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Green economy and its implication in Bangladesh.

INTRODUCTION

Bangladesh is a developing country. The growth of this country is not steady enough. The major reasons behind the unsteady growth are lack of energy resources, poor infrastructure, slow implementation of economic reforms, and overpopulation. The above reasons create social unrest, poverty and huge unemployment. Besides that, Bangladesh is a low-lying river irrigated country along with vast Bay of Bengal sea basin in south. Frequently, the country affected by floods, tornadoes and cyclones etc. This rapid climate changes impacting the country's ecology and making it imbalance. So, it is high time for Bangladesh to focus on green economy and apply it. Because, the green economy promotes steady growth in income and employment which is driven by targeted investments in a range of cleaner approaches that lead to enhanced resource efficiency, reduced carbon emission and pollution, and prevention of biodiversity loss and ecosystems degradation. The green economy also promotes the development of basic services and infrastructure as a means of alleviating poverty and improving overall quality of life (i.e. access to energy through renewable energy technology). This paper tried to reveal the possible implication of green economy in Bangladesh, its implication problems and the required steps to solve those problems.

2.0 Objectives of the study:

1. To know what is all about green economy.

2. To look at implication possibility of green economy in Bangladesh

3. To recommend required steps for the proper implication of green economy in Bangladesh

3.0 Scope and Methodology:

This research is a conceptual analysis of green economy and its possible implication in Bangladesh. No research has been conducted in our country related to this issue before. Though, few studies have been accomplished in other countries especially in developed countries. And, those researches have been used in this study as conductor. A digital Library research method (Archive) has been used in this study. Only secondary data is used in this study. The secondary data collected from various books, reference Journal, seminar papers and articles, and various web links.

4.0 Concept of Green Economy:

The concept of the green economy has gained currency to a large extent because it provides a response to the multiple crises that the world has been facing in recent years. There is no unique definition of the green economy, but the term itself underscores the economic dimensions of sustainability. Recent UNEP report on the Green Economy, it responds to the "growing recognition that achieving sustainability rests almost entirely on getting the economy right". It also emphasizes the crucial point that economic growth and environmental stewardship can be complementary strategies, challenging the still common view that there are significant tradeoffs between these two objectives--in other words, that the synergies prevail over the tradeoffs. [1]

UNEP [1] has provided some of the fundamental elements defining and explaining the core principles and concepts underlying a green economy. The main tenants of this green economy initiative are: investing in natural capital; de-carbonizing the economy; and creating green jobs. The sectors analyzed in the UNEP report are: agriculture, cities, forests, renewable energy, transport, water, buildings, fisheries, industry, tourism, and waste management [1].

A green economy is historically understood as an economic system that is compatible with the natural environment and thus, is environmentally friendly. Today, the concept of green economy has evolved to consider also social issues. By using clean technology and clean energy, the green economy is expected to provide safer and healthier environments, create alternative green jobs and preserve the development of societies [2].

Green economy is a fair and resilient economy, which provides a better quality of life for all, achieved within the ecological limits of one planet (Green Economy Coalition)

Green economy is founded on the principles of: 1) Sustainable development; 2) Equity and poverty alleviation; 3) Resilience; 4) Inclusiveness; 5) Environmental limits.

Finally, we can say, the green economy presents an alternative vision for growth and development, in which economic growth and improvements in people's lives are generated in ways consistent with sustainable development. While there are varying visions of what the green economy encompasses, this concept has piqued the interest of policymakers and businesses alike because it presents the possibility of new opportunities for economic growth [6].

5.0 Benefits of Green Economy:

Green economy mainly focuses on the sustainable development and social equity. Adaption of green economy brings several benefits for a country.

1) New growth:

Going green means new possibilities for sustainable economic growth. This growth is different from traditional economic growth which in turn brings new technology and innovative minds to design the technology, meaning new jobs, and new businesses to create. New jobs will be created in various sectors to support the new businesses. Green energy, organic agriculture, eco-friendly textiles, green building. Not only will new green businesses benefit, but all the businesses that create the products for these businesses will benefit from new customers.

2) Efficiency makes financial sense:

Going green translates into efficient, streamlined practices. Much of the problem with conventional agricultural, manufacturing, and even office space practices stems from inefficiency and waste. Energy is wasted, paper is wasted, materials are wasted, and Buildings are not energy-efficiency. Again, Expensive chemicals are used, even when natural methods are more practical. Also, Conventional farming methods are unsustainable over the long-term. Green solutions save businesses so much money; it is only a matter of being aware of more practical, efficient methods and the development of eco-friendly methods. Here are two examples of eco and cost-efficient changes.

* Hemp fibers are more sustainable and less expensive to grow than cotton.

* Making workspaces green, with energy-efficient light bulbs, solar lighting and heating options, using recycled office supplies and recycling office supplies, cut costs and waste.

3) The green society:

Green economy will bring a green society as well. A green society will indirectly improve the economy as well. Sustainability and efficiency are the products of eco living. The product of conventional living is stagnancy. Awareness of how practical and cost-effective these changes are is the first step in the great transformation to a greener society.

4) Green economy and sustainable development:

Moving towards a Green Economy is an important driver in the promotion of sustainable development. Green Economy can be considered as the path for the transition towards sustainable development.

5) Green economy and poverty eradication:

By increasing attention to the resources that are used by poor to earn their livelihood, the shift towards a green economy is aimed at boosting employment in low-income areas. The green economy also promotes the development of basic services and infrastructure as a means of alleviating poverty and improving overall quality of life (i.e. access to energy through renewable energy technology).

6.0 Requirements for transition to green economy:

The transition to a green economy requires a workforce with the right skills. This includes not only skills in the low carbon and environmental goods and services sector, but also those needed to help all businesses use natural resources efficiently and sustainably and to be resilient to climate change.

These five elements of change can be implemented in all economic sectors: the primary sector which transform natural resources into primary products and includes agriculture, forestry, fishing, and all mining and quarrying industries; the secondary sector which takes the output of the primary sector and manufactures finished goods; and the tertiary sector that provides information and services. For all sectors, the aim is to establish--to the extent possible--closed or semi-closed nutrient and energy cycles and at least, minimize waste and boost recycling. (Payment of Environmental Externalities to Remuneration, p.4)

The idea of this economy is to promise environmental protection, while being profitable. Aside from using energy responsibly, it has a focus on global warming, use of resources, deforestation and reforestation, and overall prevention of environmental pollution and damage. Transition of economy basically means the transition of current product and services into environment friendly product and services. Elberts says about the following issues [7].

For products and services, transition includes:

1. Environmentally friendly and enhancing products and services

2. Renewable energy products and services

3. Clean transportation and fuels

4. Green buildings

For products processes, transition includes

1. Energy efficient manufacturing, distribution, and construction

2. Reduction of energy, materials, and water consumption through high efficiency strategies

3. Switch from carbon to non-carbon components.

Transition of green economy in essence does some reforms of the economic policies of a country. The reforms include the followings:

National reforms:

a) Abolition of perverse subsidies, taxes and incentives;

b) Rationalization of land use and urban policies;

c) Introduction of integrated resources and water management;

d) Improvement and implementation of environmental legislation;

e) Appropriate implementation of the stimulus packages.

International political architecture:

a) Trade regimes promoting the flow of environmental goods and services;

b) International support to the countries that incorporate the

7.0 Implication possibility of Green Economy in Bangladesh:

Bangladesh is a developing country. In real terms Bangladesh's economy has grown 5.8% per year. Bangladesh's economic freedom score is 52.6, making its economy the 132nd freest in the 2013 Index. The country is struggling hampered by the fragile rule of law, Corruption and marginal enforcement of property rights. It also suffered by various natural disasters which is the output of global warming. Bangladesh is trying to improve its situation by incorporating various environment friendly policies for its current economies. This study will try to focus only with those forms of policies and activities that can help Bangladesh to transitioning its current economy into green economy.

1. Renewable energy:

Solar energy is the most readily available and free source of energy in our country and traditionally solar thermal energy has been utilized in different household and industrial activities in Bangladesh. Several organizations have installed low capacity wind turbines, mainly for battery charging in the coastal region of Bangladesh. However, progress in the wind energy sector of Bangladesh is not impressive. Micro Hydro Power Plants can be installed in the north-eastern hilly regions and in the existing irrigational canal system with a sufficient head. The only hydro power station of the country, the Karnafuly Hydro Power Station with a generating capacity of 230 MW by 7 units, is located in Kaptai across the river Karnafuly. There are scopes of integrated small tidal power plants in the coastal regions. Biomass is the fourth largest source of energy worldwide and provides basic energy requirements for cooking and heating of rural households in developing countries like Bangladesh.

Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Re-sources, Power division (2008) has published the National Renewable Energy Policy draft. The aims of renewable energy policy are to set policies aiming for developing renewable energy resources (solar, wind, hydro) to meet 5% of the total power demand by 2015 and 10% by 2020.

2. Energy Efficiency:

Power is an essential factor for developing the socio-economic conditions of our country. Demand for power is increasing day by day. Moving towards energy sustainability will require modifications not only in the way energy is supplied, but in the way it is used as well. Reducing the amount of energy required to deliver various goods or services is also essential in this regard. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are said to be the twin pillars for sustainable energy. The power division of Bangladeshi government has taken a number of initiatives for efficient energy use and reduced consumption of energy.

* Steps have been taken to revise the 'Building Code' inserting energy efficiency and solar energy issues

* Initiatives have been taken in order to build awareness amongst the students, by incorporating Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy issues in the academic curricula of schools, madrasas and colleges

* Installation of solar panels in the government, semi government and autonomous organizations within the next 3 years

* Use of CFL bulb in all ministries and power sector entities

* Conventional street lights to be replaced by LED and solar lights subsequently

* Public awareness for energy conservation

* The gradual discontinuation of incandescent bulb and electric heater

* Limiting the use of air conditioners, or keeping temperature within 25 degrees C

* Encouraging the business community for using solar energy

* Introduction of energy star rating system in the electric appliances through BSTI

* Discouraging the use of neon sign in the markets and shopping malls at night

* Closing of markets and shopping malls within 8 p.m.

3. Climate resilience:

Bangladesh Climate Change Resilience Fund (BCCRF) is a coordinated financing mechanism by the Government of Bangladesh, development partners and the World Bank to address the impacts of climate change. The fund was established in May 2010 with financial support from Denmark, European Union, Sweden and United Kingdom. Switzerland, Australia and United States subsequently joined the fund. This mechanism is enabling the Government to channel in over $170m grant funds to millions of Bangladeshis to build their resilience to the effects of climate change. The Bangladesh Government leads on the management and implementation of BCCRF.

4. Waste minimization and waste management:

Bangladesh is trying to minimize Waste by 3R strategy. Waste minimization can be achieved in an efficient way by focusing primarily on the first of the 3Rs, "reduce," followed by "reuse" and then "recycle."

5. Low carbon society:

Bangladesh is trying to reduce the carbon emission from its economic society. Several precautionary steps have been taken already. And some policy will be undertaken soon. Bangladesh is forecasting the reduction of carbon emission from its economic society in the following manner.

[Source: Yuzuru Matsuoka et al, [9]

6. Sustainable Agriculture:

The economy of Bangladesh largely depends on the agriculture. Bangladesh has some future targets on agriculture that are as follows:

1) Self-sufficiency in food: 2013

2) Ensuring food security: 2017(a + a + n) (a + a + n = Availability, accessibility and nutrition).

According to the National Commission of Agriculture report (unpublished), 7% of GDP growth need of 3.1% increases in demand for food crops. Targets are to increase storage capacities by building additional sizes of 50,000 tons by 2015 and 1 million ton by 2021 to facilitate safe storage of rice.

Significant growth in the livestock sector has been observed, in which main contributor is commercial poultry sector. The demand for livestock products will be increased through the growing population, restrained growth of per capita income and higher income elasticity. The demand for milk, eggs, and mutton are increased by 6%, 5.2%, and 5.6% respectively with the growth rate of 4.4%. Annual growth rate for sheep and goat will be about 2%. There is a huge gap of 2 and 1/2 times, higher than country's milk production level, estimated in 2002. Therefore the target is to bridging this huge gap by 2021 [9].

8.0 Recommendations for implication of Green Economy in Bangladesh:

Following are the recommendations for several sectors in establishing the green economy in Bangladesh.

Residential and commercial       Industrial sector;
sector;

--Energy efficient lighting      --Energy efficient furnace,
  (compact fluoresce lights,       steam boiler and motor.
  CFL) and electric fan.         --Fuel switch from oil to
--Efficient cooking system         natural gas
  (improved cooking stove,
  using metered gas).
--Efficient refrigerator.
--Efficient cooling system.

Transport sector;                Power sector;

--Energy efficiency              --Fuel Switch.
  improvement in old and         --Reduction of transmission
  reconditioned engines of         loss.
  road vehicles.
--Modal shift from private
  vehicle to public transport
  and railway.
Agricultural sector;
--Enteric fermentation.          --Managed soil.
--Manure management.             --Rice cultivation.


9.0 Final Comments:

The study shows that there exists a high potentiality for Bangladesh to transitioning its economy into green economy. Again, Green economy is a different economic concept than the traditional economic model and it is very important in terms of Bangladesh. Government agencies must be responsive in implementing a green economy policy. But, the real roles have to play by the entire private and public organizations that involved in the economic growth of Bangladesh. In present situation, every sector is suffering from environment hazardous. Now, it is the right time to protect all the environmental hazardous and should convert all the environmental hazardous works into environment friendly works which can keep environment fresh for the next generation and similarly Bangladesh can able to establish green economy.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 25 January 2014

Received in revised form

2 June April 2014

Accepted 6 June 2014

Available online 15 June 2014

REFERENCES

[1] UNEP, 2010. The economics of ecosystems & biodiversity. Mainstreaming the economics of nature.

[2] UNEP, 2008. The Green Economy Initiative, United Nations Environment Programme. Retrieved July 2010.

[3] FAO, 2010. Stakeholders Consultation from Payment of Environmental Externalities to Remuneration of Positive Externalities in the Agriculture and Food Sector. FAO, Rome, 27-28 September 2010.

[4] UNCSD submissions, 2012. Green Economy: Everyone's talking about it. UNCSD submissions, RIO, 2012

[5] MOEF, 2009u. National 3R Strategy for Waste Management. Department of Environment, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, November 2009.

[6] Priya Barua, 2012. "Achieving the Benefits of a Green Economy through Clean Energy", Working Papers

[7] Eberts, R.W., 2011. "Framework and Tools for Assessing and Understanding the Green Economy at the Local Level", OECD Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Working Papers, 2011/08, OECD Publishing.

[8] Nahid-ur-Rahman Chowdhury, Syed Enam Reza, Tofaeel Ahamed Nitol, Abd-Al-Fattah Ibne Mahabub. 2012."Present Scenario of Renewable Energy in Bangladesh and a Proposed Hybrid System to Minimize Power Crisis in Remote Areas" www.ijrer.org, 2(2).

[9] Yuzuru Matsuoka, Junichi Fujino, Abul Kalam Azad, Mirza Shawkat Ali, 2012. "Low-Carbon Society Development towards 2025 in Bangladesh" 2050.nies.go.jp.

[10] Hayami, Y., 1997. Development Economics: From the Poverty to the Wealth of Nations, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[11] Fujita, K., 2010. Agrarian Structure Transformation in Bangladesh: Green Revolution and Its Impact, Kyoto: Kyoto University Press and Trans Pacific Press, forthcoming.

[12] Power division, Government of the Peoples Republic of the Bangladesh online, http://www.powerdivision.gov.bd/user/brec/51/92, June 14, 2013.

[13] The Bangladesh Climate Change Resilience Fund online, http://bccrf-bd.org/, June 14, 2013.

[14] Green Economy Coalition online, http://www.greeneconomycoalition.org/, June 14, 2013.

Mohammad Ataur Rahman

Lecturer, School of Business, Central Women's University, 6, Hathkhola Road, Dhaka-1203, Bangladesh

Corresponding Author: Mohammad Ataur Rahman, Lecturer, School of Business, Central Women's University, 6, Hathkhola Road, Dhaka-1203, Bangladesh

E-mail: ctg_ataur@yahoo.com Cell: +8801815944642

Table 1: Main elements of the green economy.

Generation and use of        Refers to any source of usable
renewable energy             and renewable energy intended
                             to replace fossil fuel sources
                             without the undesired
                             consequences of greenhouse gas
                             emissions and other pollutants
                             derived from fossil fuel
                             combustion

Energy efficiency            Seeks to adopt means and a
                             more efficient technology that
                             uses less energy to provide
                             the same level of energy
                             service

Waste minimization and       Considers different approaches
Management                   from prevention, minimization,
                             reduction, reuse, recycling,
                             waste conversion and disposal
                             in order to ensure that the
                             use of materials and waste
                             generation remains within the
                             regenerative and absorptive
                             capacities of the Planet

Preservation and             Recognizes the importance and
sustainable use of           economic value of natural
existing natural             resources, such as
Resources                    freshwaters, forests, soils,
                             coral reefs and ecosystem
                             services provided by
                             functional and healthy
                             Ecosystems

Green job creation           Promotes decent jobs that
                             offer adequate wages, safe
                             working conditions, job
                             security, reasonable career
                             prospects and workers' rights

[Source: Payment of Environmental Externalities to
Remuneration, p.4]

Table 2: Current Situation of Wastes in Bangladesh--at a Glance.

Category                     Statistics              Data Source

TOTAL VOLUME OF WASTES (tons/year)

Total volume of          4,866,505 (2005) =     Waste Concern (2005)
municipal solid           13,332.89tons/day          JICA (2005)
wastes in urban                 x 365
areas
                          3,000 tons/day in
                            Dhaka (2005)

Agricultural Waste        65 million metric       Waste Concern and
                            ton per year         Swiss Contact 2007

Industrial waste           109.47 million/        Waste Concern and
(hazardous) from          cubic meter/year           ADB (2008)
seven selected           (waste water) 0.113
sectors *                 million ton/year
                        (sludge) and 26, 884
                          tons/year (solid
                               waste)

Hazardous Medical         12,271 metric ton       Waste Concern and
Waste                      per year (2007)           ADB (2008)

WASTE PER CAPITA (kg/per/day)

                         Urban: 0.41 (2005)     Waste Concern (2008)
                                                     JICA (2005)
                          Dhaka City: 0.56
                               (2005)

                          Agricultural:1.68
                        (based on 2008 rural
                             population)

FUTURE WASTE PROJECTIONS (Total Waste Generation)

By 2025 (solid            17,155,000 tons/      UMP (1999), as cited
waste)                   year = 47,000tons/       by Waste Concern
                         day x 365 0.60 kg/            (2008)
                          per/day in Urban
                                Areas

2012 (hazardous           2472.07 million/        Waste Concern and
waste)                    cubic meter/year           ADB (2008)
                         (waste water), 2.81
                         million metric ton/
                          year (sludge) and
                         53,874 metric ton/
                         year (solid waste)

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Collection of waste       44.30%-76.47% in      Waste Concern (2005)
(% of waste              major urban cities          JICA (2005)
generated)              43.5% for Dhaka City

Solid waste disposal     Mainly uncontrolled         Dhaka City
Facilities              land-filling (except    Corporation and JICA
                          for the sanitary             (2007)
                         landfill at Matuail
                           site in Dhaka,
                         supported by JICA).
                         No site or facility
                           for treatment,
                            recycling and
                             disposal of
                          hazardous waste.

E-WASTES

Use of electronic          Mobile phones:       Waste Concern (2008)
goods in year 2006           22,000,000

                         Personal computers:
                               600,000

                            Televisions:
                              1,252,000

RECYCLE

Informal Sector          120,000 urban poor     Waste Concern (2005)
                          from the informal
                         sector are involved
                          in the recycling
                        trade chain of Dhaka
                           City.15% of the
                           total generated
                           waste in Dhaka
                         (mainly inorganic)
                          amounting to 475
                            tons/day are
                           recycled daily.

* These are textile, hospital clinics, tannery, pesticides,
fertilizer, oil refinery and paper and pulp) [Source:
National 3R Strategy for Waste Management, 2009]

Fig. 2: Contribution of different implemented renewable sources in
Bangladesh.
[Source: Nahid-ur-Rahman Chowdhury et al., [8].

SOLAR          20.75%

MICRO HYDRO     0.25%

BIOMASS         0.06%

WIND          1.9249%

BIOGAS         14.18%

Note: Table made from pie chart.
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Author:Rahman, Mohammad Ataur
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Jun 20, 2014
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