Printer Friendly

Green human resource management in the east and west/Gestao verde de recursos humanos no oriente e ocidente/Gestion de recursos humanos verdes en el este y el oeste.


Nowadays we are witnessing increased attentions paid to sustainable development and green organizations in managerial plans (Gonzalez-Benito & Gonzalez-Benito, 2006). The main purpose of sustainable development is to integrate economic, social, and environmental objectives with the aim of maximization of the welfare of current human beings without harming the environment or diminishing the abilities of the generations to come to satisfy their needs. In the other words, the main principle in sustainable development is that natural resources must be preserved in a way that next generations too are able to produce/consume as much as done by the current generation (OECD, 2011:11). More recently in the context of the role of human resources in sustainable development the issue of green human resource management has been proposed which is considered as a new research line (Jackson et al., 2011; Renwick et al., 2008, 2012). The purpose of green models in work life is to upgrade the compatibility and welfare capacities of both the work systems and the employees. Currently employees are more interested in organizations that support greenness (Gonzalez- Benito & Gonzalez-Benito, 2006). A green corporation is an organization that provides products and services that are consistent with the goals of more effective exploitation of resources, generation of renewable energy resources, reduction of emission of greenhouse gases, and minimization of environmental impacts. In the other words, GHRM is an effort towards the satisfaction of needs in a way that a balance is created between organizational growth for capital production and, preservation of the natural environment so that building a successful future is made possible (Daily & Hung, 2001).

The phrase of "Green Human Resource Management" is a roughly new concept in the eyes of most academics and professionals active in the context of human resource management. However, the roots of this topic date back to 1996 and Wehrmeyer's (1996) proposed characteristics. In years to come, there were also other studies conducted by other researchers among whom it can be referred to Jackson, Jabbour, and Ehnert Renwick.

Through the application of GHRM one can benefit from its positive outcomes which not only preserve the environment, but also are followed by increased efficiency and certain positive financial influences among which it can be referred to the following:

--Growth, welfare and well-being of employees (Ehnert, 2009; Mohd Yusoff et al., 2015; Hamilton and Gioia, 2009).

--Improvement of employees' creativity and variability (Shipon et al., 2012).

--Establishment of a balance between financial performance and environment preservation (Daily & Hung, 2001; O'Donohuea et al., 2016).

--Attraction of more dexterous employees due to the advantageousness of the organization's reputation in the society, retention of dexterous employees as well as improvement of motivations, employees' commitment and loyalty to the organization and improved competitive advantage (Abbasi et al., 2016, Gonzalez-Benito & Gonzalez-Benito, 2006; Milliman, 2013; Renwich &, 2012 & 2016; Davis & Smith, 2007; Mohd Yusoff &, 2015; Jabbour & Jabbour, 2016; Renwick &, 2016).

--Reduced water and energy consumption, reduced paper consumption, reduced waste production, and recycling and usage of recycled materials as fertilizers; all of which are followed by reduced expenses (Opatha & Arul rajah, 2014).

--Reduced transportation which leads to reduced air pollution and reduced expenses as well (Opatha & Arul rajah, 2014; Renwick, 2012; Milliman, 2013).

--Reduced environmentally destructive impacts (Scheiner & Willige, 2011)

--Establishment of green structures and workplaces (Opatha & Arul rajah, 2014).

--Reduced CO2 emission (Mehta et al., 2015).

--Propagation of green culture and lifestyle in the society (Milliman, 2013; Russell, 2008; Ahmad, 2015; Jabbour & Jabbour, 2016).

Among the possible negative outcomes it can be referred to not paying attention to proper stimulation of individuals and or even negatively reinforcing them which will interrupt green performance and therefore an outcome paradoxical to what was expected would be resulted. Therefore there is a need to pay significant attention to these issues (Renwick et al., 2012).

The purpose of the present study was to execute a systematic review on management of human resources in the east and west through investigating the scientific studies conducted in the field of GHRM during the past ten years. By doing so, not only new material is added to the literature of the subject matter, but also through the reviewing of the studies conducted in the past decade, the differences and similarities between the findings of eastern and western researchers would be stressed out. In addition a comparison can be made between the east and the west in terms of number of studies related to GHRM, and both the mutual and different gaps of western and eastern studies would be specified as well. Therefore, it seems necessary for the purposes of improvement of HRM and sustainable development in organizations to review and classify the previously conducted studies in the east and west, and to investigate the outcomes and functions of interest, as well as scrutinizing the existing gaps in the domain of GHRM which have been cited in table 3. Hence considering the fact that the subject of GHRM is a roughly new one and that there are no previously conducted systematic reviews on the functions, outcomes, and gaps of scientific studies related to GHRM, it has been tries to review the GHRM related articles published during the past ten years in order to systematically review the literature of the subject matter, and to provide the result of the present study to researchers interested in this domain as well as students and managers who have a tendency towards propagation of green activities in their organizations, so that our part in the spread of green culture and preservation of the environment is delivered, and also managers are enabled to implement GHRM in proportion to the conditions of their organizations. A summary of the several definitions proposed for green human resource management is given in Figure 1.

Functions of GHRM

Green Recruitment: HR can prove its commitment to greenness through virtual screening of applicants instead of holding face-to-face interviews. The range of this effort can include simple methods such as using Skype for initial screening interviews, and even more complex electronic methods for the purposes of undertaking group interviews and expansive virtual business exhibitions (Rokos et al., 2012).

Green Training and Development: HR must guarantee that preparatory programs in the early stages of recruitment will include information regarding organization's green goals and methods as well as the manner of employees' participation in voluntary and environment improvement programs (Bauer et al., 2012).

Management of Green Performance: one of the initial important steps that can be taken by the HR towards the development of a comprehensive green approach is persuading managers towards adding environment related goals to the job descriptions and job goals of employees. for example, the Sherwin-William Corporation guarantees that its' most important green criteria such as energy consumption, waste production, and recycling are stated in job descriptions and will be considered as employees' special tasks (e.g. following up, reporting, certificate granting, site evaluation, research, and education) (Dubois, 2012).

Green Rewarding and Compensation: development of effective financial incentives can be challenging through fair and proper evaluation of performance and behavior (Fernandez et al., 2003). If the green reward and compensation systems are adjusted with the process of HRM, green culture can be amplified. Through combining the elements of green management in the reward system, managers are able to propagate green behaviors among the employees (Ahmad, 2015).

Green Employee Motivation: regarding green employee motivation previous studies have shown that negative reinforcement yields inverse results for green performance and even in some cases results in occurrence of environmental problems by the individual. Development of the reward system is highly important for stimulation towards execution of green functions. In this regard, certain moral or material rewards would be considered in the reward system in case of achievement of predetermined green goals (Renwick et al., 2012).

Green Participation and Employment Relationships: the management must try to establish a workplace in which the employees are able to freely

express their opinions regarding green issues because it's them who are really in charge of realization of ethical guidelines in the routine life of the organization (Collier & Esteban, 2007). A study on 214 British organizations shows that managers' support and employees' possibility of participation result in interest in the environment as the most prevalent encouragement methods (Ahmad, 2015).


According to the goals, the present study is based on systematic reviewing (Tranfield et al., 2003). First of all, we have searched in credible data bases and conferences for online published articles with keywords including sustainable development and HRM, GHRM, GHR, sustainable HRM, sustainable development and HR, sustainable HR, environmentally concerned HRM, environmentally compatible HRM, and HR and sustainability in the timespan between the years 2009 and 2018. The articles were searched for in data bases including Sid, MagIran, Noor-Mags, Civilica, Emerald, Springer link, Wiley Online Library, Taylor and Francis Online (Rout-ledge), and Elsevier. Considering the restriction on access to entire articles for researchers in Iran, 250 articles were selected. Afterwards, the abstracts of the articles were reviewed and once the nonrelated articles were excluded, 80 articles remained and their full texts were reviewed and again another round of exclusion based on relatedness was performed. Finally, 38 remaining articles were subjected to final investigation the protocol for which is shown in the following (Figure 3). These 38 articles have been classified based on author(s), publish date, country, journal title, article title, methods, functions, outcomes, and gaps. The data analysis and preparation stages are depicted in tables 3, 4, and 5, as well as diagrams 2, 3, 4, and 5. According to the former and latter, the data yielding from the articles were compared and conclusions were made. In the present research, the countries located in the continent of Asia are referred to as the east (eastern countries), whereas the countries located in the continents of America and Europe are referred to as the west (western countries).

The first step was to search for articles based on the mentioned keywords in the mentioned data bases during the timespan between 2009 and 2018. This initial search yielded 250 articles. Afterwards, the abstracts of the inquired articles were reviewed and once the irrelevant articles were excluded, 80 articles remained and their full texts were reviewed and then another round of exclusion based on relatedness was performed. Finally, 38 remaining articles were subjected to final investigation.


Once the full texts of the selected articles were reviewed, we categorized them based on authors, publish dates, countries, journal titles, and article titles (Figure 4) and we have also specified the methods of each article in addition to the functions, outcomes, and gaps of GHRM they have focused on. This way we have compared the previously conducted studios and reviewed the existing gaps in the east and the west. In addition, Figure 5 presents an investigation of the articles under investigation based on the functions of GHRM. In Figure 5 we have presented the encoding of functions of GHRM based on terms related to the functions of HRM stated in the texts of investigated articles.

Figure 5 shows the number of studies conducted in the east and west and Figure 5 compares these numbers in respect of dates. These diagrams show that although the main pillars of GHRM studies are in west, but during the past few years the tendency towards GHRM has been higher in the west compared to the east.

In Figures 9 and 10 you can observe the GHRM functions stated in table 3 for each article for both groups of east and west in terms of percentages. These diagrams specify which functions have been more paid attention to in west and which have been more paid attention to in east.

Discussion and conclusions

Although GHRM is still in its initial phases and organizations are increasingly becoming aware of it, the importance of the subject matter has moved organizations towards GHRM methods more than before (Ahmad, 2015). Therefore through conducting a systematic review on the previously conducted studies, we have categorized the articles based on authors, journal titles, methods, functions, outcomes, and gaps. While performing the present study it was tried to take a positive step towards advancement of the philosophy of GHRM and development of the related knowledge. In fact the results of the present study can be the context for future researchers who would want to investigate the existing gaps and those areas of GHRM that are still in need of more studying. In addition through the investigation of the differences between the studies conducted in the east and west which has been done by the present study, future studies are able to seek for the causes of these differences. According to the findings of the present study and by taking into account the contents of table 3, and diagrams 4 and 5 it turns out that the most interesting functions for eastern researchers were respectively education and development (72%), performance management (60%), and rewarding and compensation (56%) as well as other more attention requiring functions including socialization (12%), job analysis (8%), employee retention (8%), and discipline management (4%). On the other hand, the most interesting functions for western researchers were respectively selection and recruiting (61.54%), education and development (53.85%), performance management (53.85%), compensation (53.85%) in addition to other more attention requiring functions including discipline management (0%), socialization (7.69%), employee retention (7.69%), and job analysis (15.38%). As you can see, the functions of job analysis, socialization, retention of employees, and discipline management are in need of more investigation in both the east and the west. Therefore the future researchers are recommended to investigate the cause of this difference. Investigating diagrams 2 and 3 shows that paying attention to GHRM and doing research in this field has increased in the east during the past few years, but before that, it was more stressed out by western researchers since it was in the west where the concept of GHRM was initially proposed. Hence, the need for conduction of more studies in the east is felt clearly.

As you can see in table 3, the mutual gap between the east and the west which has been referred to more than other gaps is the lack of comprehensive studies in the east and the lack of a cross-cultural model between the east and the west; a cross-cultural model which can be used for execution of GHRM proportional to different countries' cultures. This is a sign that future GHRM interested researchers should work on designing such a cultural model. This issue is however in need of further investigation and study regarding the effects of eastern and western cultures on the implementation of GHRM. As another mentioned major gap it can be referred to inadequate efforts for provision of green culture not only in organizations, but also throughout the entire society. For example in eastern countries there are still weaknesses regarding the implementation of GHRM which need to be flattened. Among these weaknesses it can be referred to: cumbersome rules, excessive bureaucracy and hierarchy, lack of managerial support for green programs and lack of GHRM training courses. In addition, there is a lack of comparison between sustainable and non-sustainable corporations in the west in addition to a lacking of GHRM related studies in long term, existence of overwhelming hierarchies in some countries including Brazil, and inadequate attention to GHRM details such as the manner of recruitment of green employees, especially those who are willing to work for lower wages, and inadequacy of case studies are considered as the most important stated gaps. Hence it is recommended to perform more studies in these areas so that these gaps are gradually filled and as GHRM philosophy becomes more prevalent, organizations start to take advantage for the financial and environmental benefits of it. Tariq et al (2016) stated that the new concept of GHRM not only is an applicable subject for organizations, but also plays a crucial role in developing countries and requires more studies so that the issue of GHRM is further developed and made applicable. In anyways, the findings of the present study help with the evaluation of some issues that have been neglected so far. As an example, Tavakoli et al., (2018); Rajabpoor (2017), Seyed Javadin et al., (2017); and Mohammadnejad et al., (2017) have pointed to the inadequacy of related studies in Iran as well as lack of a codified program. On the other hand, Mishra, Masri and Jaroon (2017), Tariq et al., (2016), Mohd Yusoff et al., (2015), Wagner (2013), and Renwick et al., (2012) have stated that most of GHRM related studies have been performed in developed countries especially American and European countries. In addition, Gholami et al., (2016), Subramanian et al., (2016), and Opatha and Arul raja (2014) have pointed out the lacking of comprehensive studies in Malaysia, China, and Sri Lanka respectively. Chima et al., (2015) believe that lack of proper familiarity with the benefits of GHRM is a major gap in Pakistan. On the other hand, Tang et al., (2018), Patil and Sarvood (2018), Subramanian et al., (2016), and Chima et al (2015) have pointed to the lacking of a cross-cultural model in international levels; while Miller et al., (2016) have pointed to the lack of comparative studies regarding GHRM in international levels.

In addition, the major need for paying more attention to the issues of leadership, rewarding, training and development, development of green culture, and increased managers' attention to GHRM are stated in the studies conducted by Tang et al., (2018); Hassanpoor et al., (2017); Mishra (2017); Masri and Jaroon (2017); Paro Ragas et al., (2017), Zhao and Zhou (2015), Ahmad (2015), and Renwick et al., (2012). In addition the following studies have pointed out to the lacking of comparative studies between sustainable and non- sustainable organziations in long term: Renwick et al., (2016); O'Donohuea et al., (2016); Jones and Wong (2016), and Ehnert (2009). Nevertheless, lack of attention to green innovation, dimensions of green innovation, and the negative effect of bureaucracy and hierarchies on the implementation of GHRM, green commitment, and green participation have been respectively pointed out by the following studies: Zahari and Thurasamy (2012), Zhao and Zhou (2015), Jones and Wong (2016), and Skully-Russ (2015).

The findings of the present study show that we still need more studies in the domain of GHRM as well as the needs and gaps that exist in it. The present study has pointed out a large portion of these gaps and needs which will enable us to make more and more efforts towards further development of the concept of GHRM and the methods of applying it. In this way, GHRM will help with preservation of the environment in addition to its advantages for HR and the organization. Nevertheless, among the limitations of the present study it can be referred to the limited access to the entire published articles in credible international websites, as well as lack of access to researches in African countries which is why this study only includes Asian, American, and European countries.

Recebido em 13.11.2018

Aprovado em 25.01.2019


Abbasi T. Jamali G. and Azari H, (2016), Role of public organizations on Green Productivity, from perspective of green human resources management, Third International Conference on Green Economics.

Ahmad S, (2015), Green Human Resource Management: Policies and practices, Cogent Business & Management, Vol. 2, pp. 1-13,

Arz Bhutto S. and Auranzeb, (2016), Effects of Green Human Resources Management on Firm Performance: An Empirical Study on Pakistani Firms, European Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 8, No. 16, pp. 119-125.

Bauer T. Erdogan B. and Taylor S, (2012), Creating and maintaining environmentally sustainable organizations: Recruitment and on-boarding. In S. Jackson, D. Ones, & S. Dilchert (Eds.), Managing human resources for environmental sustainability, New York, NY: Wiley, pp. 222-240.

Cheema S. Tisman Pasha A. and Javed F., (2015), Green human resource practices: Implementations and Hardles of SMEs in Pakistan, Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, No. 2, Vol. 7, pp. 231-241.

Collier J. and Esteban R., (2007), Corporate social responsibility and employee commitment. Business Ethics: A European Review, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 19-33.

Daily B. F. and Huang S., (2001), Achieving sustainability through attention to human resource factors in environmental management, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol 21, No. 12, pp. 1539-1552.

Dubois C., (2012), EcoVision at Sherwin-Williams: Leadership at all levels. In S. Jackson, D. Ones, & S. Dilchert (Eds.), Managing human resources for environmental sustainability, New York, NY: Wiley, pp. 281-297.

Dubois C. L. Z. and Dubois D. A., (2012), Strategic HRM as social design for environmental sustainability in organization. Human Resource Management, Wiley, vol. 51, No. 6, pp. 799-826, DOI:10.1002/hrm.21504.

Dutta S., (2012), Greening people: A strategic dimension. ZENITH: International Journal of Business Economics & Management Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 143-148.

Ehnert I., (2009), Sustainability & human resource management: reasoning and applications on corporate websites, Eur. J. Int. Manage, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 419- 437.

Fernandez E. Junquera B. and Ordiz M., (2003), Organizational culture and human resources in the environmental issue: A review of the literature, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 634-656, doi:10.1080/0958519032000057628.

Gholami H. Rezaei G. Zameri Mat Saman, M. Sharif, S. Zakuan, N. (2016), State- of-the-art Green HRM System: sustainability in the sports center in Malaysia using a multi- methods approach and opportunities for future research, Journal of Cleaner Production, Elsevier, Vol. 124, pp. 142-163, DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.02.105.

Gonzalez-Benito J. and Gonzalez-Benito O., (2006), A review of determinant factors of environmental proactivity, Journal of Business Strategy and the Environment, Vo. 15, No. 1 pp. 87-102, doi:10.1002/(ISSN)1099-0836.

Guerci M. and Carollo L., (2016), A paradox view on green human resource management: insights from the Italian context, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 212-238, DOI: 10.1080/09585192.2015.1033641.

Haddock-Millar J. Sanyal C. and Muller-Camen M., (2016), Green human resource management: a comparative qualitative case study of a United States multinational corporation, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 192-211, DOI:10.1080/09585192.2015.1052087.

Hamilton A. Gioia D.A., (2009), Fostering sustainability-focused organizational identities, New York: Routledge, first edition.

Hassanpoor A. Abtahi S.A. and Khamoie F., (2017). Identifying and prioritizing Green training needs of staff using network anal-ysis process (ANP), Journal of Environmental Education & Sustainable Development, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 9-24.

Jabbour C.J.C. Santos F.C.A. and Nagano M.S., (2010), Contributions of HRM throughout the stages of environmental management: methodological triangulation applied to companies in Brazil, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 21, No. 7, pp. 1049-1089, Doi/abs/10.1080/09585191003783512.

Jabbour C.J.C. and Jabbour A.B.L.D.S., (2016), Green human resource management and green supply chain management: linking two emerging agendas, Journal of Cleaner Production, Elsevier, Vol. 112, No. 3, pp. 1824-1833, Doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.01.052

Jackson S. E. Renwick D. W. S. Jabbour C. J. C. and Muller-Camen Michael., (2011), State-of-the-Art and Future Directions for Green Human Resource Management: Introduction to the Special Issue, German Journal of Research in Human Resource Management, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 99-116, DOI 10.1688/1862- 0000_ZfP_2011_02_Jackson.

Lee K. H., (2009), Why and how to adopt green management into business organizations: The case study of Korean SMEs in manufacturing industry, Management Decision, Vol. 47, No. 7, pp. 1101-1121.

Marques Pereira G. S. Jabbour C. Borges de Oliveira S. V. W. and Alves Teixeira A., (2012), Greening the campus of a Brazilian university: cultural challenges, International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, Emerald, Vol. 15, Iss. 1, pp. 34-47.

Masri H. and Jaaron A., (2017), Assessing green human resources management practices in Palestinian manufacturing context: An empirical study, Journal of Cleaner Production, Elsevier, Vol.143, pp. 474-489, Doi:org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.12.087.

Milliman J., (2013), Leading-Edge Green Human Resource Practices: Vital Components to Advancing Environmental Sustainability, Environmental Quality Management, Wiley, Vol. 23, Iss. 2, pp. 31-45, DOI: 10.1002/tqem.21358.

Mishra P., (2017), Green human resource management: A framework for sustainable organizational development in an emerging economy, International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Emerald, Vol. 25, Iss. 5, pp. 762-788, Doi:10.1108/IJOA-11-2016-1079.

Mohammadnejad Shoorkaie M. Seyed Javadin R. Shah Hoseini M. and Hal Karimi A., (2017), Presenting a framework for managing green human resources, Journal of Public Administration, Management Faculty of Tehran University, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 691- 710.

Mohd Yusoff Y. Zahiyah Othman N. Fernando Y. and Amran A., (2015), Conceptualization of Green Human Resource Management: An Exploratory Study from Malaysian-based Multinational Companies, International Journal of Business Management and Economic Research (IJBMER), Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 158-166.

O'Donohuea W. Torugsa N., (2016), The moderating effect of 'Green' HRM on the association between proactive environmental management and financial performance in small firms, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Routledge, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 239-261, Doi:10.1080/09585192.2015.1063078.

OECD, (2001), The Dac guidelines, strategies for sustainable Development.

Opatha H. and Arulrajah A., (2014), Green Human Resource Management: Simplified General Reflections, International Business Research, Canadian center of Science and Education, Vol. 7, No. 8, Doi: 10.5539/ibr.v7n8p101.

Paro Ragas S. Angub Tantay F. Co Chua L. and Concha Sunio C., (2017), Green lifestyle moderates GHRM's impact to job performance, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Emerald, Vol. 66, No. 7, pp. 857--872, Doi:10.1108/IJPPM-04-2016-0076.

Rajabpoor E., (2017), The Impact of Human Resources Management on the Development of Environmental Management, Journal of Research in Human resource management, Imam Husein University, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 51-73.

Renwick D. Redman T. and Maguire S., (2008), Green HRM: A Review, Process Model, and Research Agenda, University of Sheffield Management School Retrieved from

Renwick D. Redman T. and Maguire S., (2012), Green human resource management: a review and research agenda, International journal of management reviews, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 1-14. Doi:10.1111/j.1468-2370.20n.00328x.

Renwick D. W.S. Redman T. Jabbour C. J.C. Muller-Camen M. and Wilkinson A., (2016), Contemporary developments in Green (environmental) HRM scholarship, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 114-128, Doi:10.1080/09585192.2015.1105844.

Rokos T. Rokos G. and Pellet L., (2012), Sustainable staffing, Avocado Press.

Russell W., (2008), Engaging employees in social consciousness at Eileen Fisher, InJ. Wirtenberg, W. Russell, & D. Lipsky (Eds.), The sustainable enterprise fieldbook: When it all comes together, New York, AMACOM.

Scheiner S.M. and Willige M.R., (2011), The theory of ecology, The University of Chicago Press, USA.

Seyed Javadin R. Roshandel Arbatani T. and Nobari A., (2017), Green Human Resource Management "An Investment Approach and Sustainable Development", Journal of Investment Knowledge, Iranian Financial Engineering Association, Vol. 5, No. 20, pp. 297-327.

Shipton H. Budhwar P. S. and Crawshaw J., (2012), HRM, Organizational Capacity for Change, and Performance: A Global Perspective, Thunderbird International Business Review, Wiley, vol. 54, No. 6, pp. 777-790, DOI: 10.1002/tie.21503.

Spreitzer G. Sutcliff K. Dutton J. Sonenshine S. and Grant A.M., (2005), A socially embedded model of thriving at work, Organization Science, Vol. 16, No. 5, pp. 537549.

Subramaniana N. Abdulrahmana M.D. Wua L. and Nath P., (2016), Green competence framework: evidence from China, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Routledge, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 151-172, Doi:10.1080/09585192.2015.1047394.

Tang G. Chen Y. Jiang Y. Paille P. and Jia J., (2018), Green human resource management practices: scale development and validity, Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, Wiley, Vol. 56, pp. 31-55, Doi:10.1111/1744-7941.12147.

Tariq S. Ali Jan F. and Shakil Ahmad M., (2016), Green employee empowerment: a systematic literature review on state of art in green human resource management, Qual Quant, Springer, Vol. 50, Iss. 1, pp. 237-269, DOI 10.1007/s11135-014-0146-0.

Tavakoli A. Hashemi A. Sabet A. and Razeghi S., (2018). Presenting an Organizational Model of Green Human Resource Management based on Human Resources Management Systems, Journal of Research in Human resource management, Imam Husein University, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 75-101.

Tranfield D. Denyer D. and Smart P., (2003), Towards a Methodology for Developing Evidence-Informed Management Knowledge by Means of Systematic Review, British Journal of Management, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 207-222, Doi:10.1111/1467-8551.00375.

Wagner M., (2013), Green Human Resource Benefits: Do they Matter as Determinants of Environmental Management System Implementation?, Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, Vol. 114, No. 3, pp. 114:443-456, DOI 10.1007/s10551-012-1356-9.

Wehrmeyer W., (1996), Greening people, Greenleaf Publishing, Sheffield.

Bahareh Shahriari

Faculty Member of Management, PNU University, Tehran, Iran

Akbar Hassanpoor

Assistant Professor in Management faculty, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

Caption: Figure 3--the protocol of work process.
Table 8, encoding and classifying the functions cited in
reviewed articles

Job analysis                   Job analysis, job design,
                               job description

Selection and recruitment      Selection, recruitment,

Socialization                  Management of organizational

Training and development       Training, development,
                               learning, empowerment,
                               management of organizational

Performance management         Performance evaluation,
                               performance management

Rewarding and compensation     Rewards, benefits,
                               compensation, incentives,

Retention                      Retention

Participation and working      Participation, employees'
relationships                  relationships, work teams,
                               innovations, leadership,

Discipline management          Discipline, discipline

Figure 1--Definitions of GHRM

Tang et al.,          He considers GHRM as a scale for
(2018)                credibility and development which
                      results in employees' green behavior and
                      awareness through adoption of a green
                      perspective and making use of green
                      communication channels.

Seyed Javadin         They consider GHRM as an approach for
et al., (2017)        sustainable investment and development
                      and state that through focusing of its
                      human capital and environment management
                      plans, organizations obtain both their
                      economic and environmental goals.

Jabbour & Jabbour     They believe that the functions and
(2016)                measures of GHRM are highly tangible and
                      cause the green issues to be considered
                      for in employees' daily tasks, and also
                      have positive effects on employees'
                      lives and performances.

Renwick et            GHRM improves the credibility of
al., (2016)           organizations and causes the labor force
                      to show more willingness to stay in
                      their organizations, and also causes
                      better labor forces to be willing
                      towards getting recruited by green

Ahmad (2015)          GHRM is responsible for creation of
                      awareness, informing, and establishment
                      of interactions between the employees,
                      especially regarding environmental
                      issues. In addition, through green
                      policy making it orients the employees
                      towards fulfilling their green duties.

Mohd Yusef            He believes that GHRM is a complex set
(2015)                of the following counts:  A--Electronic
                      GHRM: 1--electronic recruitment, 2--e-
                      mails, 3--electronic training, 4--
                      electronic users, and 5--electronic job
                      description; B--Flexible Work
                      including: 1--part--time job, and 2--
                      working at home; C--Social
                      responsibility including: 1--recycling,
                      2--social responsibilities, and 3--
                      green cafeteria; D--Green Policies
                      including: 1--security, well-being,
                      consideration for the environment, and
                      2--green organizational policies (ISO
                      14001-2); E--Additional care programs
                      including: Mothers' rooms and parking
                      lots, and 2--Childcare room.

Opatha & Arul         By GHRM it is referred to the entire
Rajah (2014)          activities involve with development,
                      execution, and maintenance of a system
                      aiming to keep green employees in the
                      organization. Transforming regular
                      employees into green employees is the
                      duty of HRM and its aim is to achieve
                      environmental goals and ultimately to
                      achieve a significant share in
                      environmental sustainability which
                      points to methods, policies, and systems
                      that benefit individuals, societies,
                      environments, and workplaces.

Dutta (2012)          GHRM is comprised of two main elements
                      namely as the ecofriendly functions of
                      HR, and safekeeping of knowledge
                      capital. He states that GHRM is a
                      resolution that helps with creation of
                      green labor forces who are able to both
                      perceive and appreciate green culture in
                      their organziations. Such a green
                      innovation can apply its green goals to
                      the entire process of HRM in the
                      contexts of recruitment, selection,
                      training, compensation, growth and
                      development, and retention of HR

Figure 2--Green HRM methods

Job Analysis     Considering for environmental dimensions
                 as a duty in job description

                 Considering green competency as a
                 special component in conditions for

Recruitment      Considering for environmental criteria
                 in recruitment notices

                 Relating to the concerns of employees
                 regarding environmental issues

Selection        Selection of applicants who are well
                 aware of green issues in their jobs

                 Selection of applicants who in their
                 personal lives behave as green consumers

Socialization    Familiarizing the new employees with
                 organization's green activities

                 Development for socialization programs
                 related to green citizenship behavior
                 for current employees

Training and     Proper statement of knowledge and skill
performance      regarding green roles through the
evaluation       training programs designed in this

                 Consideration for separate components
                 for the purpose of progression in the
                 context of greenness through reviewing
                 the performance feedbacks

Reward           Providing financial incentives for
management       employees who have undertaken their
                 green tasks in their jobs well

                 Granting non-financial rewards such as
                 venerating and introducing the green

Discipline       Compilation and publication of rules
management       related to greenness

                 Development of an advanced disciplinary
                 system for punishment of employees who
                 violate green rules

Figure 4--A summary of previously conducted studies on GHRM
during the past ten years

NO    Researcher      Journal Title         Article Title

1     Patil &         International         Green Human
      Sarode/20       Journal of            Resource
      18/India        Creative              Management:
                      Research              Role of HR
                      Thoughts              Managers To
                      (IJCRT)               Achieve

2     Tang et         Asia Pacific          Green human
      al/2018/        Journal of            resource
      China           Human                 management
                      Resources             practices: scale
                                            and validity

3     Tavakoli        Journal of            Development
      et al           Research in           of a structural
      /2018/Iran      Human                 model for
                      Resources             GHRM based
                      Management            on HRM

4     Hassanpo        Journal of            Identification
      or et al/       Environmental         and
      2017/Iran       Education &           prioritization
                      Sustainable           of employees'
                      Development           green
                                            needs using the
                                            ANP method

5     Rajabpoor       Journal of            The effect of
      /2017/Iran      Research in           HRM on
                      Human                 development
                      Resources             of
                      Management            environmental

6     Mohamm          Journal of            Developing a
      adnejad et      public                framework for
      al/2017/        administration        GHRM

7     Seyed           Journal of            GHRM: an
      Javadin et      management            investment and
      al/2017/        Systems               sustainable
      Iran                                  development

8     Abbasi et       Third                 Role-playing
      al/2016/        International         of state
      Iran            Conference on         organziations
                      Green                 in green
                      Economics             efficiency in
                                            the view of

9     Mishra/20       International         Green human
      17/India        Journal of            resource
                      Organizational        Management
                      Analysis              A framework
                      (Emerald)             for sustainable
                                            in an emerging

10    Masri &         Journal of            Assessing
      Jaroon/20       Cleaner               green human
      17/             Production            resources
      Palestine       (Elsevier)            management
                                            practices in
                                            context: An

11    Paro            International         Green lifestyle
      Ragas et        Journal of            moderates
      al/2017/        Productivity          GHRM's
      Philippines     and                   impact to job
                      Performance           performance

12    Gholami         Journal of            State-of-the-art
      et              Cleaner               Green HRM
      al/2016/        Production            System:
      Malaysia        (Elsevier)            sustainability
                                            in the sports
                                            center in
                                            Malaysia using
                                            a multi-
                                            approach and
                                            for future

13    Jabbour &       Journal of            Green Human
      Jabbour/2       Cleaner               Resource
      016/Brazil      Production            Management
                      (Elsevier)            and Green
                                            Supply Chain
                                            linking two

14    Jones &         Library               More than just
      Wong/201        Management            a green
      6/China         (Emerald)             building--
                                            strategies at the
                                            University of
                                            Hong Kong

15    O'Donohuea      The                   The
      & Torugsa/      International         moderating
      2016/           Journal of            effect of
      Australia       Human                 Green' HRM
                      Resource              on the
                      Management            association
                      (Routledge)           between
                                            and financial
                                            performance in
                                            small firms

16    Guerci &        The                   A paradox
      Carollo/20      International         view on green
      16/Italy        Journal of            human
                      Human                 resource
                      Resource              management:
                      Management            insights from
                      (Routledge)           the Italian

17    Haddock         The                   Green human
      &               International         resource
      Millar/201      Journal of            management: a
      6/America       Human                 comparative
                      Resource              qualitative
                      Management            case study of a
                      (Routledge)           United States

18    Subraman        The                   Green
      ian et al/      International         competence
      2016/China      Journal of            framework:
                      Human                 evidence from
                      Resource              China

19    Renwick         The                   Contemporary
      et              International         developments
      al/2016/        Journal of            in Green
      Britain         Human                 (environmental)
                      Resource              HRM
                      Management            scholarship

20    Tariq et al/    Qual Quant            Green
      2016/           (Springer)            employee
      Pakistan                              empowerment:
                                            a systematic
                                            review on
                                            state-of-art in
                                            green human

21    Yi Yong         Industrial and        Studying the
      & Mohd          Commercial            Influence of
      Yusoff/20       Training              Strategic
      16/             (Emerald)             Human
      Malaysia                              Resource
                                            on the
                                            Adoption of
                                            Green Human

22    Arz             European              Effects of
      Bhutto &        Journal of            Green Human
      Aurangzeb       Business and          Resources
      /2016/          Management            Management
      Pakistan        (IISTE)               on Firm
                                            An Empirical
                                            Study on

23    Ahmad/20        Cogent                Green Human
      15/Arabia       Business &            Resource
                      Management            Management:
                                            Policies and

24    Mehta &         Universal             Green HRM in
      Chugan/2        Journal of            Pursuit of
      015/India       Industrial and        Environmentally
                      Business              Sustainable
                      Management            Business

25    Mohd            International         Conceptualization
      Yusoff et       Journal of            of Green
      al/2015/        Business              Human
      Malaysia        Management            Resource
                      and Economic          Management:
                      Research(IJBM         An
                      ER)                   Exploratory
                                            Study from

26    Zhao &          International         Green
      Zou/2015/       Journal of            university
      China           Sustainability in     initiatives in
                      Higher                China: a case
                      Education             of Tsinghua
                      (Emerald)             University

27    Scully-         Advances in           The Contours
      Russ/2015       Developing            of Green
      /America        Human                 Human
                      Resources             Resource
                      (Sage)                Development

28    Cheema et       Journal of            Green Human
      al/2015/        Business              Resource
      Pakistan        Studies               Practices:
                      Quarterly             Implementations
                      (JBSQ)                and Hurdles
                                            of SMEs in

29    Opatha &        International         Green Human
      Arul            Business              Resource
      rajah/2014      Research              Management:
      /Sri Lanka                            Simplified

30    Milliman/       Environmental         Leading-Edge
      2013/           Quality               Green Human
      America         Management            Resource
                      (Wiley)               Practices: Vital
                                            Components to

31    Marques         International         Greening the
      Pereira et      Journal of            campus of a
      al/2013/        Sustainability in     Brazilian
      Brazil          Higher                university:
                      Education             cultural
                      (Emerald)             challenges

32    Wagner/2        J Bus Ethics          Green Human
      013/            (Springer)            Resource
      Germany                               Benefits: Do
                                            they Matter as

33    Renwick         International         Green Human
      et              Journal of            Resource
      al/2012/        Management            Management:
      Britain         Reviews               A Review and
                      (IJMR)                Research

34    Dubois &        Human                 Strategic HRM
      Dubois/20       Resource              as Social
      12/America      Management            design for
                      (Wiley)               environmental
                                            in organization

35    Zahari &        International         Linking Green
      Thurasam        Conference on         Product
      y/2012/         Innovation,           Innovation,
      Malaysia        Management            Technological
                      and Technology        and Human
                      Research              Resource
                      (ICIMTR)              capabilities: A

36    Jackson et      Zeitschrift fur       State-of-the-art
      al/2011/        Personalforschung     and future
      USA, UK,                              directions for
      and Brazil                            green human
                                            introduction to
                                            the special

37    Jabbour et      The                   Contributions
      al/2012/        International         of HRM
      Brazil          Journal of            throughout the
                      Human                 stages of
                      Resource              environmental
                      Management            management:
                      (Routledge)           methodological
                                            applied to
                                            companies in

38    Ehnert/20       European J.           Sustainability
      09/Germany      International         and human
                      Management            resource
                                            reasoning and
                                            applications on


1     * Method: systematic review

      * Function: green recruitment, green performance
      management, green training and development, green
      compensation and participation

      * Outcome: prevention of environmental pollution

2     * Method: exploratory analysis (library-
      questionnaire study)

      * Function: green selection and recruitment, green
      training, green performance management, green
      salary system, green participation

      * Outcome: authenticating a tool for measurement
      of GHRM and development of a local model

      * Gap: lack of cross-cultural models between the
      east and west; inadequate attention to the issue
      of leadership in GHRM

3     * Method: descriptive-survey; library studies and

      * Function: retention, compensation, performance
      management, HR training and development,
      employees' relations

      * Outcomes: 1--the HRM system positively impacts
      GHR through the variables of compensation,
      education and development, retention, employees;
      relations and performance evaluation. 2--Dynamic
      retention of GHR is the result of providing the
      necessary contexts in management. 3--The
      components of compensation will have more effects
      on employees' behaviors and motivation as long as
      green behaviors are institutionalized. 4--
      facilitation of the processes of green management
      through training and development of HR. 5--
      performance management results in improved quality
      of advancement of plans and the extent of
      realization of green goals, and that through
      providing suitable feedbacks the employees will
      adjust and reform their actions

      * Gap: inadequacy of number of studies regarding
      GHRM and green management in Iran; lack of
      codified programs in Iranian organizations
      regarding green management and GHRM; existence of
      green programs based on legal requirements of
      titled organizations in the domain of environment

4     * Method: descriptive-survey

      * Function: retention, compensation, performance

      * Outcome: among the 8 important educational
      needs, the sustainable development, ISO 14001, and
      green procurement have been identified as the most
      important needs.

      * Gap: the necessity for authorities' more
      attention to green education, updating the needs
      and training courses, as well as holding green
      training courses in coordination with
      international standards

5     * Method: field, survey

      * Function: recruitment, training and development,
      performance evaluation, compensation, benefits and
      rewards, employees' relations

      * Outcome: 1--functions of HR have positive
      effects on adoption of environmental management;
      2--forming the behavior and stability of the
      social system of organizations is effective on the
      factors involved with environmental standards; 3-
      -the elements of training course are effective on
      managers' attitude towards environmental culture-

      * Gap: inadequacy of studies in Iran

6     * Method: qualitative; library studies and

      * Function: green attraction, green performance
      evaluation, green development, and green

      * Outcome: individual, organizational and
      ultra-organizational outcomes, GHRM in personal,
      organizational, and social levels includes
      process, strategy, support, and green culture
      whereas green process is defined as employees'
      green lives which lead to formation of green

      * Gap: more emphasis is put on GHRM in other
      countries, we are still in need of more studies
      regarding GHRM contexts and outcomes, and
      organizational aspect requires more support (the
      managers and stakeholders are required to pay more
      attention to supplication of GHRM budgets).

7     * Method: qualitative; content analysis

      * Function: green selection and recruitment, green
      training, reward system.

      * Outcome: identification and development of
      characteristics of GHRM.

      * Gap: lack of empirical studies in Iran

8     * Method: Review Study

      * Function: green analysis, green selection and
      recruitment, green socialization, green
      education, green performance evaluation, green
      reward management, green discipline management,
      green work relationships

      * Outcome: 1//better understanding of the position
      of GHRM in state organizations; 2//paying
      attention to selection, recruitment, training,
      performance management, and establishment of fit
      reward/punishment systems that give individuals
      incentives to preserve the environment and reduce
      undesirable behaviors, as well as establishment of
      a suitable feedback system

9     * Method: combined (library studies, interviews
      with HR experts in paint, automobile and
      electronics production corporations.

      * Function: green selection and recruitment, green
      training, green performance evaluation, green
      participation and compensation

      * Outcome: 1-green strategies such as GHRM and
      green social responsibility result in improved
      competitive advantage, innovation, reduced
      expenses, establishment of positive credibility,
      and improvement of brand value, improved sales,
      absorption of talented individuals, creativity,
      and retention of employees

      * Gap: lack of consistence between managers'
      behaviors and the organization's policies, and
      green issues; most of the studies have been
      conducted in developed countries (managers' lack
      of support for green policies and existence of
      overwhelming hierarchies)

10    * Method: Experimental; Exploratory

      * Function: green selection and recruitment, green
      training and development, green management and
      performance evaluation, green rewarding and
      compensation, green participation and empowerment,
      green management of organizational culture.

      * Outcome: 1--existence of a mutual relationship
      between environment management and HRM in
      Palestinian manufacturing organizations;
      2--positive relationships between the six functions
      of GHRM and preservation of environment; 3--the
      function of green selection and recruitment is
      cheaper than the function of green training and
      development; 4--most applicable function: green
      selection and recruitment; the least applicable
      function: green training and development; 5--the
      size of the manufacturing organization has no
      impact on achievement of environmental
      sustainability; 6--green management of
      organizational culture, green reward system, and
      green training and development are usually
      applicable in larger organizations rather than
      smaller ones

      * Gap: the most applicable function of GHRM in
      Mexican manufacturing organizations was found out
      to be development and training whereas for
      Palestinian manufacturing organziations it was the
      least applicable function; inadequacy of GHRM
      related studies in developing countries

11    * Method: modeling; exploratory factor analysis

      * Outcome: 1--execution of GHRM methods has
      positive effects on employees' lifestyles and job
      performance and also improves their satisfaction
      and loyalty and enhances organizational efficiency
      as well; 2--organizations can both pay attention
      to the environment and keep their employees'
      performance at high levels; 3--execution of GHRM
      methods at the workplace institutionalizes GHRM in
      the employees and makes them stick to these
      methods at home as well.

      * Gap: lack of attention to the factor of

12    * Method: combined

      * Function: performance management, participation
      and empowerment, payment and rewarding system,
      attraction and recruitment, training and

      * Outcome: 1--there is a significant relationship
      between the above mentioned seven factors for the
      purpose of execution of GHRM; 2--there is a more
      robust correlation between performance management,
      empowerment, and participation of players; 3--the
      GHRM system plays a significant role in execution
      of green strategy which in turn affects employees'
      welfare and long-term performance.

      * Gap: lack of comprehensive studies in Malaysia

13    * Method: Review study

      * Outcome: 1--reduction of the barriers of
      execution of supply chain management has resulted
      in the success of HRM and also the main barriers
      of HRM are effective on the execution of GSCM;
      2--Flattening of the barriers amplifies the
      relationship between GHRM and GSCM and results in
      improved supply chain sustainability; 3--GSCM has
      a positive effect on corporate performance and
      investments in development of HR and social
      responsibility; 4--The connection between GHRM and
      GSCM results in improved sustainability of
      corporations and supply chains and enhances the
      achievement of sustainable development

      * Gap: significant delay in combination of GHRM
      and GSCM in today's world is due to an even larger
      gap in combination of HRM and supply chain
      management; lack of qualitative and quantitative
      investigations of the relationship between GHRM
      and GSCM

14    * Method: Case study

      * Outcome: 1--Propagation of green training in the
      Hong Kong University; 2--the libraries are in need
      of precise information regarding energy
      consumption of production and storage of their
      published collections and electronic sources;
      3--technology plays a positive role in energy
      consumption in libraries; 4--requiring high levels
      of supervision regarding using technologies;
      5--culture building and reduction of power and paper

      * Gap: lack of information for long-ter,
      comparison; inadequacy of awareness about and
      commitment to sustainability issues in Hong Kong

15    * Method: Research paper

      * Outcome: 1--GHRM continually moderates the
      relationship between financial performance and
      environmental management; 2--environmental
      management has a positive and direct relationship
      with financial performance in the studies small
      corporations; 3--higher levels of GHRM improve the
      financial benefits of environmental management;
      4--GHRM is followed by added value; 5--reduction of
      small corporations' concerns regarding facing with
      state and public demands regarding environmental

      * Gap: lack of hiring of expert HR managers in
      small sized corporations in Australia; the
      generalizability of the result obtained for larger
      corps to smaller corps must be evaluated; more
      investigation needs to eb done on the awareness of
      senior managers regarding effects of GHRM on
      financial performance of corporations that are
      involved with more green activities than other

16    * Method: qualitative, with an interpretative

      * Function: recruitment, selection, training,
      performance management, incentives and
      compensation, participation, job design

      * Paradoxes: 1--green performance against social
      and economic performance; 2--Open vs. Closed GHRM
      systems; 3--focus of GHRM system on daily work
      against symbolic events; 4--collective GHRM
      measures against individual measures;
      5--participation of the staff based on value and
      standard against ignoring value and standard;
      6--top-down instead of bottom-up evolution process;
      7--centralized against decentralized GHRM system;
      8--personal credibility against professional
      credibility (the traditional role of HRM against
      managers' participation and support for green

      * Outcome: 1--young people are more interested in
      green issues; 2--green communication has a
      positive effect on applicants; 3--being required
      to have green knowledge, skill, and ability during
      recruitment, selection, and training;
      4--application of green training in all sectors;
      5--advantageousness of more investment in recruitment
      rather than training; 6--financial and non-
      financial incentives have positive effects on
      employees' green actions; 7--green performance
      management has a positive effect on reduction of
      costs; 8--green participation programs have
      positive effects on improvement of employees'
      green participation; 9--lack of attention to job
      design and description

17    * Method: Research paper (case study)

      * Outcome: 1--existence of active managers in the
      context of environment; 2--wide participation of
      individuals in green issues; 3--commitment to the
      environment; 4--existence of differences in
      environmental position and coordination and, HR
      performance in the context of sustainability of
      environment; 5--difference in GHRM approaches is
      due to strategic, performance-related, and
      individual dimensions; 6--green functions are the
      key elements of corporate green performance;
      7--corporate green performance is effective on the
      costumers and propagation of green citizenship
      behavior as well.

      * Gap: lack of international comparative studies
      regarding GHRM; lack of attention to strategic
      levels regarding environment sustainability;
      ignoring the strategic role of HR managers in
      green issues; limitation of studies to Europe;
      review of ideas and views in form of vertical
      hierarchies and lack of extraction of views of
      people who had had strategic, managerial, and
      operational roles.

18    * Method: Research paper (quantitative)

      * Function: green selection and recruitment, green
      development and training, green performance

      * Outcome: 1--the considered green competencies
      have a positive relationship with the green
      behaviors and competencies of the staff;
      2--advantageousness of characteristics of green
      competencies such as environmental knowledge,
      green procurement attitude, and selection of green
      employees have been approved; 3--natural and
      considered competencies are of different effects
      for different individuals; 4--personal,
      behavioral, skill-related, knowledge-related, and
      attitudinal characteristics are effective on
      professional performance and competencies as well.

      * Gap: lack of a systematic approach towards
      improvement of perceptions and development of
      green competencies; the need for green culture
      (green leadership, participation, proper
      communications, staff independence); shortage of
      GHRM studies in China

19    * Method: Theme analysis

      * Function: green selection and recruitment;
      training and development; participation;
      motivation; performance evaluation, leadership,
      communications, compensation

      * Outcome: 1--asking environmentally concerned
      questions during recruitment and ultimately
      attraction of those who have green tendencies, and
      existence of moral leaders towards improvement of
      recruitment efficiency; 2--having a green
      statement for establishment of organizational
      commitment and designing green strategies and
      goals that improve employees' tendency for having
      a green performance; 3--if the organization cares
      about environmental issues, HR managers would
      consider for it in performance planning, training
      of required skills, performance evaluation, and
      rewarding. Therefore green culture propagates
      through the organization

      * Gap: instead of the generalities, more focus
      most be converged on the details of GHRM; more
      attention must be paid to issues such as climatic
      changes, expenses of professional employees, and
      individuals personal responsibilities and domestic

20    * Method: systematic review

      * Outcome: 1--empowered employees are more
      motivated for execution of green duties;
      2--motivated Green HR has significant effects on
      improvement of efficiency and social profitability
      of the organization

      * Gap: ignoring the role of GHRM in creation of
      competitive advantage in developing countries

21    * Method: quantitative

      * Outcome: investigation of the relationship
      between six strategic HR skills and GHRM methods;
      2--the skills of HR experts have positive effects
      on the acceptance of GHRM methods; 3--the
      strategic active and change hero were the only
      ones involved with green methods

      * Gap: shortage of studies on combination of
      environmental perspectives of HRM and GHRM; the
      gap between the current literature and new
      concepts; more attention to strategic HR skills
      towards green methods and building green

22    * Method: review study; closed questionnaires

      * Function: green recruitment, green training and
      development, green learning

      * Outcome: green recruitment, training,
      development, and learning improve the
      corporation's green performance; employees' green
      behavior in their workplace leads in success of
      the organization in achievement of its green goals
      and policies; 3--most employees prefer green
      organizations; 4--green activities are accompanied
      by commitment and job satisfaction

23    * Method: Systematic review

      * Function: green selection and recruitment, green
      performance management, green development and
      training; green compensation; green working
      relationships; Green innovations

      * Outcome: GHR measures result in increased
      efficiency, reduced costs, improved working
      relationships, developed efficiency and
      profitability, and improved commitment and job
      satisfaction; 2--HR plays an important role in
      creation of incentive for the employees and
      facilitation of the conditions for execution of
      green measures

      * Gap: the gap between academic training and
      practices; the need for education of green
      management; gap between expert GHRM measures and
      the suggestions proposed by studies; the need for
      more attention to recruitment of individuals with
      green views

24    * Method: Review study

      * Function: selection and recruitment, performance
      management system, training and development,
      participation, compensation

      * Outcome: 1--green programs result in propagation
      of social responsibility among the employees and
      helps with the retention of talented individuals;
      2--providing the staff with the contexts to
      participate in problem solving and green decision
      making in addition to innovations; 3--lower rates
      of staff shift and more tendency to stay in green
      corporations compared to non-green ones;
      4--creation of competitive advantage for corporations
      in addition to improved brand credibility;
      5--improved sales and reduced costs

25    * Method: qualitative

      * Function: recruitment, training, performance
      evaluation, motivation, compensation

      * Outcome: 1--most of the corporations paid high
      attention to the 5 concepts of GHRM; 2--only one
      corporation had evaluated the effect of GHRM on
      the environment

      * Gap: lagging of the academic studies in the
      context of GHRM; existence of more studies in
      western countries

26    * Method: case study

      * Outcome: 1--the innovations of the green
      university show its strategy with the aim of
      realization of higher responsibility in promotion
      of a sustainable society; 2--improved awareness
      regarding sustainable development among the
      students, professors, and staff

      * Gap: green innovation must be investigated in
      terms of the three dimensions of social, economic,
      and environmental; however in China it is only
      studies in terms of environmental dimension;
      inadequate attention to the role of bureaucracy
      and existence of overwhelming hierarchies; the
      need to pay more attention to the role of green

27    * Method: review study, empirical

      * Outcome: 1--provision of a conceptual framework
      for perception of the role of development of HR in
      green activities and its effects on solvation of
      environmental challenges

      * Gap: limited study regarding the effect of HR
      participation in environmental programs; greening
      is not merely restricted to commercial
      organizations; it rather covers the whole society.

28    * Method: quantitative

      * Function: recruitment, training and development,
      performance management

      * Outcome: 1--there is a positive relationship
      between GHR measures and performance of the staff;
      2--there is a positive relationship between
      training and development of employees'
      performance; 4--GHRM measures are affected by
      demographic features such as age, gender, and
      experience; 5--Pakistani small sized developing
      corporations can benefit from the advantages of
      paying more attention to staff's performance;
      6--in order to execute green approaches in
      organizations we need to establish green skills
      and capabilities for green management; 7--green
      capabilities of the HR result in development and
      innovation; 8--GHRM is effective on income,
      profitability, learning, and participation in
      green approaches

      * Gap: lack of investigation of GHR measures in
      different organizations with different cultures;
      inadequate attention to employees' resistance
      against changes required for GHRM; in adequate and
      improper familiarization with the advantages of

29    * Method: systematic review

      * Function: job analysis, selection and
      recruitment, socialization, training, performance
      evaluation, reward management, discipline

      * Outcome: green attitude and competency result in
      green behaviors and results. This leads to green
      organizational performance and ultimately leads to
      social responsibility

      * Gap: shortage of GHRM studies in Sri Lanka

30    * Method: Review study

      * Function: selection and recruitment, training
      and development, working teams, performance
      management, rewarding, socialization

      * Outcome: 1--HR can through creation of energy
      and training of the required skills help green
      employees with propagation of voluntary green
      behaviors; 2--for having high levels of
      sustainability managers are ought to cooperate
      with beneficiaries including the customers,
      suppliers, and investors; 3--green activities are
      followed by both financial and environmental
      resources for organizations; 4--the knowledge of
      green branding is advantageous for organizations
      in terms of attraction of more talented people;
      5--GHR methods must fit organizational culture,
      strategies, and resources

31    * Method: case study

      * Outcome: 1--existence of relationship between
      green management measures and greening the
      organizational culture; 2--existence of academic
      limitations towards green activities such as
      considering professors' performance index as only
      a function of scientific production;
      3--inadequate internal communications and low
      participation of units in green environments;
      4--professors are more tending to pay attention to
      green issues compared to the staff; 5--creation of
      green culture is much easier in students;
      6--identification of barriers of culture change and
      green methods

      * Gap: inadequacy of the literature of the subject
      matter; lack of attention to hierarchies and
      overwhelming bureaucracy

32    * Method: research study

      * Function: recruitment, retention

      * Outcome: 1--extensive execution of environmental
      management system has a direct and positive
      relationship with job satisfaction and employee
      retention-recruitment; 2--changing the advantages
      of job satisfaction is positively related to
      changing the level of execution of the EM system;
      3--corporation size and number of staff are
      effective on execution of EM system;
      4--advantages of job satisfaction are considered as
      effective indices of execution of EM systems
      rather than employee retention-recruitment and
      structural factors such as profitability;
      5--increasing the level of execution of the EM system
      improves economic advantages in the context of HR;
      6--paying attention to social responsibility
      improves jib satisfaction and motivation;
      7--possibility of achievement of tangible benefits
      through more creativity and entrepreneurship

      * Gap: most of the studies have been conducted in
      America and Europe; a gap between the existing
      knowledge and development of initial studies

33    * Method: review study, case study, based on
      corporate reports and statistical findings

      * Function: attraction and development of talented
      labor force; green motivation; green opportunities
      and green participation

      * Outcome: 1--comprehension of the effectiveness
      of GHRM methods on employees' motivation for
      participation in green activities and the manners
      by which organziations are able to develop their
      green activities and provide the staff with
      opportunities to participate in green activities;
      organizations are not applying expansive ranges of
      GHRM measures which in turn diminishes their green
      efficiency; 3--green corporations have been more
      focused on training; 4--reduction of waste and
      pollution; 5--optimal use of resources and job

      * Gap: the need for development of theoretical
      basics regarding green leadership with emphasis on
      managerial values as well as personality and other
      potential factors; inadequate awareness about how
      some corporations are able to abosrp people who
      are willing to have more green activities with
      lower incomes; more research needs to eb done on
      the effectiveness of EM on selection criteria and
      process as well as manner of green motivation and
      green participation, as well as the effectiveness
      of EM on corporations' financial aspects; gaps
      between theoretical texts and green activists;
      inadequacy of studies regarding the effects of EM
      on the economic development of eastern countries.

34    * Method: review study

      * Function: selection and recruitment, training
      and development, performance management and
      evaluation, rewarding, participation

      * Outcome: 1--the interactive role of functions of
      HRM in sustainability of the environment;
      2--paying attention to the horizontal and vertical
      alignment of HRM activities; 3--necessity of the
      process of organizational change in order to
      create sustainability; 4--significant effects of
      organizational strategy on responsiveness towards
      green needs of HRM; 5--the important role of green
      leadership and green training in creation of
      changes; 6--managers' roles in implementation of
      green strategies

35    * Method: library study; questionnaires

      * Function: training, motivation, team work
      participation, leadership

      * Outcome: 1--technological capabilities of HR
      improve innovation in green products; 2--green
      innovation results in reduced air pollution,
      reduced resource utilization and reduced
      consumption of harmful material

      * Gap: lack of adequate information regarding
      organizational green innovation

36    * Method: review study

      * Function: recruitment, performance management,
      training and development, rewarding and

      * Outcome: 1--there is a relationship between the
      functions of HRM and EM; 2--after the interaction
      of SHRM and EM, corporations' market value will
      improve; 3--green HRM measures must fit the
      corporation's green strategies and policies;
      4--green managers must consider for employees'
      welfare; 5--interaction between SHRM and EM
      results in attraction of stakeholders, employees,
      customers, and forums; 6--multinational
      corporations pay more attention to GHRM compared
      to other corporations; 7--green views must be
      visible in job titles, marketing strategies,
      investment decisions, audit methods, product
      design, and production process

      * Gap: insufficiency of the number of HRM
      researchers interested in green issues and lac of
      comprehensiveness of the studies

37    * Method: combined (questionnaires and case study)

      * Function: job analysis and description,
      selection, recruitment, training, performance
      evaluation, compensation

      * Outcome: 1--results of statistical analysis
      cover the empirical study; 2--evolution of the EM
      is dependent upon the functional and competitive
      aspects of HRM; 3--internal and external
      integrities are of the most robust connections
      with the functional aspects of HRM; 4--evaluation
      of the environmental performance of the staff and
      investigation of the public views and reduction of
      the operational costs of corporations have shown
      that improved environmental activities is in a
      relationship with looking at training as an
      investment; 6--specialization of the functions of
      EM is correlated with the competitive aspects,
      especially cultural management. In addition team
      work is highly important.

      * Gap: corporations have already adopted EM but
      have not yet coordinated it with the functional
      aspects of HRM and hence are deprived of its
      competitive advantage. This is why they have not
      been able to show the relationship between
      achievement of competitive advantage of EM and HRM

38    * Method: content analysis

      * Outcome: 1--conceptual statement of the
      relationship between sustainability and HRM;
      2--statement of the manner of application of
      sustainability concepts in HRM; 3--comparison of
      exploratory findings with the theoretical concepts
      of sustainability and development of the
      definitions for future studies

      * Gap: lack of real investigation of corporations;
      lack of comparison between sustainable and
      non-sustainable corporations; change of sustainability
      in time and the need to point it out; the need for
      long-term study of corporations regarding the
      relationship between sustainability and HRM;
      investigation of the challenges between social
      responsibility and economic rationality; the
      challenge between short-term profitability and
      long-term sustainable development; challenge
      between the effective HR activities that do not
      necessarily improve the corporation's ability for
      retention of HR

Figure 5, amount of studies conducted in the east and west between
2009 and 2018

West;     34,21%
East,     65,78%

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Figure 6--comparison of the average number for published articles
in the east and west regarding GHRM

        2009    2010    2011    2012    2013    2014     2015

East     0%      0%      0%     2,63%    0%     2,63%   13,15%
West    2,63%   2,63%   2,63%   5,26%   7,89%    0%     2,63%

         2016     2017    2018

East    23,68%   15,79%   7,89%
West    10,53%     0%      0%

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Figure 7--functions of GHRM in the studies conducted during the
past ten years


   Author      Year   Retention    Rewarding And    Performance
                                    Compensation     Management

Tavakoli       2018       *              *               *
et al

Patil &        2018       --             *               *

Tang et al     2018       --             *               *

Hassanpo       2017       --             --              --
or et al

Rajabpoor      2017       --             *               *

Mohamm         2017       *              --              *
adnejad et

Seyed          2017       --             *               --
Javadin et

Mishra         2017       --             *               *

Masri &        2017       --             *               *

Paro           2017       --             --              --
Ragas et

Gholami        2016       --             *               *
et al

Abbasi et      2016       --             *               *

Jabbour &      2016       --             --              --

O'Donohu       2016       --             --              --
e &

Guerci &       2016       --             *               *

Haddock-       2016       --             --              --
Millar et

Subraman       2016       --             --              *
ia et al

Renwick        2016       --             *               *
et al

Tariq et al    2016       --             --              --

Yi Yong        2016       --             --              --
& Mohd

Arz            2016       --             --              --
Bhutto &

Jones &        2016       --             --              --

Ahmad          2015       --             *               *

Mehta &        2015       --             *               *

Mohd           2015       --             *               *
Yusoff et

Cheema et      2015       --             --              *

Zhao &         2015       --             --              --

Scully-        2015       --             --              --

Opatha &       2014       --             *               *

Milliman       2013       --             *               *

Marques        2013       --             --              --
Pereira et

Wagner         2013       *              --              --

Renwick        2012       --             *               *
et al

Dabois &       2012       --             *               *

Zahari &       2012       --             *               --
Thurasam y

Jackson et     2011       --             *               *

Jabbour et     2010       --             *               *

Ehnert         2009       --             --              --


   Author      Training And    Socialization    Selection And
                Development                      Recruitment

Tavakoli             *               --               --
et al

Patil &              *               --               *

Tang et al           *               --               *

Hassanpo            --               --               --
or et al

Rajabpoor            *               --               *

Mohamm               *               --               *
adnejad et

Seyed                *               --               *
Javadin et

Mishra               *               --               *

Masri &              *               *                *

Paro                --               --               --
Ragas et

Gholami              *               --               *
et al

Abbasi et            *               *                *

Jabbour &           --               --               --

O'Donohu            --               --               --
e &

Guerci &             *               --               *

Haddock-            --               --               --
Millar et

Subraman             *               --               *
ia et al

Renwick              *               --               *
et al

Tariq et al         --               --               --

Yi Yong             --               --               --
& Mohd

Arz                  *               --               *
Bhutto &

Jones &             --               --               --

Ahmad                *               --               *

Mehta &              *               --               *

Mohd                 *               --               *
Yusoff et

Cheema et            *               --               *

Zhao &              --               --               --

Scully-             --               --               --

Opatha &             *               *                *

Milliman             *               *                *

Marques             --               --               --
Pereira et

Wagner              --               --               *

Renwick              *               --               *
et al

Dabois &             *               --               *

Zahari &             *               --               --
Thurasam y

Jackson et           *               --               *

Jabbour et           *               --               *

Ehnert              --               --               --


   Author      Job Analysis    Participation    Discipline
                                And Working     Management

Tavakoli            --               *              --
et al

Patil &             --               *              --

Tang et al          --               *              --

Hassanpo            --               --             --
or et al

Rajabpoor           --               *              --

Mohamm              --               --             --
adnejad et

Seyed               --               --             --
Javadin et

Mishra              --               *              --

Masri &             --               *              --

Paro                --               --             --
Ragas et

Gholami             --               *              --
et al

Abbasi et            *               *               *

Jabbour &           --               --             --

O'Donohu            --               --             --
e &

Guerci &             *               *              --

Haddock-            --               --             --
Millar et

Subraman            --               --             --
ia et al

Renwick             --               *              --
et al

Tariq et al         --               --             --

Yi Yong             --               --             --
& Mohd

Arz                 --               --             --
Bhutto &

Jones &             --               --             --

Ahmad               --               *              --

Mehta &             --               *              --

Mohd                --               --             --
Yusoff et

Cheema et           --               --             --

Zhao &              --               --             --

Scully-             --               --             --

Opatha &             *               --              *

Milliman            --               *              --

Marques             --               --             --
Pereira et

Wagner              --               --             --

Renwick             --               *              --
et al

Dabois &            --               *              --

Zahari &            --               *              --
Thurasam y

Jackson et          --               --             --

Jabbour et           *               --             --

Ehnert              --               --             --

Figure 9--eastern countries' attention to GHRM functions

Percentage of attention to functions in the West

Order management             4
Participation and working   44
maintenance                  8
Bonus and compensation      56
performance management      60
Training and development    70
Socialization               12
Recruitment                 20
Job analysis                 3

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Figure 10--Western countries' attention to GHRM functions

Percentage of attention to functions in the West

Order management             38.64
Participation and working     7.69
maintenance                  53.85
Bonus and compensation       53.85
performance management       53.85
Training and development      7.69
Recruitment                  61.54
Job analysis                 15.38

Note: Table made from bar graph.
COPYRIGHT 2019 Revista Gestao & Tecnologia
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2019 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Shahriari, Bahareh; Hassanpoor, Akbar
Publication:Gestao & Tecnologia
Date:Apr 1, 2019
Previous Article:Scenarios for the future of distance education/Cenarios para o futuro da educacao a distancia/Cenarios para el futuro de la educacion a distancia.
Next Article:An investigation of the indices effective on the development of sport entrepreneurship in Hamadan province/Uma investigacao dos indices eficazes no...

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters