cultures; inadequate attention to employees' resistance against changes required for GHRM; in adequate and improper familiarization with the advantages of GHRM 29 * Method: systematic review * Function: job analysis, selection and recruitment, socialization, training, performance evaluation, reward management, discipline management * Outcome: green attitude and competency result in green behaviors and results. This leads to green organizational performance and ultimately leads to social responsibility * Gap: shortage of GHRM studies in Sri Lanka 30 * Method: Review study * Function: selection and recruitment, training and development, working teams, performance management, rewarding, socialization * Outcome: 1--HR can through creation of energy and training of the required skills help green employees with propagation of voluntary green behaviors; 2--for having high levels of sustainability managers are ought to cooperate with beneficiaries including the customers, suppliers, and investors; 3--green activities are followed by both financial and environmental resources for organizations; 4--the knowledge of green branding is advantageous for organizations in terms of attraction of more talented people; 5--GHR methods must fit organizational culture, strategies, and resources 31 * Method: case study * Outcome: 1--existence of relationship between green management measures and greening the organizational culture; 2--existence of academic limitations towards green activities such as considering professors' performance index as only a function of scientific production; 3--inadequate internal communications and low participation of units in green environments; 4--professors are more tending to pay attention to green issues compared to the staff; 5--creation of green culture is much easier in students; 6--identification of barriers of culture change and green methods * Gap: inadequacy of the literature of the subject matter; lack of attention to hierarchies and overwhelming bureaucracy 32 * Method: research study * Function: recruitment, retention * Outcome: 1--extensive execution of environmental management system has a direct and positive relationship with job satisfaction and employee retention-recruitment; 2--changing the advantages of job satisfaction is positively related to changing the level of execution of the EM system; 3--corporation size and number of staff are effective on execution of EM system; 4--advantages of job satisfaction are considered as effective indices of execution of EM systems rather than employee retention-recruitment and structural factors such as profitability; 5--increasing the level of execution of the EM system improves economic advantages in the context of HR; 6--paying attention to social responsibility improves jib satisfaction and motivation; 7--possibility of achievement of tangible benefits through more creativity and entrepreneurship * Gap: most of the studies have been conducted in America and Europe; a gap between the existing knowledge and development of initial studies 33 * Method: review study, case study, based on corporate reports and statistical findings * Function: attraction and development of talented labor force; green motivation; green opportunities and green participation * Outcome: 1--comprehension of the effectiveness of GHRM methods on employees' motivation for participation in green activities and the manners by which organziations are able to develop their green activities and provide the staff with opportunities to participate in green activities; organizations are not applying expansive ranges of GHRM measures which in turn diminishes their green efficiency; 3--green corporations have been more focused on training; 4--reduction of waste and pollution; 5--optimal use of resources and job satisfaction * Gap: the need for development of theoretical basics regarding green leadership with emphasis on managerial values as well as personality and other potential factors; inadequate awareness about how some corporations are able to abosrp people who are willing to have more green activities with lower incomes; more research needs to eb done on the effectiveness of EM on selection criteria and process as well as manner of green motivation and green participation, as well as the effectiveness of EM on corporations' financial aspects; gaps between theoretical texts and green activists; inadequacy of studies regarding the effects of EM on the economic development of eastern countries. 34 * Method: review study * Function: selection and recruitment, training and development, performance management and evaluation, rewarding, participation * Outcome: 1--the interactive role of functions of HRM in sustainability of the environment; 2--paying attention to the horizontal and vertical alignment of HRM activities; 3--necessity of the process of organizational change in order to create sustainability; 4--significant effects of organizational strategy on responsiveness towards green needs of HRM; 5--the important role of green leadership and green training in creation of changes; 6--managers' roles in implementation of green strategies 35 * Method: library study; questionnaires * Function: training, motivation, team work participation, leadership * Outcome: 1--technological capabilities of HR improve innovation in green products; 2--green innovation results in reduced air pollution, reduced resource utilization and reduced consumption of harmful material * Gap: lack of adequate information regarding organizational green innovation 36 * Method: review study * Function: recruitment, performance management, training and development, rewarding and compensation * Outcome: 1--there is a relationship between the functions of HRM and EM; 2--after the interaction of SHRM and EM, corporations' market value will improve; 3--green HRM measures must fit the corporation's green strategies and policies; 4--green managers must consider for employees' welfare; 5--interaction between SHRM and EM results in attraction of stakeholders, employees, customers, and forums; 6--multinational corporations pay more attention to GHRM compared to other corporations; 7--green views must be visible in job titles, marketing strategies, investment decisions, audit methods, product design, and production process * Gap: insufficiency of the number of HRM researchers interested in green issues and lac of comprehensiveness of the studies 37 * Method: combined (questionnaires and case study) * Function: job analysis and description, selection, recruitment, training, performance evaluation, compensation * Outcome: 1--results of statistical analysis cover the empirical study; 2--evolution of the EM is dependent upon the functional and competitive aspects of HRM; 3--internal and external integrities are of the most robust connections with the functional aspects of HRM; 4--evaluation of the environmental performance of the staff and investigation of the public views and reduction of the operational costs of corporations have shown that improved environmental activities is in a relationship with looking at training as an investment; 6--specialization of the functions of EM is correlated with the competitive aspects, especially cultural management. In addition team work is highly important. * Gap: corporations have already adopted EM but have not yet coordinated it with the functional aspects of HRM and hence are deprived of its competitive advantage. This is why they have not been able to show the relationship between achievement of competitive advantage of EM and HRM aspects. 38 * Method: content analysis * Outcome: 1--conceptual statement of the relationship between sustainability and HRM; 2--statement of the manner of application of sustainability concepts in HRM; 3--comparison of exploratory findings with the theoretical concepts of sustainability and development of the definitions for future studies * Gap: lack of real investigation of corporations; lack of comparison between sustainable and non-sustainable corporations; change of sustainability in time and the need to point it out; the need for long-term study of corporations regarding the relationship between sustainability and HRM; investigation of the challenges between social responsibility and economic rationality; the challenge between short-term profitability and long-term sustainable development; challenge between the effective HR activities that do not necessarily improve the corporation's ability for retention of HR Figure 5, amount of studies conducted in the east and west between 2009 and 2018 West; 34,21% East, 65,78% Note: Table made from pie chart. Figure 6--comparison of the average number for published articles in the east and west regarding GHRM 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 East 0% 0% 0% 2,63% 0% 2,63% 13,15% West 2,63% 2,63% 2,63% 5,26% 7,89% 0% 2,63% 2016 2017 2018 East 23,68% 15,79% 7,89% West 10,53% 0% 0% Note: Table made from bar graph. Figure 7--functions of GHRM in the studies conducted during the past ten years Functions Author Year Retention Rewarding And Performance Compensation Management Tavakoli 2018 * * * et al Patil & 2018 -- * * Sarode Tang et al 2018 -- * * Hassanpo 2017 -- -- -- or et al Rajabpoor 2017 -- * * Mohamm 2017 * -- * adnejad et al Seyed 2017 -- * -- Javadin et al Mishra 2017 -- * * Masri & 2017 -- * * Jaroon Paro 2017 -- -- -- Ragas et al Gholami 2016 -- * * et al Abbasi et 2016 -- * * al. Jabbour & 2016 -- -- -- Jabbour O'Donohu 2016 -- -- -- e & Torugsa Guerci & 2016 -- * * Carollo Haddock- 2016 -- -- -- Millar et al Subraman 2016 -- -- * ia et al Renwick 2016 -- * * et al Tariq et al 2016 -- -- -- Yi Yong 2016 -- -- -- & Mohd Yusoff Arz 2016 -- -- -- Bhutto & Auranzeb Jones & 2016 -- -- -- Wong Ahmad 2015 -- * * Mehta & 2015 -- * * chugan Mohd 2015 -- * * Yusoff et al Cheema et 2015 -- -- * al Zhao & 2015 -- -- -- zou Scully- 2015 -- -- -- Russ Opatha & 2014 -- * * Arulrajah Milliman 2013 -- * * Marques 2013 -- -- -- Pereira et al Wagner 2013 * -- -- Renwick 2012 -- * * et al Dabois & 2012 -- * * Dabois Zahari & 2012 -- * -- Thurasam y Jackson et 2011 -- * * al Jabbour et 2010 -- * * al Ehnert 2009 -- -- -- Functions Author Training And Socialization Selection And Development Recruitment Tavakoli * -- -- et al Patil & * -- * Sarode Tang et al * -- * Hassanpo -- -- -- or et al Rajabpoor * -- * Mohamm * -- * adnejad et al Seyed * -- * Javadin et al Mishra * -- * Masri & * * * Jaroon Paro -- -- -- Ragas et al Gholami * -- * et al Abbasi et * * * al. Jabbour & -- -- -- Jabbour O'Donohu -- -- -- e & Torugsa Guerci & * -- * Carollo Haddock- -- -- -- Millar et al Subraman * -- * ia et al Renwick * -- * et al Tariq et al -- -- -- Yi Yong -- -- -- & Mohd Yusoff Arz * -- * Bhutto & Auranzeb Jones & -- -- -- Wong Ahmad * -- * Mehta & * -- * chugan Mohd * -- * Yusoff et al Cheema et * -- * al Zhao & -- -- -- zou Scully- -- -- -- Russ Opatha & * * * Arulrajah Milliman * * * Marques -- -- -- Pereira et al Wagner -- -- * Renwick * -- * et al Dabois & * -- * Dabois Zahari & * -- -- Thurasam y Jackson et * -- * al Jabbour et * -- * al Ehnert -- -- -- Functions Author Job Analysis Participation Discipline And Working Management Relationships Tavakoli -- * -- et al Patil & -- * -- Sarode Tang et al -- * -- Hassanpo -- -- -- or et al Rajabpoor -- * -- Mohamm -- -- -- adnejad et al Seyed -- -- -- Javadin et al Mishra -- * -- Masri & -- * -- Jaroon Paro -- -- -- Ragas et al Gholami -- * -- et al Abbasi et * * * al. Jabbour & -- -- -- Jabbour O'Donohu -- -- -- e & Torugsa Guerci & * * -- Carollo Haddock- -- -- -- Millar et al Subraman -- -- -- ia et al Renwick -- * -- et al Tariq et al -- -- -- Yi Yong -- -- -- & Mohd Yusoff Arz -- -- -- Bhutto & Auranzeb Jones & -- -- -- Wong Ahmad -- * -- Mehta & -- * -- chugan Mohd -- -- -- Yusoff et al Cheema et -- -- -- al Zhao & -- -- -- zou Scully- -- -- -- Russ Opatha & * -- * Arulrajah Milliman -- * -- Marques -- -- -- Pereira et al Wagner -- -- -- Renwick -- * -- et al Dabois & -- * -- Dabois Zahari & -- * -- Thurasam y Jackson et -- -- -- al Jabbour et * -- -- al Ehnert -- -- -- Figure 9--eastern countries' attention to GHRM functions Percentage of attention to functions in the West Order management 4 Participation and working 44 relationships maintenance 8 Bonus and compensation 56 performance management 60 Training and development 70 Socialization 12 Recruitment 20 Job analysis 3 Note: Table made from bar graph. Figure 10--Western countries' attention to GHRM functions Percentage of attention to functions in the West Order management 38.64 Participation and working 7.69 relationships maintenance 53.85 Bonus and compensation 53.85 performance management 53.85 Training and development 7.69 Socialization Recruitment 61.54 Job analysis 15.38 Note: Table made from bar graph.