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Greatly perfected, in space and time: historicities of the Bon Aural Transmission from Zhang zhung.

The ZZNG Lineage Revisited (11)

First we need to revisit briefly the whole of the ZZNG lineage, which I partly discussed earlier (IATS 2003). The lineage comes to us broken up into more or less homogeneous groups. The historicities vary slightly, mostly groupwise. The narrative paradigms of individual masters within groups are predictably similar and appear stencilled. The first major division is into a 'far' and 'near' transmission: ring rgyud and nye rgyud; which are believed to be more or less consecutive.

Interestingly, ring rgyud and nye rgyud here de facto function as indicators of the underlying historicity. But, traditionally, 'nearness' here of course refers to the immediacy (and perceived reliability) of the visionary encounter of sNang bzher lod po with Ta pi hri tsa.

Ring rgyud

Mythic & Legendary Time

The first divine, mythic and legendary parts are called 'far transmission' (ring rgyud); transmitted over a long lineage. But, implicitly, the name also indicates awareness of the remote temporal order that these divine, mythic or legendary parts are projected from. Those that produced the texts, in a way, took care to inform their audience that this is written from a more remote historicity, which may deviate from usual or other sensibilities. There evidently is no intention to deceive but rather to inform one about the type of historicity of this part of the lineage.

It starts with the elusive intentional or mind transmission of the nine conquerors (rgyal ba dgongspa'i rgyud pa dgu), which obviously is out of space and time. The deities are followed by two main oral or aural lineages of superhuman and human adepts (grub thob snyan khung gi rgyud pa gnyis):

rGyud pa 'khrug can gsum 'The Interrupted Lineage'

The 'Interrupted' (rgyud pa 'khrug can gsum), implies that the transmission occasionally was interrupted by visionary revelation, a bit like the nye rgyud. It consists of three sub-groups, developed with the familiar predictability of Bon and Buddhist mnemonic classifications; excercising the main mythical figures:

1. The lineage of seventeen Masters, transmitted through 'Chi med tsug phud, born from heat (drod skyes 'chi med tsug phud nas brgyudpa bcu bdun);

2. Then a lineage of eight Masters, transmitted through Ye gshen tsug phud, hatched from an egg (sgong skyes ye gshen tsug phud nas brgyud pa brgyad);

3. And a lineage of nine Masters, transmitted through gSang ba 'dus pa, miraculously born (rdzus skyes gsang ba 'dus pa nas brgyud pa dgu).

rGyud pa 'khrug med (bzhi) 'The Uninterrupted Lineage'

The 'Uninterrupted Transmission' lists 24 masters divided into four groups (rgyud pa 'khrug med nyi su rtsa bzhi):

1. The five transcendent lamas (la zla ba 'i bla ma Inga (sems dpa'brda 'i rgyud pa));

2. Transmission of the awareness of six so-called wisdom holders (rig 'dzin rig pa'i rgyud pa drug);

3. Transmission through the ear(hole) of nine ordinary persons (gang zag snyan khung gi rgyud pa dgu); and

4. Transmission through four scholar-translators (mkhas pa lo pan gyi rgyud pa bzhi).

The overall heading of these four probably is to be emended to: mngal skyes sprul pa'i ston pa gshen rab [nas brgyud pa]. Following the three other births mentioned before. This is one of the few occasions in these texts that sTon pa gShen rab makes an appearance. His conspicuous absence underlines once more how disparate early Bon traditions are.

And Mythic & Legendary Time it Is!

The first of these adepts also are divine or in any case superhuman. Compare, for instance, the headings for the first two categories of the 'Uninterrupted' lineage. In this section, the lineage crosses from mythic to legendary. But all Masters--legendary or divine--are entirely beyond verification. One would not even feel inclined to try. If descriptions appear at all, they are extremely brief and are lacking in personal detail. A brief, historical-looking beacon appears at Ra sangs khri ne khod, who supposedly is a contemporary of emperor sTag ri gnyan gzigs (5th/6th c. AD?), but looks fictional.

Ubiquitous are toponyms such as Zhang zhung--even sTag gzig occurs. But exactly because of their generic nature, they do not look convincingly 'Zhang zhung'. They look more like obligatory references in accordance with later dominant narratives about western origins of Bon.

Nye rgyud Zhang zhung smar gyi grub chen drug: Legendary & Human Time

The next major subdivision, the so-called 'near transmission' are the six great adepts from Zhang zhung smar. As said, it is called 'near' because sNang bzher lod po directly receives these teachings from Ta pi hri tsa, in visions. This subdivision is where the lineage emerges from Zhang zhung into Tibet, at its last Master, dPon chen btsan po. It thus mediates to later Masters the heritage of sNang bzher lod po, who is the receptacle of all the previous teachings, is said to have recorded the bKa' brgyud skor bzhi, and is the focal point and narrative centre of gravity of the ZZNG. It looks like this lineage segment was conceived as a new start, perhaps of a more verifiably human part of the lineage, which may relate to the fact that this part is projected into a time that Tibet came 'on record', starting approx. the 7th-8th c. AD. Again, such brief intimations of the approximate type of historicity involved are often apparent from the texts, hidden or overtly.

Naturally, it is also at this turning point that the stories start to assume body and authors care to elaborate; before that, there were only names and very brief pro forma descriptions. The somewhat unimaginative dMu names serve to underline their ancient Zhang zhung provenance. The dMu/gShen clan is a well known old family name, which is well-known to be associated with Zhang zhung and with the founder of Bon. However, here it appears an artificial entity. The preternatural lives of these Masters first of all seem to adorn their accomplished saintly stature, but, covertly, they also indicate the legendary nature of the type of historicity. Yet, extreme longevity apparently does not preclude humanity: they are not treated very differently from later figures who are closer to the historical memory of the first codifiers of the traditions. At this point the lineage splits into two: The lower (smad lugs) and upper transmission (stod lugs).

sMad lugs kyi bla ma lnga: Nyams rgyud

When the teachings supposedly enter the Tibetan part of the lineage, they split into an upper and a lower transmission, which in fact very much turns out to be a systematic doctrinal issue.

The five Lamas of the lower transmission only delivered the experiential transmission (nyams rgyud). This leg in of the link preserves memories of orally transmitted commentary by Masters of the ZZNG, accrued and codified over time. But this is also the approximate point in the lineage, toward its very end, where it emerges into verifiable human memory. The last person of this lineage, 'Or sgom kun 'dul, together with his student, Yang ston chen po Shes rab rgyal mtshan, the first of the next subsection, are said to have recorded the experiential transmission, which may indeed be a historical fact. The descriptions in the 'lower' lineage part are more elaborate, which may relate to the fact that Yang ston chen po, who codified the nyams rgyud, also happened to preserve the stories.

sTod lugs kyi bla ma drug: bKa' brgyud

The six Lamas of the upper transmission only transmitted the fourfold oral cycle (bka' brgyud skor bzhi), supposedly written down by sNang bzher lod po, in the 8th c. AD.

Both sub-lineages again lead up to a focal point: Yang ston chen po, who combines these two disparate teaching lineages. Again, we see a third possible starting point of the lineage, that of verifiable historical Masters in Tibet. Here too, various more or less vague antecedents come together in one figure, Yang ston chen po, who is the starting point of their known dissemination and of a new leg in the line. And here too we seem to enter a slightly different type of historicity, one which can actually be related to historical records.

At Yang ston chen po, the lineage splits into two once more: the Northern and Southern transmission, each combining both doctrinal corpora. These are on relatively firm historical ground. The Southern Transmission became better known than Northern one (Karmay1988:xix).

Some Preliminary Conclusions of Oxford 2003 (12)

Considering the leverage of religious historiographical paradigms, overall, the Aural Transmission lineages show remarkably few signs of editing and cosmetic surgery. Certainly when compared to more fanciful reconstructions, such as of the early 'dul ba lineages and the like.

Tibetan/Bon historiographical conventions are distinctive. Divergences in historical sensibilities are also apparent. At least four consecutive, major lineage segments appear, most feature a culminating figure that reveals its reconstruction.

Still, the general temporal framework usually differs radically. Time and space generally are viewed as relative (because dualistic) categories, probably particularly in reference to 'Great Perfection' rhetoric. It is interesting that in all this the lineage histories themselves show some awareness that the narratives, mostly group or sub-group wise, pertain to diverging historicities and they give that construction away.

Cyclical Time and Moral Causalities

The conventional task of the Bon historian is to read, capture and link the signs of time properly in his narrative. Time is realised as a cyclical succession of world periods. Within this cyclic succession a somewhat pessimistic outlook on history presupposes a moral 'law of entropy': virtue and primeval order decrease (and chaos thus increases) with time. Within one world cycle, things can only get worse. The law of karma adds a touch of determinism; perhaps most tangible in the ubiquitous prophetic revelation (lung bstan). This appears somewhat teleological: things are supposed or bound to fulfil their destiny in certain ways (cf. Bjerken 2001).

The organising principle is clearly moral, rather than causal. Time is a factor involved in moral precedence and authority rather than purely in chronology. Such are the temporal framework and (some of) the general parameters within which Bon narrative strategies function.

Important Points to Retain

There seem to be traditional conventions and codes in place that indicate which type ofhistoricity is engaged in a particular lineage segment. Divine figures indicate mythic time. Preternatural lives and an exuberance of magical powers indicate a legendary frame, located in 'high' antiquity (while the present is visualised below). Emphasis on ordinary details, such as parents, clan or kin, ordinary places, and personal vicissitudes of life indicate human historical dimensions. For all these historicities there is an interesting gliding scale. This also indicates that they are rarely perceived as clashing.

Thus, the lineage accounts also allow us insights into the conventions of the bonpo historian's (often family) craft better. In the following we will take a closer look at the construction of some of the narratives. But first I will need to introduce the ZZNG and the main sources for its lineage that I used for this study.

Zhang zhung snyan brgyud Historicities

In Tibetan Studies, we rarely pause and think how exactly what we perceive as Tibetan historical genres relates to academic historical writing, beyond noting that traditional Tibetan materials often do not quite match academic genres. This raises fundamental questions regarding:

1) The wide inner variety of the Tibetan literatures that we deem historical and

2) The applicability of academic historiographical methods (and of the category history to begin with) to those widely diverse Tibetan literatures.

3) The issue of commensurability alo requires fundamental reflection on underlying historicities: such as, on the intellectual and existential sensibilities from which the literary documents are produced: for example, the implied visualisation of space, time, and 'causality' or some other meaningful connection (e.g. of a moral order).

Ad 1) The first issue clearly is beyond the scope of any single study, at least in its quantitative aspects. (13) Yet, in a qualitative sense, "those puzzling, multi-farious and functionally diverse varieties of Tibetan historical writing that have largely been taken for granted and up until now remain poorly understood" (14) (at least in any systematic sense) do query the historicities that they emerge from and thus this first issue partakes in the second point as well. This study attempts a modest contribution toward understanding the latter, but without attempting to engage in deeper reflection on the receiving epistemes; I leave that to scholars of modern en postmodern historicities.

Ad 2) Academic study of 'Tibetan historical literature' necessarily involves well-familiar paradoxes of transfer (of knowledge between epistemes). After all, 'understanding' basically involves reframing the unfamiliar within the familiar, and, at least in the humanities, historicising data is a preferred mode of 'understanding', attempting to reveal temporal causalities of events. The procedure entails at least two inescapable circularities. Data only become knowledge when they are incorporated into a system of knowledge, to which they at the same time contribute. Thus, by their very inclusion, data also come to constitute the very knowledge system that makes them 'known' (cf. Giddens, 1984 on duality of structure). Yet, when data become part of a new knowledge system, they may appear a different entity altogether. After all, they do not exist in that new manner separate from the system that defines them.

Thus, when understanding Tibetan history, we customarily frame or reframe what we perceive as Tibetan history in more familiar academic historical paradigms or historicities. (15) But when we reframe 'Tibetan historical data' (which originally often were implicated in religious narrative and moral causalities) within current academic historicities (which usually prioritise chronology and temporal causality over narrative and morality), then they are instantly transformed into something else, at times beyond recognition.

When historians turn to 'Tibetan historical literature', they mostly look for chronologies and temporal causalities of events and try to 'get past' religious or mythic narrative content and its religious, ideological or moral lessons. The basic descriptive pattern sought for is "this then that", the 'understanding' of which often implies causality with hindsight: "that because of this". Historical narratives, on the other hand, usually prioritise the expression of particular structures and potentials for meaning over historical fact (and religious historical narratives only more so). There, chronology merely is one element, at best, of a grander ideological design.

Ad 3) Less well-known is how this prioritisation of meaning is implemented and from which systems of knowledge and which understandings of space, time and 'causality' it proceeds. Among 'Tibetan historical literature', naturally, we find not just one, nor even one coherent group, but many different historicities. Some are mainly concerned with chronology and temporal causality, much like positivist history is, but others, in most interesting ways, also radically prioritise 'meaningful coincidence' over geographical or chronological fact. Examples of the latter are systems that organise events according to moral causalities (such as 'karmic' connections) or teleologies (such as the fulfilment of ancient prophecies or ripening of saintly aspirations), and the like (Bjerken 2001). We may occasionally also find different (and not necessarily coherent) architectures or framings of 'history', such as Indian cosmological ideas of cyclical time, typically joined with the moral cosmological notion of straying from early divine or pristine perfection into later decadence. The Indian model of fouryugas, incidentally, in some ways is the reverse ofpopular positivist understandings of linear progression in time: it prioritises 'high' antiquity instead, which morally towers above an ever more depraved present; things can only go down-hill from there. The organising principle here is clearly moral and not causal (put that against amoral, greed-driven, naive belief in progress, such as precipitated the present credit crunch). The grand cosmological scheme basically is also just a story. On the risk of sounding like a culture relativist, I might add that history, in a conventional sense, obviously is someone's story, be it grand or small, and that stories that have allowed people to live well, sometimes for several millennia, are stories worth considering.

Academic prioritisation of chronology (and its implied temporal causality) over religious or mythic narrative (and its evoked meanings) produces demonstrable blind spots in our understanding non-modern Tibetan historical traditions and leaves major resources of Tibetan knowledge systems unused. Let me give one example, continuities from early, non-chronological--in fact, instead often spatial--orderings of Tibetan narratives into lineage histories have been completely overlooked, due to a fixation on text types that reveal chronology. Examples of such non-chronological orderings are ritual recitations of legitimising precedents and persons, recited prior to ritual procedures and recorded in ancient, non-Buddhist Tibetan ritualistic documents from Dunhuang from before the early of mid-11th c. AD (such as PT1285, cf. the so-called Catalogues of Principalities and the like). (16) These recitations of ritual antecedents clearly are continuous with later orderings of similar legitimising narratives in the form of lineage histories, which are more explicitly chronological, for instance in such genres as transmission lineages that often accompany and authenticate important teaching texts. These are genres that, not incidentally, the texts discussed in this study mostly pertain to. Indeed, temporality is not the only factor of continuity, but also the basic fact of organising and systematising data into temporal or spatial sequences.

We should not lose sight of the fact that the first extant, fully narrativised histories--perhaps starting the 11 or 12th c. AD--roughly coincide with the inception of the genre per se in Tibet; e.g., the dBa' bzhed. (17) This period follows a truly momentous epistemic clash of influx of foreign Buddhist culture, cosmologies, and historicities from India, China, etc. and coincides with the extremely interesting trans-formation of the Imperial Tibetan legacy into the grand origin narratives of Buddhist Tibet. (18)

Before the 10th c. AD, in Tibet, we mostly find historical genres of a simpler kind, such as inscriptions, (19) annals and chronicles, usually with limited 'religious' import, (20) or brief recitations of ritual antecedents of unclear date and provenance; but all of which predate phyi dar Buddhism and Bon-as-we-know-it. Around that time, not only Tibetan Buddhists but also bonpos start framing (subdominant) historical discourses in religious narratives. Bonpos go about it in revealingly different ways, which, structurally, are strongly reminiscent of other subaltern or subdominant forms of discourse, notably of the so-called Old Sect of Buddhism within wider Tibet. (21)

The Aural Transmission from Zhang zhung

From the great wealth and variety of Tibetan historical literature available, we will here look at one example from a revealing but also somewhat remote, subdominant Bon religious corner: complementary materials on lineage, history, and cosmology that developed as a legitimising adjunct to the Aural Transmission of Zhang zhung (Zhangzhung snyan (b)rgyudZZNG). The ZZNG mainly contains tantric and Great Perfection teachings. There is a curiously insulated and timeless quality to these materials, which of course adumbrates the prominent Great Perfection view and its rhetoric of transcendence. In its discourses, it mainly refers to itself or to anonymous generic doctrines, be they Buddhist, Bon or otherwise. Its curriculum is markedly self-contained, indeed, an island unto itself. Moreover, the antecedents of the teaching lineages soon disappear into the mists of legend; in fact, already shortly before their date of composition (which is roughly the period of inception of narrativised history writing). This does not leave the conscientious chronicler with much to go by.

Especially the early parts of the ZZNG lineage histories are curiously depleted of verifiable names and dates, but, at the same time, they are replete with stencilled, evocative, trope-like events, names, sacred places, (22) maxims and other teaching devices. If one would have much invested in securing historical traces, their conspicuous absence could almost suggest conscious efforts to cover the tracks. Indeed, it is notoriously difficult to put a handle on dates of lineage Lamas of the ZZNG traditions before Yang ston chen po (late 11th c. AD). Yet, there need not be any intentionality to that apparent timelessness. A-temporality may be part of conventions for projecting time and space in Great Perfection traditions: in keeping with its own distinctive philosophy and cosmology. It is this historicity that I am interested to explore in this study.

A Convention of A-Temporality?

This convention of a-temporality reveals the construction of the narratives and of their historical legitimisation, and the ideological role of a cultivated discourse of timelessness. It raises interesting questions about the historicities that are implied. Much of the frustration about what may appear as obscurantism might actually relate to a clash of historicities and does not necessarily put the integrity of the underlying Bon historicities into question.

In short, perhaps there is nothing wrong or lacking in these lineage documents per se, but only in our understanding of them. We are most likely not facing 'failed histories' here, but rather with our own flawed appreciation of Tibetan literary genres. The main problem is our act of reframing Tibetan historicities, and not necessarily the integrity of the knowledge system that we study. This clash of historicities becomes particularly poignant, when we try to read ZZNG lineage materials as chronologies.

A Clash of Historicities?--Three Major Time Nodes in Composition

This clash of historicities renders the curiously insulated explications of space and time that are contained in those somewhat excentric lineage documents of the Great Perfection ZZNG exceptionally useful for understanding the meeting of underlying historicities better; albeit, of course, from academic perspectives. Three links in the ZZNG lineages promise to be particularly revealing:

1) (Gu rib) Gyer spungs sNang bzher lod po is said to have recorded the Four Cycles of the Oral Tradition, the bKa' brgyud (skor bzhi), in writing. Because of his position in the narratives, he is to be dated to the 8th c. AD (his narrative invokes Khri Srong lde'u btsan's reign). Yet, there is no corroborative evidence for his existence outside recorded ZZNG narratives, some of which are late and all of which post-date at least the 11th c. AD (Yang ston chen po); let alone for his supposed codification of the ZZNG bKa' rgyud.

2) The equally legendary dPon chen btsan po is believed to be the link where teachings emerged from the Zhang zhung cultural sphere of the six Siddha's from sMar into the Tibetan world (and he is considered responsible for transmitting separately the oral from the experiential teachings): the six Lamas of the Upper Transmission (bKa' brgyud) and the five lamas of the Lower Transmission. dPon chen btsan po is from that supposedly Zhang zhung clan called Gu rib or Gu rub, which sNang bzher lop po also is said to hail from. Interestingly, this crucial position is only implicit in the biographies of his Tibetan students, dPon chen lHun grub mu thur, of the Khyung po clan, from Ra ring country, (23) and Gu ge Shes rab blo ldan, of the sNyel clan from Gu ge Nang khongs in Western Tibet. (24) It is mainly on these grounds that bonpo sholars (such as Lopon Tenzin Namdak) and those who go by his lights (such as John Myrdhin Reynolds) presently assume that in the transmission from dPon chen btsan po the language shifted from Zhang zhung, whatever that may be, to Tibetan, but his early biographies do not mention or even hint at the fact. He is believed to live for 1600 years (and thus ought to be still alive today). His position in the lineage suggests a date somewhere in the 9th or 10th c. AD. Also for his person there is no corroborative evidence for his existence outside ZZNG narratives themselves; some of which are late and all of which post-date at least the 11th c. AD.

3) Yang ston chen po Shes rab rgyal mtshan probably is the only historical figure in this exalted company. He is a figure of paramount importance for the codification of the ZZNG and its narratives. He and his teacher, 'Or sgom kun 'dul, were the first to write things down from the Nyams rgyud, by way of mnemonic notes; on Yang ston chen po's request. Later in his teacher's life, two men from Khams visited, who were interested in acquiring the text ofthe teachings. Eventually, by means of three scribes they recorded what 'Or sgom kun 'dul taught, and within 20 days produced 120 folios of 13 lines (exact amount of text is only mentioned in N.1). (25) Yang ston chen po is to be dated starting the last quarter of the 11th c. AD and looks like a historical figure. In spite of the copious narratives on the legendary sNang bzher lod po, this may in fact be the first time that anything has been preserved in writing. This explains why in the surviving records only figures close to Yang ston chen po look anywhere near historical.

All these figures relate to codification of the ZZNG somehow. It probably will not surprise anyone that major nodes in the lineage and major differences between the paradigms of groups of Masters relate to its manner of codification. Yang ston chen po seems the least problematic figure, because he most likely is a historical figure. In the following we will pay particular attention to the manner of construction the religious persona of the two 'earlier' figures. We will study the manner in which their hagiographical narratives emerge from names and legendary materials, in accordance with historiographical convention and philosophical view. The biographies of the first and third, but particularly of Gyer spungs sNang bzher lod po, seem to have grown significantly by centripetal narratological forces, such as epic concentration. sNang bzher lod po thus gradually grew into a major Bon ZZNG culture hero.

A-Temporal Explications of Time

Because of their perceived importance, these figures are featured in more detail or occasionally may indeed have been 'documented' relatively better. They seem essential to the outlook of their section of the lineage. They appear as culminating figures and representative of their group. Perhaps in some cases even the point of projection or development of the rest of the group. They indeed often mark the transition to another historicity and at times in fact the point where a new type of lineage and historicity starts. These Masters of epic stature seem to have accrued much of their characteristics through epic concentration, and relative to briefer narratives, they therefore may be significantly more out of focus than the size and detail of their life stories might suggest.

In this study we will take a closer look mainly at two earlier Masters of the ZZNG; at different points in the lineage. A brief overview of historical sources on the ZZNG lineage masters, that appears in Yang ston dPal bzang's rDzogspa chen po zhang zhung snyan rgyud kyi rtsis byang, on pp.14.8-15.4. (YST.1) may serve as a starting point:



 gang zag mdzad nas bzhag pa'i bon skor la/ bla ma yang ston chen

 pos mdzad pa'i rnam thar rgyas 'bring sdus gsum/ sras po 'bum rje

 'od kyis mzad pa'i rgyud dbang brgyas 'bring sdus gsum! gcung po

 klu brag pas mdzad pa'i [15] rgyud phyag brgyas 'bring gsum/ gnyag

 ston ri pas mdzad pa'i/ sgron ma 'grel ba nyi 'od brgyan/ brgyal ba

 [Bru rgyal] rin po ches mdzad pa'i sgron ma'i dgongs don dang /

 snyan rgyud phyag khrid lag len dmar khrid kyi bskor/ don ldan

 zhang ston bsod rin gyi mdzad pa'i man ngag dmar khrid kyi bdams pa

 drug bya ba yod do/ de rnams snyan rgyud stod lugs kyi bon skor la

 rtogs pa'o/



Earliest Sources of Lineage Histories

Yang ston chen po Shes rab rgyal mtshan

The earliest records, like the one by Yang ston dPal bzang, indeed point to a long, medium and short version of rnam thar by Yang ston chen po Shes rab rgyal mtshan, which are now lost. (26) The same appears, amongst others, in sPa btsun bsTan rgyal seng ge dpal bzang po's 1419 AD text and also in an occasional later 'Chad thabs (27) Bru rgyal ba g yung drung (1242-90) only mentions non-descript earlier sources. According to Bru rGyal ba g-yung drung, Yang ston chen po was a disciple of Bru sha rJe btsun (1040-) and rMe'u ston Lha ri gnyen po (1024-91). He also studied with Ba ri lo tsa ba (1040, who was still active in 1103). (28) That puts him in the last quarter of the 11th c. AD.

'Bum rje 'od

Yang ston chen po's son 'Bum rje 'od apparently, produced a long, medium and short version of a rGyud dbang. I have not seen those texts, but I am aware of references and secondary materials based on it. (29) Fortunately, there are datable figures in 'Bum rje 'od's environment: his younger brother Yang ston bKra shis rgyal mtshan's teachers in gTsang were gShen chen Ye shes blo gros and 'Gro mgon sMan sgong. (30) Ye shes blo gros, according to mKhan chen Nyi ma bstan 'dzin's dKar chag, founded the gtsug lha khang Dar lding gser sgo in 1113. 'Gro mgon sMan sgong ba is the same person as Mar ston rgyal legs, who was born in 1123 AD. That puts him in gTsang somewhat later in the 12th century and he may have lived until the early 13th c. AD.

'Gro mgon Klu brag pa, Yang ston bKra shis rgyal mtshan

'Bum rje 'od's younger brother (Yang ston) bKra shis rgyal mtshan, in turn, apparently composed a long, medium and short version of a rGyudphyag (see YST.9 and 11). bKra shis igyal mtshan is also known as 'Gro mgon Klu brag pa, the founder of Klu brag monastery (the community is studied extensively by Charles Ramble). One naturally wonders about the veracity of the recurrent division into long, medium and short; the reference may have a different function in these contexts (completeness?). (31)

N.B., Yang ston dPal bzang attributes the sGron ma 'grel ba nyi 'od rgyan to gNyag ston ri pa sher tshul and not to his student U ri bsod nams rgyal mtshan.

The attribution of the rDzogs pa chen po zhang zhung snyan rgyud kyi rtsis byangto Yang ston dPal bzang is clear from its colophon: [15.1-16.4] 'di dag rgyud pa'i khungs ni/ sangs rgyas dgongs rgyud dgu'i thugs rgyud/ gang zag nyi shu rtsa bzhi'i snyan rgyud sprul pa'i sku yis las can gnyis la bstan nas/ de nas bzung nas zhang zhung smar gyi grub thob bdun [drug?] la rgyud/ des rtogs [16] ldan 'khrul zhig drug la!/ des bod kyi grub thob bzhi/ des bla ma yang ston chen po/ya ngal gong khra ba/ des klu brag pa/ des rtogs ldan dbon po/ des [Yang ston] brgyal mtshan rin chen/ des lnga brgya'i skyes gcig rtogs ldan dad sho/ des mnyam med brgyal ba rin chen [=Bru sgom]/ des rtogs ldan kun 'od/ des ri pa shes rab blo gros/ des hor sgom 'dul rin/ des yang ston dpal bzang bdag la gnang ngo/ gnam lo brgyal po sa mo glang gi dbyar zla tha chungs kyi tshe bco brgyad la sil pa phug du bris pa bkra shis/ dge'o

Bru chen rGyal ba g-yung drung (1242-90)

The next earliest source is the (rDzogs pa chen po zhang zhung snyan rgyud kyi) Lo rgyus rnam thar dang bcas (Sh.2.1/ K.III.101.1), by Bru rGyal ba g yung drung (1242-90). Bru sgom indicates to rely on various scattered earlier sources, but does not specify which exactly: [588.6] bdag gis gdams pa khyad par can 'di/ kha 'thor ba la brten nas zhu ba la nyer len dang rtsol ba/ dka' tshogs mang po byas pas/ gzhug [589] la spros pa chod pa byung ba ni/ grub chen gong ma rnams la mos gus byas pa'i thugs rje'o/ rdzogs pa chen po snyan rgyud kyi rnam thar lo rgyus dang bcas pa 'di ni/ phyi rabs dag snang bskyedpa'iphyir du/sngar gyi rnam thar las go bde zhing/sgong dril nas g yas ru'i bru sgom rgyal ba g-yung drung la sprul sku rkyang 'phags chen po'i thugs sras/ las can gyi bshes gnyen dam pa/ thogs med sku mched gnyis kyis nye bar bskul te/ thang lha gangs kyi mar zur/ nam ra gangs kyi g-yas zur/ sho mon mdzoms ra'i mdun zhol/ khams dbus gnyis kyi so mtshams/ sgrom mdzod dpal gyi dben dgon zhes bya bar/ byi ba'i lo dbyar zla tha chung la sbyar ba'o/ /sarba mangga lam/dge'o/.

Then there is the sNyan rgyud brgyas bshad chen mo (YST.5), probably including the next text that appears in the arrangement of the ZZNG Bon skor, the rGyud pa 'khrugs can (YST.6). This text may have to be dated after Bru sgom: names up to and including Yang ston chen po appear in the list; but up to and including Bru sgom in the detailed discussion. Karmay (1998:1) attributes it to Yang ston dpal bzang, the author of the rDzogs pa chen po zhang zhung snyan rgyud kyi rtsis byang.

Khyung po Rang grol bla ma rgyal mtshan (b.1328 or 1364)

Close to that text, both in time and content, is the (rDzogs pa chen po zhang zhung snyan rgyud kyis) Bla ma'i rnam thar lo rgyus rnams rgyas pa (KII.110.4). It in fact looks like a short version of YST.5. By implication (v. lineage) this texts is attributed to the unnamed Khyung po Rang grol bla ma rgyal mtshan (b.1328 or 1364). (32) The author's lineage appears at the end, on f.48v.5: rtogs ldan dad shes! rin chen rgyal ba! rtogs ldan gun 'od [kun 'od]/ rtogs ldan ri pa gshen rab [shes rab] blo gros! de la bdag gis zhus so/ / Rin chen rgyal ba here refers to mNyam med rGyal ba rin chen, aka Bru chen rGyal ba g yung drung (see f.42r.1). (33) Kun grol grags pa (b.1101) refers to a rnam thar chen mo, which may be this Bla ma'i rnam thar lo rgyus rnams rgyas pa. (34) g Yung drung tshul khrims in his catalogue of 1816-1880 also speaks of a rNam thar rgyas pa, which he indeed attributes to Rang grol bla ma rgyal mtshan. (35)

Kar tsa bSod nams blo gros

According to the colophon of the (Zhang zhung snyan rgyud kyi) brGyud pa'i bla ma'i rnam thar by (N.1) sPa btsun bsTan rgyal seng ge dpal bzang po, Kar tsa bSod nams blo gros, probably in the late 14th early 15th c. AD, also transmitted an extensive teaching (rgyas bshad) on the ZZNG lineage, which formed an important source for his compilation. sPa btsun should know, because he was a student of Kar tsa bSod nams blo gros. It is not clear from the wording whether these ever were compiled in written form. In any case, no word ofthe independent survival of this text has reached me so far. See the colophon of the next text.

sPa btsun bsTan rgyal seng ge dpal bzang po

Influential and much used is the lineage history written by sPa btsun bsTan rgyal seng ge dpal bzang po in 1419: the (Zhang zhung snyan rgyud kyi) brGyud pa'i bla ma'i rnam thar (N.1). It is based on earlier oral communications (zhal rgyun), such as, particularly, the extensive teaching (rgyas bshad) of his teacher Kar tsa bSod nams blo gros and communications by rGya sgom bstan bzang, a fellow student with Kar tsa bSod nams blo gros: [129.6] //zhang zhung snyan rgyud kyi bla ma brgyud pa'i rnam thar lo rgyus 'di/ sngar kyi [emend: gyi] rnam thar rgyas 'bring bsdus gsum mang du 'dug pas/ (36) / bla ma gang zag 'ga' zung gi zhal rgyun bdud rtsi'i thigs pa dang /khyadpar slob dpon [130] bsod nams blo gros rgyas bshad dang / rgya sgom bstan bzang de gnyis las sogs te/ thos pa phyogs med kun la dris brda' bskor cing gtugs nas/ sa mo phag gi lo/ zla ba bcu pa'i tshes bcu/ skar ma bya bzhug la/dpal ri khud yang dben bde chen sgang gipho brang dkarpo ru/spa btsun bstan rgyal seng ge dpal bzang bdag gis ni/phyi rabs gang zag mos 'dun byed pa'i phyir/ the tshom blo mun bsal phyir ru/ sgros 'dogs bskur 'debs med par/ mos 'dun dad pas bkod pa re zhig tshar ro/ sems can thams cad rgyud pa'i bla ma rnams kyi thugs rjes zin par gyur cig- dge bas 'gro rnams theg chen don rtogs shog- sarba mangga lam// //

Furthermore we have the Bla ma rgyud pa'i rnam thar (T.III.156.10) by sKyang sprul Nam mkha' rgyal mtshan. This lineage history starts close to where sPa btsun's leaves off, with Kar tsa bSod names blo gros, and continues through 'Khrul zhig g Yung drung tshul khrims.

The sNyan rgyud 'bringpo sor bzhagsngon gro (T.III.156.22) also contains useful lineage information.

Overall Time Frame

Clearly the testimonies that we presently have are relatively late. The earliest texts, by Yang ston chen po, late 11th c. AD, are now lost, except, perhaps, for the brief lineage in sNyan rgyud rgyas bshad chen mo (YST.5, by Yang ston dpal bzang?). The earliest source we still have is by Bru chen rGyal ba g yung drung (1242-90), written in the late 13th c. AD. The extant sources heavily depend on each other. All may depend on Yang ston chen po's texts, directly or indirectly. By all appearances (records), these narratives were recorded or construed starting the late 11th c. AD. It is well possible that shortly before that time only names and listings of groups of Masters existed together with various narratives and narremes, some of which later made it into the hagiography.

A Convenient Model for the Construction of the Narratives

Five-fold Classification

Yang ston dPal bzang (sNyan rgyud rgyas bshad chen mo; YST.5) may be the first to systematise the individual biographies into a five-fold classification. Yet, the arrangement of information in earlier sources prefigures the classification as such, and in that implicit form may be older. Bru chen rGyal ba g-yung drung does not mention the classification yet, but his arrangement of narrative content is very similar. The explicit scheme seems to have started after the 13th c. AD. Many authors after Yang ston follow the scheme, such as Khyung po rang grol and bsTan rgyal seng ge dpal bzang po. Yang ston dPal bzang and others implement it for those narratives that have sufficient substance; usually starting at around sNang bzher lod po.

While it does put some flesh on the bones of the narratives, from sNang bzher lod po up to approximately Yang ston chen po, it is mainly cardboard content. All further particulars are often trope-like or fantastic embellishments.

SNYAN RGYUD RGYAS BSHAD CHEN MO; YST.5, pp.62.9-63.3

* First, the story of his father and mother and the attainment of a pure human body (dang po rtsang [gtsang] ma mi lus thob pa yab dang yum gyi lo rgyus dang /)

* Second, the story of how he met his Lama, because of his ripened karma and good fortune (las 'phro dang skal ba yod pas [63] grub thob kyi bla ma dang ji ltar mjal ba'i lo rgyus dang gnyis/)

* Third, the story of his sojourn at special places and his lifespan (sa gnas khyad par can du rten pa'i tshe du bzhugs pa'i lo rgyus dang gsum/)

* Fourth, the signs of attainment (miracles) at ordinary occasions (thun mong gnas skabs kyi grub rtags dang bzhi/).

* Fifth, the extraordinary qualities that manifest his realisation (rtogs pa mngon gyur thun mong ma yin pa'i yon tan dang lnga'o/).

A Brief Outline of a Saintly Person?

This classification is revealing for the manner of construction of such hagiographies and biographies. Post-hoc it reveals what exactly, within these epistemes, constitutes a human saintly person, or, alternatively, how to construe one.

* What defines an ordinary person are: parents, clan and a place of birth. These are basic sociological realities.

* A religious person is moreover defined by his karmic connection to a teacher (2) and by the leisure allowing him or her to engage the teachings (3). The places of practice incidentally chart out or perhaps also establish a sacred geography. This is clearly not for everyone and reveals a deeply elitist perspective.

* Lastly, a saintly person is defined by his ordinary and extraordinary accomplishments. The extraordinary accomplishments, factionally rhetorically, distinguish the tantric miracle worker from the preferred Great Perfection adept.

A Model & Saving Grace of Lineage Lamas?

Generic descriptions of the earlier Masters, before sNang bzher lod po, strongly suggest that they were first transmitted in the form of names mainly. This does not preclude that some of them are historical names. Most of the stories of the six Masters of Zhang zhung smar and many among the Lower and Upper tradition, receive most of their body from the classification itself and not from independent narratives.

Standard phraseology in the last two or three categories, particularly make up much of the substance of these minimal, stencilled-looking stories. What Yang ston dPal bzang here made explicit may well also be the basic narrative paradigm according to which lists of names are reworked and elaborated, one step further on the way from a mere name to a plausible-looking hagiography.

Yet, it is also somewhere in these Lower and Upper lineages that the first historical and remembered, rather than narrated and literary, figures appear. The design of individual lineage groups becomes immediately apparent when we look at two intermediate groups, in tabular format.

Two Samples

1. Immediately before sNang bzher lod po (bottom right) we find the four scholars and translator-pundits (mkhas pa lo pan), which form the last group of the 'uninterrupted' lineage, in the 'far' transmission.

2. Immediately following sNang bzher lod po we find the six adepts from lower Zhang zhung (zhang zhung smar gyi grub chen drug), the first group from the 'near' transmission.

Ad 1) The four scholars barely are more than names in a lineage, with only very brief testimonies of their accomplishments attached. A tell-tale sign is that most of their excellent qualities are in fact shared! They very much have a group identity, as if nobody cared to carve individual features to go with the names.

Ad 2) The six adepts equally have most of their weight in the descriptions of their presumed accomplishments, which, needless to say, are totally nondescript, historically. The detail of matters spiritual and the 'inner biography' stand in no comparison to the practical details of their lives.



Master Parents Teacher Age Place Accomplishments



NB. based on sPa btsun's lineage history, unless indicated otherwise

mKhas pa lo pan gyi rgyud pa rgyud pa 'khrug med, ring rgyud



Don kun -- -- -- -- realised the (great

grub pa Perfection) view that

 is without fixed

 reference point (rtsa

 bral gyi Ita ba rtogs)

Ra sangs -- -- -- -- mastered the

'Phan rgyal contemplation of

 clarity and emptiness

 (gsal stong gi sgom

 pa la mnga'bsnyems)

Gu rib -- -- -- -- guarded his practice

gSas dga' of one taste (ro

 snyoms pa skyongs)

Zla ba -- -- -- -- held to reality as it

rgyal mtshan is in its original

 state (bon nyid rang

 sa zin)



Also, these four lamas, who are like a crown, manifested the ordinary accomplishments, being unhindered such as, not sinking in water (i.e., 'walking on water'), flying in the sky, riding a boulder as if it were a horse, diverting the course of a river uphill; and the extraordinary accomplishment of awakening after having manifested the total freedom of conceptual thought. (dbu rgyan gyi bla ma bzhi po de yang / thun mong gi dngos grub chu la mi bying pa dang / mkha' la 'phur ba dang / pha bong rtar gzhon pa dang / chu bo gyen la bzlog pa las sogs la thogs pa med/ mchog gi dngos grub rtog med chen po mngon du 'gyur nas sangs rgyas so/)



Master Parents or Teacher (=previous) Age

 Contemporaries



NB. based on sPa btsun's lineage history, unless indicated otherwise

Zhang zhung smar gyi grub chen drug, nye rgyud



 elaborations



Pha ba son of (yab) Ya ngal teacher Gyer spungs 317

rGyal gzigs gSas rgyal and (yum) snang bzher lo po,

gsas chung Thod dkar sMan skyid nb. in the 8th c. AD;

 'bodyguard' (sku srung) taught at age 73

 to king Ral pa can

 (805-?)



dMu Tsog ge Gu rib clan; son of spotted at 3by Gyer 171

 (yab) Gu rib Gyer spungs chen po;

 rgyung and (yum) sNya taught at 19

 mo lcam gcig; paternal

 uncle dMu Shod tram

 chen po



dMu Tso Gu rib clan; son of taught at 47 113

stangs (yab) Gu rib sTon pa

 rgyung nge and (yum)

 Rog shud Za a lo sman



dMu Shod Gu rib clan; son of renunciation at 40 117

tram chen po (yab) Gu rib Khro rgyal

 and (yum) Ra mo lu gu;

 nephew dMu tsog ge



dMur Gyal Gu rub clan; son of a shepherd;renunciation 220<

ba blo gros pauper (yab) Gu rub at 45; meets dMu Shod Sh.

 Tsu gu tram chen po at Gangs 2.1

 can sta rgo



dPon chen Thog lha clan, son of met master at 12 in 1600

bTsan po (yab) sKu gshen Thog Zang zang lha brag

 lha rTse mo and (yum)

 Mang wer Za rgyan

 chung main Da rog gi

 brag ri



Master Place practice Accomplishments [(extra)

 ordinary]



NB. based on sPa btsun's lineage history, unless indicated otherwise

Zhang zhung smar gyi grub chen drug, nye rgyud



 elaborations abbreviated paraphrase



Pha ba Me rgyud dkar nag [developed all kinds of good

rGyal gzigs personal qualities--long

gsas chung description]. After one year

 he realised not to have great

 hope for awakening up high

 nor burning fear for living

 beings below



dMu Tsog ge Pha wa stag slag can he became equal to his

 teacher. After five months,

 he gained confidence,

 renounced samsara and

 internalised the realisation

 of an awakened one



dMu Tso Shangs shel rong he mastered both the ordinary

stangs and highest accomplishments,

 unerringly. Having reached

 realisation after one month,

 he was liberated



dMu Shod Pha bong ngar ba in the signs of his manifest

tram chen po Gangs sta rgo, to the accomplishments were beyond

 left face of Nyi ma imagination. After 17 days,

 lung he cut the root of life &

 death, and after having

 manifested direct

 realisation, he became equal

 to an awakened one



dMur Gyal early in life in Rog he gained the mastery of

ba blo gros lcag phug and later in exceedingly many

 Zang zang lha brag feats. [He was a bit

 (contains elaborations slow, only after more than

 on his practice and two years of struggle] he

 feats) under-stood that mind & body

 do not touch the level of

 samsara & nirvana anywhere;

 he became equal in

 realisation to an awakened

 one



dPon chen g-Yas ru shangs kyi (he is a rig 'dzin who has

bTsan po ri rtse (contains power over his life and has

 elaborations on his the power to be born for the

 practice and benefit of others, as

 accomplishments) needed). Because the

 impurities of body and birth

 were exhausted he needed no

 physical nourishment and he

 transformed himself into a

 turquoise cuckoo and went to

 rTag gzigs and he suppressed

 demons in the south-west; he

 gained mastery of various

 signs of accomplishment like

 that. After seven days

 realisation arose, and faith

 and pride in accomplishment,

 all three arose; he was

 indistinguishable from an

 emanation.



The Golden Goose

Comparison of these two groups--one immediately before sNang bzher lod po and one immediately after--reveals a relevant divide in the lay-out of the narratives, between mere names in a lineage and mini-hagiographies. Also the inordinate length of the hagiography of sNang bzher lod po, in comparison to what came immediately before and after, is conspicuous. sNang bzher lod po clearly is a watershed figure in the construction of the lineage and in the narrative framework in general. Note also his preponderant presence in the Bon ma nub pa'i gtan tshigs, the Tapi hri tsa'i lung bstan, etc.

This confirms our earlier conjecture that early parts of the lineage are created from mere names in a lineage and do not derive from independent story traditions. Apparently, it also was too much trouble to infuse each and every figure with individuality afterwards. Identity here preferably is epically concentrated in a few crucial figures, usually at the beginning or end of a lineage group. This may underline orality at some stage in its creation or transmission.

Conclusions

What these texts apparently are mainly concerned to deliver are:

* Respectable names in a extensive lineage that inspire faith.

* The exemplary saintly persona of the lineage holders.

* And, after sNang bzher lod po, systematic efforts at providing a semblance of an ordinary and religious persona are also noticeable.

The source texts again give clear clues, implicit or explicit, regarding what constitutes a recognisable person and thus about the way a persona of a lineage Master might be constituted and construed. From a concrete historical point of view, the earliest descriptions and hagiographies generally are nondescript, certainly up until dPon chen btsan po but also for some parts leading to Yang ston chen po. Up until dPon chen btsan po, personalities are usually concentrated in a few crucial figures, that more or less represent the group.

sNang bzher lod po

ma hor stag gzig dang gu rib shing slag can dang zhang zhung bkra shis rgyal mtshan dang tshe spungs zla ba rgyal mtshan gyi slob ma

gyer spungs chen po snang bzher lod po 27.4-31.5, SGK.35, YST.5.46.1-2: gu rib snang zher lod po, cf. YST.5.63.3: gyer spungs chen po snang zher lod po, YST.6.159.6: dpon chen gu rib snang zher lod po, Sh.2.1.542.5ff (: gyer spungs chen po snang bzher lod po)

(rDzogs pa chen po zhang zhung snyan rgyud kyi) Lo rgyus rnam thar dang bcas (Sh.2.1.542.5ff., cf. K.III.101.1)

This lineage history is attributed to Bru chen rGyal ba g yung drung (1242-90). sNyan rgyud brgyas bshad chen mo (YST.5.62.4ff.)

Cf. also the following text in the arrangement, the rGyudpa 'khrugs can. This text is to be dated after Bru sgom: names up to and including Yang ston chen po appear in the list; up to and including Bru sgom in the detailed discussion. Karmay (1998:7) attributes it to Yang ston dpal bzang.

(rDzogs pa chen po zhang zhung snyan rgyud kyis) Bla ma'i rnam thar lo rgyus rnams rgyas par (KII.110.4, it looks like a short version of YST.5.62.4ff.)

By implication (lineage) this texts is attributed to the unnamed Khyung po Rang grol bla ma rgyal mtshan (b.1328 or 1364).

(Zhang zhung snyan rgyud kyi) brGyud pa'i bla ma'i rnam thar (N.27.4-31.5)

This well-known lineage history is by sPa btsun bsTan rgyal seng ge dpal bzang po (written in 1419). The narrative of revenge appears at the general and incidental spiritual qualities and signs accomplishment of sNang bzher lod po (p.27.4-31.5 esp. p.29.5-30.5).

N.B. the narrative of sNang bzher lod po's dbuyogs also appears in: [N.260-67.4] {{pa}} //rDzogs pa chen po zhang zhung snyan brgyud kyi bon ma nub pa'i gtan tshigs bzhugs so//, the present redaction of which post-dates the 14th-15th c. AD.



Sh.2.1.542.5-Bru sgom (1242-90) YST.5.72.3ff, in list up to Yang

13th c. AD ston, discussion up to Bru sgom



 <[62.4] rgyud pa bla ma rnams

 laphyag ' tshal lo/ bla ma grub

 thob bcu'l grub pa snyems pa yon

 tan gyi rgyud la gnyis/



 yid ches pa dang khungs btsun pa

 dang /



 byin rlabs kyi na 'un [cf. na

 bun]mi yal bar bya ba'i phyir/

 bye brag rang rang gi lo rgyus

 sam yon tan dang /



 bab chen drug las 'das pa bla ma

 spyi'i yon tan dang gnyis so/



 dang po bye brag rang rang gi lo

 rgyus la yang gnyis/



 zhang zhung gi grub thob bdun

 dang bod kyi grub thob rnams kyi

 lo rgyus so/



 de la dang po zhang zhung gi grub

 thob bdun gyi grub pa snyems pa

 yon tan gyi rgyud la lnga ste/



 dang po rtsang ma mi lus thob pa

 yab dang yum gyi lo rgyus dang /



 las 'phro dang skal bayod pas

 [63] grub thob kyi bla ma dang ji

 ltar mjal ba'i lo rgyus dang

 gnyis/



 sa gnas khyad par can du rten

 pa'i tshe du bzhugs pa'i lo rgyus

 dang gsum/



 thun mong gnas skabs kyi grub

 rtags dang bzhi/



 rtogs pa mngon gyur thun mong

 ma yin pa'i yon tan dang

 lnga'o/ >



[542.5] gsum pa gyer spungs chen [63.2] dang po gyer spungs chen

po snang bzher lod po'i po snang zher lod po'i/



 !!Irtsang ma mi lus thob pa'i lo

 rgyus la/



yab gu rub 'bum me/yum mang wer yab gu rib ' bum me dang / yum

za sgron ne gnyis kyi sras su sku mang 'or za sgron ne'i sras yin

'khrungs/ no/



 gnyis pa las 'phro dang skal bar

 ldan pas/bka' drin chen gyi bla

 ma dangji ltar 'jal na/



gong nas rmi lam bzang zhing

'khrungs pa'i dus su yang /

mtshan dpe yon tan thams cad

rdzogs pa/ gzhan las khyad du

'phags pa gcig gda' skad/



dgung lo bcu gsum la bon sgor lo bcu gsum la bon sgor zhugs/

zhugs/



mkhas par blo sbyangs/ btsun par

khrims bsrung / theg sgo thams

cad thugs su chud/ khyad par du

zhang zhung me ri' i bon [543]

skor' di zab cing dmar la dril

bar dgongs nas/



tshe spung zla ba rgyal mtshan la tshe spungs bzla ba brgyal 'tshan

longs spyod cha rkyen chen po la zang zing gi longs spyod mang

phul nas po phul/



gsang sngags/ rigs sngags this

sngags de dag gl snylng po yang

gsang bla med rdzogs pa chen po'i

lta ba/ gcig chod snyan rgyud

rgyas pa'i skor dang bcas pa

zhus/



ma mig gi nub phyogs brag rong ma mig gi nub phyogs brag rong

dkar por bsgoms pas/ dkar po'i bseb du ngo sprod

 lnga'i bdams pa btab/



mthu dang 'dzu 'phrul gyi grub

rtags du ma zhig mnga' bsnyems

pa'o/



da nye ba'i brgyud pa la gsum

ste/ dang po 'byung ba'i khungs

bstan pa dang /

bar du rkyen gyis ma nub pa'i

rgyu mtshan dang /

tha ma rim gyis dar zhing rgyas

pa'i tshul lo/



 gyer spungs na re 'di su la yang

 mi rtogs gsungs pas/



 zla ba brgyal 'tshan na re/ snod

 ldan byung na rgya la yang thong

 gsung /



 snod med rnams la rab tu gsongs

 gsung nas lung de ltar [b]stan

 no/



 de yang rgyud pa lnga'i tha ma

 stag wer shing slag can gyi bdams

 pa mnang [read gnang, v. App.]/



 rgyud pa bdun gyi tha ma zhang

 zhung kra shis brgyal mtshan gyis

 bdams pa mnang [gnang]/



 rgyud pa nyi shu rtsa gcig gi tha

 ma [64] tshe spungs zla ba brgyal

 'tshan gyis bdams pa/



 rgyud pa sum cu rtsa rgyad kyi

 tha ma mang hor stag gzig bya bas

 bdams pa mnang [gnang]/



 dus de tsam na gyer spungs chen

 po snang zher lod po de/ mkhas

 par blo sbyangs! btsun par khrims

 srungs/ sbyangs pa'i stobs kyis

 thun mong gyi dngos grub mang po

 rnyes/



 nga che 'o ba'i rgyal rgyud la

 skye ba nil mtshan nyid thams cad

 kyi rnam grangs mkhyen/theg pa

 thams cad thugs su chud/bdam ngag

 thams cad tshig du shes/rgyal

 po'i bla'i mchod gnas su bteg

 pas/nga che 'o snyam pa'i rgyal

 rgyud la skye nas/mchog gi dngos

 grub la sgribs nas gnas pa'i dus

 der/



 dra bye dung lung gi shid rtsi'i

 bseb brag tu gcig gi gam du/rje

 ta pi hri tsa bse byin gyis rlabs

 nas/



 mchog gi dngos grub thob/



 gsum pa sa gnas khyad par can

 ni/



 da rog gi mtsho sman la sogs

 ste/mi



 rten pa'i tshe ni lnga rgya dang

 bdun bcu don drug bzhes so/



[543.3-543.4 cf. MA NUB, Part la]



[543.4, cf. Bon ma nub, Part lb]

rgyal phran grangs kyis bzhugs

kyang zhang zhung na bon skyong

ba'i rgyal po lig mi rkya'i dus/

bod yul na khri srong lde btsan

gyi dus/



[543.5, long intermezzo on sNang

bzher lod po, his pride and

meetings with Ta pi hri tsa; cf.

the rje ta pi hri tsa'i lung

bstan] de'i dus su gyer spungs

snang bzher lod po des/ mkhas par

blo sbyangs btsun par khrims

bsrungs/ rgyu 'bras theg sgo ma

lus par thugs su chud/ rdzu

'phrulmthurtsallamnga' bsnyems/



rgyal po lig mi rkyayi blayi

mchod gnas su bskur bas/ ...



[5 51.1 -5 51.3 cf. M A NUB,

Part lb]



[551.3-552.4 cf. MA NUB, Part Ic]



[552.4-554.3 cf. MA NUB, Part II]



[554.3 cf. MA NUB, Part III]

rgyal khrims gser gyi gnya' shing

ni chagzhang zhung stong sde yar

bud/sum pa ni mar bud/bod kyang

rang kha sil bu ru gyur/rgyal

po'i mnga' thang thams cad cha

cha na bri/nad mug las sogs kyi

mi dge ba sna tshogs kyang bod du

byung ngo /de' i dus su zhang

zhung rgyal po'i khab khyung za

mtsho rgyal gyis/gyer spungs

snang bzher lod po la/zab chen

gyi gdan bting /'bras chang ding

ba zhus/smre ngag bton nas mthu

dang rdzu ' phrul gyis bod la/

rgyal po'i yus len par zhus pas/

bon skyong ba'i rgyal po bkrongs

pa dang /grub rtags rdzu 'phrul

gyis



rgyal po lig mi rkya yi bla yi

mchod gnas su bskur bas/ ...



[551.1-551.3 cf. MA NUB, Part lb]



[551.3-552.4 cf. MA NUB, Part Ic]



[552.4-554.3 cf. MA NUB, Part II]



[554.3 cf. MA NUB, Part III]

rgyal khrims gser gyi gnya' shing

ni chagzhang zhung stong sde yar

bud/sum pa ni mar bud/bod kyang

rang kha sil bu ru gyur/rgyal

po'i mnga' thang thams cad cha

cha na bri/nad mug las sogs kyi

mi dge ba sna tshogs kyang bod du

byung ngo /de'i dus su zhang

zhung rgyal po'i khab khyung za

mtsho rgyal gyis/gyer spungs

snang bzher lod po la/zab chen

gyi gdan bting /'bras chang ding

ba zhus/smre ngag bton nas mthu

dang rdzu ' phrul gyis bod la/

rgyal po'i yus len par zhus pas/

bon skyong ba'i rgyal po bkrongs

pa dang /grub rtags rdzu 'phrul

gyis



ba bdun nyal ba la gnyis bsad/ sham po'gul gyi mtsho la rgyab

lnga rings pas/yar lung sha rings nas/tsho btog gis skams nas klu

la<r> grags so/sum nam gcig tho rnams bros pas/da lta yar lungs

rangs 'phang pas! sku mkhar byi kyi mtsho skams bya ba yod del

ba stag rtse la phog pas/rgyal po sum nam gcig nam phar phyed tshur

nad kyis zin no/der rgyal po na phyed la 'phangs pas/yar lung

re/'di gzhan gang gis kyang ma sogs kha'i spun bu ri la/sha ba

lan/tho rangs dzvo 'di yongs lugs ma smad bdun nyal ba la rgyab

kyis/zhang zhung rgyal po krongs nas/sha ba spu mo gnyis bsad! sha

pa la/gyer spungs chen pos thugs ba lnga rengs pas/da lta yar

kyi brnags pa byas pa yin par/ lungs sha bspun bu ri la/sha ba

 'phrig pas shes/de la gus pas ma smad bdun nyal ba la rgyab

btud cing zhu ba 'bul ba las nas/sha ba spu mo gnyis bsad! sha

thabs med par shes te/rta pa ba lnga rengs pas/da lta yar

brgya mngags te/de la gser 'brong lungs sha ba rengs kyi ri bya ba

ru gang bskur nas brdzangs pas/ yod do/sum nam gcig nam tho rangs

gyer spungs la zhu ba phul la ka 'phangs pas/sku 'khar byi ba

gdan ' drongs las shog cig/de la stag rtse la brgyab nas/rgyal po

bdag gso ba'i thabs yod del gdan [66] snyung gis zin pa yin no/

ma drongs na bdag 'chi bar gyur dus der brgyal po dbang du 'dus

ro/zhes gsungs pas/bod kyi blon ste /sku' da ba ldan shel gyi

po rta pa brgya gdan 'dren du rna ru' od 'phro ba las sogs pa

btang nas/dra bye'i mtsho 'gram cir yang sprul nas/bstan pa spel

du phyin pas/rdzi'u las sogs mi bar khas blangs pa yin no/

rnams la dris pas nged bod rgyal

bsnyung gis zin pa la/gyer spungs

spyan 'dren pa lags/gar bzhugs

dris pas/rdzi'u gcig na



re/gyer spungs ni sku cir yang ma

nges gar yang sprul nus pas/mos

'dun gang snang ba la zhu ba

phul cig/zhal mngon du ston [556]

par gyur ro zhes zer/khong rnams

kyis mtsho la gru dang gzings

kyis bead nas phyin pas/dngos su

mi bzhugs par gdan gyi thog na

shel gyi rna ru gzha' 'od 'phro

bazhig 'dug/bskor ba dang lha

phyag byas/gser rnams phul nas

zhu don gsol bas/gyer spungs nyid

du gyur te gsungs pa/kye ma dus

kyis dbang bsgyur nas/zhang zhung

bon gyi rgyal po bkrongs/'phrul

ngag bon gyi bstan pa bsnubs/log

par phyogs pa'i rgyal blon la/

dus kyi la yog ma du 'am/srung

ma'i bka' chad ma byung ngam/'di

yi bar chod ji ltar sel/rang las

rang la bsdigs pa 'dra/gsungs der

bod 'bang kyis nan bskyed nas

zhus pas/ngas smras pa byin byed

na/khyed kyi zer ba bzhin byed

gsungs/blon pos khri srong lde

btsan kyi zhal nas/g/yung drung

gi bon bsnubs pa ni/ngas ma lan

te/



bho dhe sa tva dang /blon po

rnams kyis phra mas lan/ci ltar

bka' stsal bzhin bgyid pas/

gshegs par zhu 'tshal/zhus pas/

gyer spungs mnyam pa'i thugs

mnga' bas 'byon bar bka' gnang /

spyan drangs te/rgyal po'i spyan

sngar phebs pa dang /rgyal pos

 'gyod bshags rgyal dang chas pa

phul/gus pa 'dud dang gsol ba

btab/gyer spungs mnyes pa'i

gtsigs bzhin dam bcas te/gyer

spungs kyi thugs dam gsang sngags

rigs sngags this sngags yang

gsang bla med kyi skor dang bcas

pa/gang du yang spyad du yod cing

mi bsnubs par khas



blangs/gu rub kyi mi sde zhang

zhung du bos te/sa yul gang bzang

dang gad kyi byi ba [557] stag

tshar bzhag nas/dmag khral las

gsum med par khas blangs/zhang

zhung rgyal po'i sku gsung thugs

kyi rten gser gar las sku tshad

bzhengs pa dang /lhu bcu gnyis

mgo ral dang bcu gsum la mi stong

bcu gsum btsun rao'i drung du

bskyel bar khas blangs/bon gshen

rnams kyang rgyal po'i g/yas gral

la jog par khas blangs/gyer

spungs chen pos kyang /rgyal po

nad las grol bar mdzad/yom mchod

kyis rtsis bzung nas/bstan pa rin

po che'i srog bzung /de ltar

bstan pa dar nub yang /dus kyi

'phel 'grib yong du tho zhing /

las zad nub pa'i dus la slebs pa

dang /btsun mo ban dhe gdug pa

can rnams kyis rkyen byas nas/

dbang med par bsnubs pa las/

rgyal po nyid bon la yang blo ma

log bsam pa gting ma 'chugs pas/

gyer spungs chen pos kyang de

ltar bka' gnang par go'o/[557.4]

gyer spungs chen po de nyid kyang

/bya gcan dud 'gro ri dvags gar

yang sprul nus pa dang /me chu sa

rlung 'byung ba la thogs rdugs

med pa dang /rgyal po nyi pang

sad dang stag ri rong las sogs

dam can mi min thams cad ma ltar

'du zhing bran du 'khol ba dang

/rtogs pa gdeng dang ldan pas

rnams par mi rtog pa'i dgongs pa

la 'du 'bral med



cing /phyi nang snang ba thams

cad rang gsal sgrib mud zang

thaldugzigi; pa dang/rip las sogs

pa'i mchog thun mong gi gmb

rtags/yon tan du ma ni tshur rul

pa'i bios dpyacl par ml nus shing

/dgung lo lnga brgya hdun cu rtsa

gsum [558] nas 'gro don chub

nasmyarigan da' 'tshulbstanpa'o/



 lnga pa rtogs pa mngon gyur thun

 mong ma yin pa ni/



 rje ta pi hri tsa bas bdams pa

 blab pa' 1 dus su/



 rtogs thob dus mnyam du skyes

 nas/rnam pa thams cad mkhyen pa'i

 sangs rgyas su gyur pa lagsho//



KII. 110.4.14r. 7ff.--Khyung po N.27.4-31.5--sPa btsun 15th

rang grol(b.l364) 14th-15thc. AD c. AD



< [1 Ov. 1 ] zhang zhung bod kyi

grub thob rnams kyi lo rgyus

gnyis la/



yid ches pa dang / khung btsun pa

dang /



bab chen drug las 'das pa bla ma

spyi yi yon tan bris so/



dang po bye brag la yang gnyis

te/



zhang zhung dang / bod kyis grub

thob gnyis so/



de la zhang zhung gis grub thob

bdun gyis/ grub pa snyems pa yon

tan gyis lo rgyus la/



dang po gtsang ma mi lus thob pa

yab dang/ yum gyis lo rgyus gcig/



las 'phro skal ba yod pas grub

thob kyi bla ma dang / ci ltar

mjal ba dang gnyis/



sa gnas khyad par can gang du

brten pa'i ched du bzhugs pa'i lo

rgyus dang gsum/



thun mong gnas skabs kyi grub

rtags bstna pa dang bzhi/



rtogs pa khyad par can thun mong

ma bstan pa dang lnga'o/ >



[lOv.l] de la dang po gyer spungs [27,4] bla ma de'i slob ma ni/

chen po snang zher lod po'i lo gyer spungs chen po snang bzher

rgyus la/ lod po'i lo rgyus la/



gtsang ma mi lus thob pa yab dang dang po gtsang ma mi lus thob pa



yum gyi lo rgyus ni<s>/ yab dang yum gyi lo rgyus ni/



 gdung rus gu rib yin/



yab ni gu rub 'bum me dang / yab gu rib 'bum me dang / yum

yum ni mang wer za sgron ne ma mang 'or za sgron ne bya ba yin/

bya ba yin /



gnyis pa las 'phro dang skal bar gnyis pa las 'phro dang skal par

ldan pas/ bka' drin chen gyi bla ldan pas/ bka' drin chen gyi bla

ma dang ci ltar mjal nas/ ma dangji ltar mjal zhe na/



dgung lo [1 lr] bcu gsum la bon dgung lo bcu gsum Ion pa dang

sgor zhugs/ bon sgor zhugs/



 bzhi bcu zhe bdun pa la spros

 mtha' bead pa'i dus na/



tshe spungs bzla ba brgyal 'tshan tshe spunjs zla ba brgyal 'tshan

la zang zing gis longs spyod mang la zang zing [28] gi longs spyod

po phul/ mang po phul/



ma mig nub phyogs brag rubng ma mig gi nub phyogs brag rong

[rong] dkar po'i bseb tu/ ngo dkar po'i gseb du/ ngo sprod

sprod lnga'i gdams pa btab nas/ lnga'i gdams pa btab nas/



'di su la yang mi bstan du mi gyer spungs chen pos' di su la

rung gsungs pas/ yang mi ston lags zhus pas/



bla ma'i zhal nas/ snod ldan du bla ma'i zhal nas/ snod ldan

byung na/ brgya la yang thob cig byung na brgya la yang ston gcig

gsungs so/ gsungs so/



dus der theg pa dgu thugs su

chud pas/



nga che rgyud la skye dus/



dra byel gyis lung par sprul skus

byin brlabs nas/



mchog gis dngos grub gnas der

thob pa lags/



gsum pa sa gnas khyad par can ni gsum pa sa gnas khyad par can

 gang du brten pa'i tshe du bzhugs

 pa ni/



da rog yin te/ mtsho sman la sogs yul da rog yin/ mtsho sman las

 sogs



pa'i/ mi dang mi ma yin 'dus/ mi dang mi min ' du/ sa der

 dka' ba spyad tshul ni/ lo gcig

 mtsho gling gi do la dpon slob

 gnyis kyis/ sku rgyags cha rkyen

 dang bcas nas bzhugs so/ gyer

 spungs kyis gsol gyi gzhug du zan

 ting re bzhag- de nas mtsho rul

 ste/ yang zan ting gi gzhug la

 jam re mdzad nas/ dpon slob gnyis

 pos gsol/ 'jam gyi gzhug gi rtsig

 ma re/ dbu bsngas kyi brag la pho

 yin bzhag- yang mtsho rul/ brag

 ngos kyi jam rtsigs brad nas/ de

 chu la btab kyin gsol nas/ lo

 gsum song pa dang / phyag phyi

 ba'i bsam pas/ nged dpon slob

 gnyis kar ni nam kyang ' grongs

 par ' dug dang la kho rang

 mchongs nas ro zhig byed bsam

 ste/ gyer spungs lags mi yi ro

 bsam pa zhig gda' ste zhus pas/

 khyod de la thug gam gsungs/ thug

 lags so zhus pas/ 'o na do 'di la

 bskor la ci 'dug ltos gsungs/

 khos phyin pas rkyang gcig gi ro

 zhig gda' zhus pas/ de 'u bu

 gtsang rigs brten pas za mi nyan

 gsungs/ de nas zhag 'ga' nas

 phyin



 pas/bud med lba ba log pa' i ro

 zhig gda' zhu ba [29] phul bas/

 bshul chags kyi sha za mi nyan/

 cha cho tsho bsdegs gsungs/gyer

 spungs ci mdzad pa yin bsam ste/

 snga gro zhig 'gro sa ni med bsam

 sti skrag go/gyer spungs la jus

 la mig tshum zhig gsungs/yun ring

 zhig phyin nas/khos me lcags lus

 bsam ste/mig phye nas phyi la

 bltas pas/bud med rgyan gos can

 gcig snam bu dkar po gcig 'gril

 gyin 'ong gin 'dugsnga sor bltas

 pas/sngar gyi bud med 'dra ba

 gcig gis/snam bu dkar po gcig

 brkyang pa'i steng na/khong dpon

 slob byon gin 'dug/khos mig bltas

 ma thag snam bu 'then nas gar

 song cha med/chu 'thon kha ru chu

 la subs so/de nas byang re khyim

 pa mang pos mthar bskor te ' dug

 nas/ru khrod na nged gyer spungs

 yin byas pas/sha yang zad/spu

 yang skyes/ngo mi shes par song

 pas/khong pa na re gyer spungs

 grongs nas lo mang /khed min zer

 ro/sngar gyis lo rgyus rnams



 bshad pas/yid ches nas! dang la

 thai chu drangs/de nas ra dkar

 'bri dkar gyi 'o ma drangs/de

 rjes zhag 'ga' nas/gsol zas tshad

 la zhus pas/sku tshad la sos

 sol/



brten pa'i tshe ni lnga brgya brten pa'i tshe ni lnga brgya

bdun bcu rtsa gnyis bzhugs so/ bdun bcu rtsa gsum bzhugs so/

 [p.29.5]



lta yar lung sha ba ring bya ba snyan rgyud/ge khod me ri las

yod /sum nam tho rangs 'phangs sogs skor rnams dang /rgyal po'i

pas/sku mkhar byi ba stag rtse la stong tshad la phul rting /rgyal

brgyab ste/rgyal po khri srong po lig mi rkya'i sku tshab/bla ri

lde btsan bsnyung gis zin nas/ gangs ti se'i mgul du/gser gyi

rgyal po yang dbang du bsdus pa mchod rten lig mi rkya'i sku

lags so/sku ma ngesshel gyis rna tshad cig bzhengs pa/bon rnams so

ru 'od 'phro cir yang sprul lo/ so la bzhugs su jud pa/gu rib kyi

 mi sde la g/yas gral dang khral

 mi bskod pa/rgyal po khri srong

 gis khas blangs dam du bcas pas/

 da lta yang bon zhang zhung snyan

 rgyud gter du ma nub cing /byin

 rlabs che ba yang de tsug lags

 so/rgyas pa zur na yong /bon zab

 mo 'di yi bka' srung zhig btsal

 dgongs nas/shangs kyi gad pa

 'grod shol du/btso'i bsgrub pa

 mdzad del srid pa'i pho rigs

 thams cad dbang du bsdus/de dus

 dbang chen gyi rgyal po nyi pang

 sad kyis srog snying phul te/

 gyer spungs rnams kyis ma bsrub

 par las byed cing /bstan pa srung

 bar khas blangs/srid pa'i [31] mo

 rigs thams cad dbang du bsdus/

 sman ku ma ra tsas srog snying

 phul/ma





 bsgrub par las byed bstan pa

 srung ngo / sku ma nges pa shel

 gyi rna ru 'od 'phro ba las sogs

 cir yang sprul lo/



//lnga pa rings pa mngon gyur lnga pa rtogs pa mgon gyur thun

thun mong ma yin pa ill/ mong ma yin pa ni/



 rshfi spungs zla ba rgyal mtshan

 las sogs mkhas grub mang po la

 sgros 'dogs bead/theg dgu thugs

 su chud/mkhas par hit) shyangs/

 btsun por khrims hsrungs/me ri

 tills las sogs bsgrubs pas/mthu

 dang rdzu 'phrul dang ldan/dka'

 ba mang po spyad/rgyal polig mi

 rkya'i bia'i mchod gnas su

 bzhugs/de dus mchog gi dugos grub

 ma thob pas/nga rang yin bsam

 tiga che ba'i nga rgyal yod pa

 la/



rje'u ta pi hri tsas gdams pa rje sprul pa'i sku ta pi ra tsa

btah pa'i dus su/ de/hri tsar sprul te byon has/

 skal ldan gyi yon mchod gnyis

 pa'o/dregs pa'i nga rgyal bcom/

 rig pa'i gnas lugs bstan/beings

 tshad kyi grogs las bkrol nas/

 mnyam pa'i thang la phyung te/

 rig pa rang sa zin par byas so/

 de nas bka' rgyud lung rim bzhin

 gzhung na yod pa ltar gnang ngo /



rtogs thob dus mnyam du skyes rtogs thob dus mnyam skyes nas/

nas/ rnam mkhyen gyis sangs sprul pa'i sku dang mtshungs par

rgyas gyur pa lags so// 'gro don mdzad do/ rnam mkhyen

 gyi sangs rgyas su gyur pa lags

 so/ ?



The Grand Master (Narrative)

Now let us have a closer look at the main focus of epic concentration in the early lineage: Gyer spungs sNang bzher lod po. He is the pivot of many ZZNG narratives and, according to tradition, also was instrumental in the revelation and codification ofthe bKa'brgyud skor bzhi. His narrative body, comparatively speaking, is huge, particularly if one would include its secondary impact on narratives of other masters.

Bru sgom (13th c. AD) has incorporated by far the longest narrative. He even has included the lengthy Bon ma nub pa'i gtan tshigs narrative, which, in a long digress, gives the reasons why Bon did not decline. It makes up a large part of the total volume of the hagiography. The Bon ma nub pa'i gtan tshigs I have discussed at great length elsewhere. (37) Important to mention is that its present redaction is 14th c. AD or later. The conclusion of a possibly late redaction is partly based on a reference to the Kha byang or, less likely, the Kha byang rgyas pa, which turns out to be the well-known Kha byang: the Sridpa rgyud kyi kha byang chen mo.

Extractions & Inclusions

Another major addition appears in sPa btsun's 1419 lineage history, an ascetic episode of sNang bzher lod po with his student at Da rog Lake. This particular inclusion by sPa btsun does not appear in the other extant earlier lineage histories, it is plausible that he included that part of the narrative in 1419 based on narratives similar to those that still appear in the Ta pi hri tsa'i lung bstan, mJal thebs bar ma, Zhe sa dguphrug. As is known, Ta pi hri tsa is the transcendent Master and immediate source of sNang bzher lod po, in the near transmission or nye rgyud, and thus is his immediate source of the bKa' brgyud skor bzhi teachings. Interestingly, also in the Ta pi hri tsa'i lung bstan we find a reference to a Kha byang, like in the Bon ma nub pa'i gtan tshigs. It therefore probably also depends on the Srid pa rgyud kyi kha byang chen mo. The localising intro is also similar. Perhaps these texts are even from the same workshop?

This suggests to consider a date after 1310 AD for the inclusion of this story as well, when apparently a surge in literary activity on Ta pi hri tsa and sNang bzher lod po is attested.

Late Embellishments?

Important to keep in mind is that major swaths of digressing narrative on sNang bzher lod po were included and occasionally (Bon ma nub pa'i gtan tshigs) even appear as an important, late-looking, separate text.

* First, as the truly paradigmatic narrative on why Bon did not decline.

* Secondly, elaborations on his inner experience.

One would therefore feel inclined to speculate that in the 13th c. AD, Bru chen started the inclusion of the bon ma nub pa-theme (others have included only brief indications of this theme: his skill in making gold bombs). Parts of the bon ma nub pa-theme have been around in Bon narratives since at least the 11th-12th c. AD (the Gab "grel), and appear in the ZZNG since, at least, the 13th c. AD.

sPa btsun, in the 15th c. AD, started the inclusion of the Da rog-narrative. Both narratives appear to be rather late in their current redaction at least. There is a faint suggestion that the Da rog-narrative in its present form may post-date the Kha byang chen mo (1310).

Can we Conclude on an Older Core Story?

The late additional materials moreover mostly deal with quite intractable details of inner experience, otherwise reserved for more esoteric types of rnam thar; but they do not provide much in terms of down to earth historical data or verifiable information. If one were to remove from the hagiography what look like later embellishments, one would then retain a story that structurally is very similar to the other brief accounts. This suggests a next step in the way these stories grew:

* From lists of names in a lineage with added inner experience;

* To stencilled, complex descriptions of persons--ordinary, religious and saintly--in a five-fold classification;

* To eventually ornate versions with disproportionally large digresses on inner religious experience and historical apologetic detail.

All of this may have started with a name 'remembered' from a lineage ...



Lo rgyus rnam thar dang bcas Bon ma nub pa'i gtan tshigs (37)

(Sh.2.1.542.5)--Bru sgom (N.260-267.4)--red. after

(1242-90) 14th-15th c. AD



 [321/260] {{pa}}//rDzogs pa chen

 po zhang zhung snyan brgyud kyi

 bon ma nub pa'i gtan tshigs

 bzhugs so// [322/261] bstan pa

 dar nub kyi lo rgyus bstan pa ni/

 (39)



[543.3, cf. Ma nub, Part la] dang Part la. dang po bstan pa g-yung

po la/de'i dus de'i tshe na/bod drung bon gyis bzung nas dar

yul na grub pa thob pa grangs zhing rgyas par byas/ (40) mkhas

kyis bzhugs kyang/mchog tu gyur btsun grub thob pa rnams kyis

pa spa ji phrom dkar po bzhugs bstan pa bskyang/sgrub pa po

pa'i dus so/zhang zhung na grub rgyal thebs rnams kyis bstan

thob grangs kyis bzhugs kyang pa'dzin/mthu bo che man ngag dang

stong rgyung mthu chen gyi dus/ ldan pa rnams kyis bstan pa

bstan pa gsal byed grangs kyis bsrung/bod dang zhang zhung gnyis

bzhugs kyang/io tsa ba mi bzhi'i ka na bon ma yin pa chos kyi skad

dus yin te/se sha ri; ide gyim tsam med/dus de tsam na zhang

tsha; me nyag Ice tsha; bla dran zhung na grub thob tswo men gyer

pa dang bzhi'o/(38) chen



 dang/bod na spa ji phrom dkar po/

 stong rgyung mthu chen/mkhas pa

 mi bzhi/(41) bla chen dran pa nam

 mkha'i sku tshe'i smad/sprul pa'i

 sku bzhi ni/zhang zhung bkra shis

 rgyal mtshan/gu rub stag wer

 shing slags/ma hor stag gzigs/

 tshe spungs zla ba rgyal mtshan

 dang bzhi'o/ta pi hri tsas gdams

 pa bzhag pa'i/mchog thun mong

 gnyis la mnga' bsnyems pa yi/

 gyer spungs chen po snang bzher

 lod po bzhugs pa'i dus/dus

 kyis'khor lo'i shugs kyis g/yung

 drung gi bon nub pa lags te/



[543.4, cf. Bon ma nub, Part lb] Part lb. rgyal po ni/zhang zhung

rgyal phran grangs kyis bzhugs gis rgyal po lig mi rgya/mon gi

kyang zhang zhung na bon skyong rgyal po pan ra ling/bod kyi

ba'i rgyal po lig mi rkya'i dus/ rgyal po khri srong sde btsan

bod yul na khri srong lde btsan [323/262] bzhugs pa'i dus/de gong

gyi dus/ rgyal po re re la sku khrungs

 pa'i dus su/phyi blon gcig/nang

 blon cig/phrin blon gcig dang

 gsum las med/khri srong sde btsan

 gyi ring la/phyi blon bcu/nang

 blon bcu/phrin blon bcu/sum cu

 yod pa'i dus der rgyal po mnga'

 thang che ste/stag gzig nor gyi

 rgyal po btul nas/tshong lam

 mtha' bar du chu'o chen pos chod

 pa las/shing ring gi zam pa'dzugs

 pa dang/sku srung byed par khas

 blangs so/



[543.5] de'i dus su gyer spungs

snang bzher lod po des/mkhas par

blo sbyangs btsun par khrims

bsrungs/rgyu'bras theg sgo ma lus

par thugs su chud/rdzu'phrul mthu

rtsal la



mnga' bsnyems/rgyal po lig mi

rkya yi bla yi mchod gnas su

bskur bas/... cf. rje ta pi hri

tsa'i lung bstan, intermezzo on

sNang bzher lod po's pride &

meetings with Ta pi hri tsa]



[551.1, cf. Ma nub, Part lb]

gnyis pa la [cf. bar du, p,543,3]

de'i dus su rgyal po phal che ba

la/phyi blon nang blon bar gyi

phrin blon dang gsum las med

las/khri srong mnga' thang rgyas

pas/phyi blon bcu nang blon bcu

phrin blon bcu yod pas/dus der

bod kyi stag gzig nor gyi rgyal

po btul te/ tshong lam mtha' bzhi

che/rong shing ring gi zam par

khas blangs/phrom ge sar dmag gi

rgyal po btul/gnyen lam mtha'bzhi

khas blangs/rgya gar chos kyi

rgyal po btul/yon mchod du mkhas

blangs/



[551.3, cf. Ma nub, Part Ic] Part Ic. de dus zhang zhung gi

zhang zhung bon skyong ba'i rgyal rgyal po lig mi rgya bzhugs na/

po lig mi rkya'i rgyud'dul ba la zhang zhung la dmag stong sde dgu

mnga' ris che ste/ zhang zhung khri dgu'bum yod pa'i steng du/

sde dgu khri dgu'bum/de'i steng sum pa stong bu chung yan chad

du sum pa'i stong bu chung yan mnga' ris yin la/bod la stong sde

chad mnga' ris yin pas/dpung dang bzhi bcu rtsa gnyis/stong bu

shed kyis mi thub ste/rgyu mtshan chung gcig dang rtsa gsum las med

ni/bod la stong sde bzhi bcu rtsa na/zhang zhung gi rgyal po/bod

gnyis stong bu chung bzhi las med kyis rgyal pos mngon gsum du btul

pas/g-yo sgyu dang ngan thabs du mi thub ste/bod kyis rgyal

kyis smad par dran/zhang zhung po'i thugs la brnag pa dang/ngan

rgyal po la khab gsum mnga' gyis g/yo sgyus btul lo snyam mo/

ba'i/chen ma khyung za mtsho de'i dus na zhang zhung rgyal po

rgyal/de'og gu rub sa snang sna la/btsun mo gsum yod pa'i chung

sgron/chung ba snang sna sgron shos/gu rub za snang sgron legs

legs/ lo bco brgyad Ion pa zhig mo bya ba/lo bco brgyad Ion pa

yod/de'i dus bod kyi phrin blon zhig yod pa [324/262] de la/bod

bcu yi nang nas/smra dang g-yo kyis rgyal po'i phrin blon pa/

sgyu'dzoms pa sna nam legs sum zhe ngan la khong gdug pa/smra

sgra la/gser'brong ru gang zhal mkhas la g/yo che ba/snang nam

mthong du bskur legs grub bya ba'i



te/blon pos bu mo thabs kyi bslus zhig gis/gser phye'brong ru gang

te/bod kyi rgyal po'i khab kyi khyer te/snang sgron legs ma la

chen ma byed/longs spyod kyi byin nas'di skad smras so/snang

phyed sbyln par rtsis bgos sgron legs ma khyod lta bu/zhang

pas/[552] bu mo sgron legs kyis zhung rgyal po'i khab yang chun

phrin bkur te/zhang zhung bod kyi byed pa/khyed rang a cang ches

dpung gis mi thub ste/mnga' ris te/bod kyis rgyal pos yang mi

gnam gyis sa bkab pa tsam yod bzod par'dug pas na/'di smad pa'i

la/bod la bre mo'i gzhung tsam thabs yod dam/yod na bod kyi

las med pas so/ ngan thabs dang rgyal po'i khab kyi yang chen ma

g-yo sgyu'i 'dul na/zla ba phyi bya/bod kyi mnga' ris kyi sum

ma la sum pa glang gi gyim shod gnyis ster bar'dug go smras pas/

du/sku rkyen dang chas nas mdu na sgron legs mas na re/zhang zhung

ma la bzhud kyis/der sku bkrong rgyal po la dmags kheb par yod/

shig zer/tshes grangs dang yul'di bod kyi rgyal po la dmag ba bre

ru yong gi brda' ru/slang nga mo'i gzhung tsam las med pas/

chus bkang ba'i nang du gser mngon du btul du mi thub pas/

chung dang g-yu gcig bcug nas ngan dang thabs kyis'dul na/

gda' skad/der sna nam legs gsum zhang zhung rgyal po ni zla ba

gyi rgyal po khri srong la de phyi ta la/zhang zhung yul nas/

ltar snyan du zhus pas/rgyal po sum pa glang gi gyim shod du/sku

rig pa can des na re/chu sla nga rkyen dang chas nas mdun mal [ma

gang ni zla ba phyi ma'i nya la la] bzhud gyis/der sgugs la

zer ba yin/gser g-yu yul dang ra krongs mdzod clg/de'i bya gtong

gser phug dang dung phug tu dmag bdag gis bya zer te/bud med kyi

gis thul cig zer ba yin blo la Itos pa cir yang ma'dod

gsungs/der zhang zhung rgyal po de/de skad smras so/der tshes dus

bod dmag gi rgyu dang thabs kyi la'ong pa'i brda/la btsas kyi

btsun mo bslus nas/gcog bgos pa'i khar'jog bar chad do/der bod gyi

dus dang sa chigs [tshigs] der rgyal blon dmag mi stong sde mang

bkrongs so/ po dang chas'ongs/snang nam legs

 grub dang/rgyal po sngun la/la

 btsas kyi khar byon nas has pas/

 chu sla nga gang gi nang na/gser

 chung gcig/dung chung gcig/dug

 mdel gcig dang gsum gda'o/bod kyi

 rgyal po'i zhal nas/chu sla nga

 gang ni zla ba phyi ma'i nya

 la'ong bya ba yin/gser chung dang

 dung [325/263] chung ni/dwang

 ri'i gser phug dung phug gnyis su

 dmag chos la sgugs shig bya ba

 yin/dug mdel ni brnag pa skyed la

 sgugs la sod cig bya ba yin zer

 te/sgugs so/der rgyal po gnyis

 mjal nas/bod kyi dmag mis zhang

 zhung gi rgyal po krongs so/der

 zhang zhung'bum sde ni pham/bod

 kyi khri sde ni rgyal lo/



[552.4 cf. Ma nub, Part II] de Part II. dus de tsam na/dbus kyi

dang dus mtshams par dbus yar lha sa bya bar mi sde zhig ci bya

lung gi sa skor zhig tu/mi sde bar ma btub ste/spe ne gu bya

khol zhig la nang mug ser ba las ba'i mo ma zhig la mo btab pas/

sogs ci byas cir ma blub pa la/ khyed kyi mi sde phung pa ni sus

sbe ne gu bya ba'i mo ma la mo kyang ma len te/pha med pa'i bu

btab pas/yul'di na pha'i ngos zhig yod pa de'i nal sna zug pa

bzung med pa'i nal bu/bsvo dung yin zer ro/de gang yin byas pas/

bsvo'khor bar yod pa zhig'dug pa khye'u lo bco lnga Ion pa zhig

de'i nal gyis lan/de rnyed na bon la/lcag sna btsugs nas'di yin zer

po rus mi gcig pa bdun gyis sel ro/de la ces phan drin pas/bon po

byas te/glang kham pa la phyir rus sna mi'dra ba bco Ingas sel

bskyon nas/skad rigs mi gcig pa'i chen zhig gyis la/nal bu glang

yul du spyugs na phan zer bzhin kham pa zhig la bskyod la/kha nub

btsal bas rnyed/sel byas gto du ston la skad rigs mi gcig pa'i

rdzas dang chas pa Iho nub kha yul du spyugs na phan zer nas/

che'i yul du spyugs so/der khye'u kha che bye brag smra ba'i yul du

[553] de las cen [las can] blo spyugs so/khye'u yang las'phro

ldan zhig byung ste/kha che rgya can zhig byung ste/rgya gar gi

gar du chos bslabs pas/shin tu yul du chos bslab nas/lo tsha ba

mkhas pa'i lo tsha ba zhig byung bzang po zhig byung nas/ming yang

ste/mlng yang dge bsnyen bho de bho te sa twar btags so/kho

sa dha bya bar btags so/de bod spyugs pa'i rkyen mo ma bon pos

yul du byon pa'i dus su/kho yul byas pas/rgyal blon gyis bar du

nas spyugs pa'i rgyu rkyen snga phra ma gsol ba/bon snubs la chos

phyi thams cad bon pos byas/de mdzod/bka' ni dam pa'i chos bden/

smad cing bsnubs pa'i thabs dran bon'di mnga' thang mtho na/rgyal

te/de dus gros dang mdun thang srid dang/rgyal khams yongs la

bon blon gyis gcod pas/dang po gnod par mchis pas/bon snubs dgos

gshen blon gyi bar du snyan'phra zer te phrin brdzangs so/rgyal

bcug/de nas rgyal gshen gyi bar pos phra ma la ma gsan par/'o na

du'phra ma bcug/padma sa ma bha nyi zla yang snub bam/dus la bab

ba las sogs pa'o pa.n .ti ta mang ste nub pa srid pa las/ched du

po rgya gar nas spyan drangs/der snub du ml rung [326/264] gsungs/

blon po btsun mo ban dhe gsum dus de tsam na/nyi zla'i'od kyang

gros byas nas/nam zhig rgyal po shi ba zhig byung/mon gyi rgyal

bas bon po mtho bar'ong ba snyan po pan ra ling gis rmi has su/

phra sna tshogs nas bcug pas/ gser gyi nyi ma stong gsum yongs

rgyal po'i zhal nas g/yung drung la dro ba zhig shar bas/sa'i

gi bon ni nyi zla'i'od dang'dra gting du nub pa zhig rmis nas/

ste kun la dro/dus la bab na rang rmi lam de rgyal po ha la ya ga

bzhin gyis nub pa las/ched du la

bsnub mi rung bstan pa'i dbu yog

rang la



smin pa yin/gsungs pa la/dus deng bshad/des blon po de shi de

nyi ma'i'od sgribs pa yang byung/ rtso (42) la bshad/de gcig nas

zla ba ma shar shib yang byung/ gcig tu thos nas rgyal po'i snyan

mon gyi rgyal po 7 rmi lam na/ du gsan nas/bod kyi rgyal po'i

nyi ma sa'og tu nub pa rmi bas/ thugs dgongs nas smras pa/nal

ji'dra yong zhes kun tu grags pa bu'di'dra rgyal khams su spyugs

zhig byung/der btsun mo dang ban pas/ zam'phrang dang iho bal gyi

dhe blon po rnams kyis yang yang tshad pas ma shi bar/rgya gar gyi

du'phra ma bcug pas/ji zhig phra yul du chos bslab nas/mkhas par

ma'i blo'gyur nas/rgyal po'i zhal gyur nas bdag la phra ma gsol

nas/ltas ngan gyi nal bu spyugs lugs sam/bon skyong rgyal po

pas lam du bar chod med par pa.n bkrongs lugs sam/mon gyis rgyal

.ti tar tshar nas'ong lugs dang/ po'i rmis has'ong lugs sam/g/yung

nyi zla'i'od'chor lugs dang/mon drung gi bon rin po che'di nub

gyi rgyal po'i rmi lam dang/bon nub'dra gsungs nas bsnubs so/

gshen gyi byed lugs dang/khyed

rnams kyis mdun gros zhu lugs

kyls/da ni bsnubs pa'i dus la bab

pa [554]'dra! bsnub cig gsungs

nas der zhang zhung bon skyong

ba'i rgyal po bkrongs pa dang

dus'dzoms pas bsnubs so/bstun

blon ban dhe gsum gyis bka' rgyud

rnams'byung ba la spyod pa dang/

bstan pa'i sa bon yang ma lus par

byed pa la mos pa la rgyal pos na

re/bka' rgyud di rnams dus kyi

tha ma la dar dus zhig yongs

bar'dug/gsungs nas bstan pa'i

gnyer gtan nas/gshen po rnams

dang lag bsdabs nas so sor gter

du sbas so/dus der bon khrims dar

gyi mdud pa ni grol!



[554.3 cf. Ma nub, Part III] Part III. zhang zhung khri sde ni

rgyal khrims gser gyi gnya' shing yar chad/sum pa stong sde ni mar

ni chag/zhang zhung stong sde yar bud/bod sil bur song pa'i dus

bud/sum pa ni mar bud/bod kyang (43) der/zhang zhung rgyal po'i

rang kha sil bu ru gyur/rgyal khab chen ma khyung za mtsho

po'i mnga' thang thams cad cha rgyal des/bod kyi rgyal po la

cha na bri/nad mug las sogs kyi thugs kyi brnag pa skyes nas/gyer

ml dge ba spungs snang



sna tshogs kyang bod du byung bzher lod po spyan drangs/za'og

ngo/de'i dus su zhang zhung rgyal dgu rim gyi gdan b tings/dar dkar

po'i khab khyung za mtsho rgyal sha ba ris kyi gur phub/'bras

gyls/gyer spungs snang bzher lod chang ding pa drangs/bda' dgu

po la/zab chen gyi gdan bting/ dang'dod dgu ni phul/gdung ba'i

'bras chang ding ba zhus/smre mchi ma khrag tu gtlgs nas zhus

ngag bton nas mthu dang pa/bon skyong rgyal po ni

rdzu'phrul gyis bod la/rgyal po'i bkrongs/bon khrims dar gyi mdud

yus len par zhus pas/bon skyong pa ni zhig/rgyal khrims gser gyi

ba'i rgyal po bkrongs pa dang/ gnya' shing ni chag/bon khams sil

grub rtags rdzu'phrul gyis'gro bur (44) song/g-yung drung bon

ba'dul ba dang/bstan pa'i sa bon gyi bstan pa ni nub/'di lta bu'i

mi nub par dgongs nas zhal gyis dus byung pas/thugs kyi brnag pa

zhes nas/spu bya ba srang gang lo zhu'tshal zhus pas/snang bzher

gsum bsgrub na bod yul tsam lod po'i zhal nas/nga la spu bya

brlags pa dang/khyung bya ba ba gser srang gcig la lo gsum

srang phyed zla ba gsum du bsgrub [327/265] bsgrubs btang na/bod

na/dbus yar lung yul sde bcas pa khams rlung gis'khyer ba yod

phung nus pa dang/rngub bya ba pa'di bya'am/khyung bya ba gser

zho gang zhag nyer gcig bsgrub srang phyed la zla ba gsum

na/rgyal po nyid cham la phab nus bsgrubs nas btang na/yar lung

te/gang bya gsungs/btsun mo byang sogs ka khri srong sde btsan khor

sems dang ldan pas/nyer gcig dang bcas pa phung pa yod pa de

bsgrub par/[555] zhus/mtsho dfrja bya'am/rngub bya ba gser zho gcig

bye'i do/dar dkar sha ba ris kyi la zhag bdun bsgrubs nas btang

gur'og tu/zhag nyer gcig bsgrubs na/rgyal po nyid sod pa yod pa'di

te/thun gsum du bead pa'i sum nam bya'am/gsungs pas/mtsho rgyal

srod la'phangs pas/yar lung kyi gyis zhal nas rngub mdzad

mtsho la phog pas bskams/klu yar par'tshal lo zhus pas/gyer spungs

bas ming mtsho skams lung par chen po da rog mtsho gling la/

grags so/sum nam nam phyed dar dkar sha ba ris kyis gur

la'phangs pas/yar lung la so la phub/za'og dgu rim gyi gdan la

phogs/mi shor sha ba bdun nyal ba bzhugs nas/zhag bdun bsgrubs nas/

la gnyis bsad/lnga rings pas/yar gser zho gcig gsum du bead nas/

lung sha rings la<r> grags so/ sum nam gcig srod la'phang pas/

sum nam gcig tho rangs 'phang yar lung sham po'i mgul gyi mtsho

pas! sku mkhar byi ba stag rtse la rgyab nas/mtsho skams klu

la phog pas/rgyal po nad kyis zin bros/yar lung mtsho skams bya ba

no/der rgyal po na re/'dl gzhan yod do/sum nam gcig nam phar

gang gis kyang ma lan/tho rangs phyed tshur phyed la phang pas/

dzvo'di yongs lugs kyis/zhang sogs kha spun po'i ri la sha ba

zhung rgyal po krongs pa la/gyer bdun nyal ba la rgyab nas/gnyis

spungs chen pos thugs kyi brnags shi lnga rengs pas/sha ba rengs

pa byas pa yin par/'phrig pas kyi ri bya ba yod do/sum nam gcig

shes/de la gus pas tho rangs'phang pas/sku mkhar



btud cing zhu ba'bul ba las thabs byi ba stag rtse la rgyab nas/

med par shes te/rta pa brgya rgyal po bsnyung gis zin no/

mngags te/de la gser'brong ru rgyal po rig pa can de'i zhal

gang bskur nas brdzangs pas/gyer nas/g-yung drung bon gyi bstan pa

spungs la zhu ba phul la bsnubs bon skyong rgyal po

gdan'drongs las shog cig/de la krongs/da nang tho rang tswo'ong

bdag gso ba'i thabs yod de/gdan lugs kyis/gyer spungs chen po

ma drongs na bdag'chi bar gyur thugs khros pa yin pas/gser

ro/zhes gsungs pas/bod kyi blon phye'brong ru gang khyer la/mi

po rta pa brgya gdan'dren du rta brgya thams pa chos shig/

btang nas/dra bye'i mtsho'gram du gyer spungs de la nga gso ba'i

phyin pas/rdzi'u las sogs mi thabs yod do/de gdan 'grong (45)

rnams la dris pas nged bod rgyal na nga ni myur du 'chi ba'dra

bsnyung gis zin pa la/gyer spungs gsungs so/der rta pa brgya drwa

spyan 'dren pa lags/gar bzhugs bye'i lung par phyin nas/zhang

dris pas/rdzi'u gcig na re/gyer zhung lug gi rdzi la [328/266]

spungs ni sku cir yang ma nges bod kyi rta pa rnams kyis gtam

gar yang sprul nus pas/mos 'dun dris pa/gyer spungs thugs kyis

gang snang ba la zhu ba phul cig/ brnag pa phyungs nas bod kyi

zhal mngon du ston [556] par gyur rgyal po bsnyung/gyer spungs la

ro zhes zer/khong rnams kyis sku rgyal'bul/spyan'dren pas gang

mtsho la gru dang gzings kyis na bzhugs dris so/rdzi bos smras

bead nas phyin pas/dngos su mi pas/mtsho gling nye brag dkar po

bzhugs par gdan gyi thog na shel ma gi'i rtsa na dar dkar sha ba

gyi rna ru gzha''od'phro ba zhig ris kyis gur phub nas yod/sku ma

'dug/bskor ba dang lha phyag nges te cir yang sprul zer ro/

byas/gser rnams phul nas zhu don der mtsho la gru btang nas phyin

gsol bas/gyer spungs nyid du gyur pas/za'og gi gdan dgu rim gyi

te gsungs pa/kye ma dus kyis steng na/shel gyi rna rur sprul

dbang bsgyur nas/zhang zhung bon nas'dug pa la/gser phye'brong ru

gyi rgyal po bkrongs/'phrul ngag gang phul nas bskor ba dang lha

bon gyi bstan pa bsnubs/log par phyag byas pas/shel gyis rna ru

phyogs pa'i rgyal blon la/dus kyi gyer spungs su sku bzhengs nas

la yog ma du'am/srung ma'i bka' gsungs pa/bon skyong rgyal po

chad ma byung ngam/'di yi bar bkrongs/g-yung drung bon gyi

chod ji ltar sel/rang las rang la bstan pa bsnubs/thugs las brnag

bsdigs pa'dra/gsungs der bod'bang pa skyes nas kyang/bod kyi rgyal

kyis nan bskyed nas zhus pas/ po bkrongs nas bod khams phung

ngas smras pa byin byed na/khyed nas'gro ba la/da ngas smras pa

kyi zer ba bzhin byed gsungs/ khas len nam gsungs/blon pos zhus

blon pos khri srong Ide btsan kyi pa/rje khri srong sde btsan gyis

zhal nas/g-yung drung gi bon zhal nas/dang po g/yung drung bon

bsnubs pa ni/ngas ma lan te/bho bsnubs pa yang ngas ma nyes te/

dhe sa tva dang/blon po rnams bho ti sa ta dang rgya gar gyi

kyis phra mas lan/ci mkhan po rnams dang/'khor gyi

 blon po rnams kyis



ltar bka' stsal bzhin bgyid pas/ phra ma lags/da ci ltar gsungs pa

gshegs par zhu'tshal/zhus pas/ bka' nyan zhus pas/'o na nga'i

gyer spungs mnyam pa'i thugs tshig bzhi'di ster ram/ngas spyod

mnga' bas'byon bar bka' gnang/ pa'i zhang zhung gi bon sde sum

spyan drangs te/rgyal po'i spyan brgya drug bcu'di mi bsnubs pa

sngar phebs pa dang/rgyal dang gcig/gu rub gyi mi sde'di la

pos'gyod bshags rgyal dang chas yul yar lung sogs kha byin nas/

pa phul/gus pa'dud dang gsol ba bla dang blon gyis khral med bar

btab/gyer spungs mnyes pa'i g/yas gral la jog pa dang gnyis/

gtsigs bzhin dam bcas te/gyer rje lig mi rgya'i sku tshad du/

spungs kyi thugs dam gsang sngags gser gyi mchod rten la g/yung

rigs sngags this sngags yang drung'doms gang dgar ba dang/

gsang bla med kyi skor dang bcas khyung za mtsho rgyal gyi spyan

pa/gang du yang spyad du yod cing sngar/lhu bcu gnyis mgo dang bcu

mi bsnubs par khas blangs/gu rub gsum (46) gyi stong jal

kyi mi sde zhang zhung du bos te/ ba/[329/267] gtsigs su sbyin nam

sa yul gang bzang dang gad kyi gsungs so/ der dbang blon mi

byi ba [557] stag tshar bzhag gsum gyis khas blangs so/de nas

nas/dmag khral las gsum med par gyer spungs rje'i spyan sngar

khas blangs/zhang zhung rgyal bdan skyod nas/ phyir Idog gi

po'i sku gsung thugs kyi rten cho ga gsang this'phar ma dgu

gser gar las sku tshad bzhengs pa bskor mdzad/ rje'i bu ga dgu nas

dang/lhu bcu gnyis mgo ral dang gser gyi skud pa dar skud sgril

bcu gsum la mi stong bcu gsum ma tsam re yang bton no/srang

btsun mo 7 drung du bskyel bar [cf. zho?] la gcal bas sum nam

khas blangs/bon gshen rnams kyang gcig bton no/de'i rjes la khrag

rgyal po'i g/yas gral la jog par ngan dang mag dang chu ser las

khas blangs/gyer spungs chen pos sogs pa mang du bton nas bsnyungs

kyang/rgyal po nad las grol bar pa gdangs so/rgyal po yang shin

mdzad/yom mchod kyis rtsis bzung tu drin nas/zhang zhung bon sde

nas/bstan pa rin po che'i srog rnams ma bsnums so/ gu rub mi sde

bzung/de ltar bstan pa dar nub la yul sog kha dang/gral g/yas la

yang/dus kyi'phel'grib yong du bzhag go/ zhang zhung rgyal po'i

tho zhing/las zad nub pa'i dus la sku tshad dang mi stong (47) bcu

slebs pa dang/btsun mo ban dhe gsum btsun mo'i spyan sngar

gdug pa can rnams kyis rkyen byas brdzangs so/der g/yung drung gi

nas/dbang med par bsnubs pa las/ bon dar zhing rgyas par bzhugs

rgyal po nyid bon la yang blo ma dus/bka' byin rlabs kyi bdag po

log bsam pa gting ma'chugs pas/ gyer spungs snang bzher lod po

gyer spungs chen pos kyang de la/mkhas pa grub thob stong

ltar bka' gnang par go'o/ rgyung mthu chen gyis zhus te/

 bon sgo bsam gyis mi khyab pa

 zhus so/de rnams kha byang rgyas

 par gsal/'di ni bsdus



 pa'i lo rgyus bon ma nub pa 7

 gtan tshigs zur tsam bstan pa

 lags so//sarba mangga la.m/

 dge'o////



[557.4] gyer spungs chen po de NB. the (Srid pa rgyud kyi) Kha

nyid kyang/bya gcan dud 'gro ri byang is also mentioned in rje ta

dvags gar yang sprul nus pa dang/ pi hri tsa'i lung bstan, p.248.5:

me chu sa rlung 'byung ba la dus de tsam na g/yung drung bon

thogs rdugs med pa dang/rgyal po gyi bstan pa nub ste/nub lugs ni/

nyi pang sad dang stag ri rong kha byang ltar lo rgyus kyi rgyud

las sogs dam can mi min thams cad nas shes par bya'ol

ma ltar'du zhing bran du'khol ba

dang/rtogs pa gdeng dang ldan pas

rnams par mi rtog pa'i dgongs pa

la'du'bral med cing/phyi nang

snang ba thams cad rang gsal

sgrib med zang thai du gzigs pa

dang/de las sogs pa'i mchog thun

mong gi grub rtags/yon tan du ma

ni tshur rol pa'i bios dpyad par

mi nus shing/dgung lo lnga brgya

bdun cu rtsa gsum [558] nas'gro

don chub nas mya ngan'da''tshul

bstan pa'0/



dPon chen bTsan po: The Cultural Translator

dPon chen bTsan po almost is an example for the opposite. He is said to hail from the same Gu rib/rub clan--supposedly from Zhang zhung--that sNang bzher lod po also is from. He too is an important link in the chain of transmission, with a special status, both as a focal point of group identity and as a lineage figure. But he never gained the momentum of sNang bzher lod po, and he did not attract the mass of the latter's 'inner' hagiographical narration nor of his momentous historical involvement. dPon chen bTsan po's hagiography instead basically reads like a slightly more elaborate version of the usual paradigm. dPon chen btsan po, is believed to be the link where teachings emerge from the Zhang zhung cultural sphere of the six adepts from sMar into the Tibetan world (and also for transmitting separately the oral from the experiential teachings, to the six Lamas of the Upper Transmission (bKa' brgyud) and the five lamas of the Lower one (sNyan brgyud). Interestingly, his crucial position between Zhang zhung and Tibetan cultural spheres is only implicit, in biographies of his Tibetan students:

1. dPon chen lHun grub mu thur, of the Khyung po clan, from Ra ring country.

2. Gu ge Shes rab blo ldan, of the sNyel clan from Gu ge Nang khongs in Western Tibet.

In fact, much narration on him appears in narratives of his students. Here we may have a contrasting and illuminating sample where later reconstruction and embellish-ment of narratives did not take place. In the lineage thangka of the ZZNG kept in a German collection (perhaps 15th c.) and reproduced in Karmay (1998:12) (see above p.73), dPon chen bTsan po appears in row five from above, the third from the left, numbered 41 in Karmay's book.

Concluding Remarks

Ideology & Convention

Both ideologically and conventionally, there are diverging historicities involved, which often shift between major groups within the lineage. Ideologically, the groups may in fact be viewed as carriers & examples of historicities, as graded steps in construed antecedents. They bridge the gap, almost cosmologically, from transcend-dent origins: via mythic figures, and legendary saints, to emanation in known humans.

The cosmological parts of the ZZNG Great perfection discourse neatly match this old conundrum of crossing over from transcendent origins, beyond existence & non-existence, to existence in space and time. ZZNG cosmology, such as appears in the 'Khor lo bzhi sbrag & sGron ma drug, matches the epistemologically phrased process of straying from primordial state, but it deviates considerably from mDzod. mDzod cosmology and theogony involve relatively unique narratives on primordial eggs and mythic episodes of darkness & light (Blezer 2000). E.g., in texts such as the Srid pa'i mdzod phug, Bon mDzod 1-0-1, the rTsa rgyud gsang ba bsen thub or the rTsa rgyud nyi zer sgron ma (similar).

Conventions & Family Traditions

The life-stories of the ZZNG Masters probably first appeared in written form with Yang ston chen po, at the turn of the 11th c. AD. Before that time, only a few Masters were remembered, the rest was received wisdom, in the form of lists of names and narrative traditions. The early Masters come in homogeneous groups, they often reveal somewhat similar naming conventions and share many characteristics and a group identity, with divine/mythic, legendary and human segments. Conventionally, early groups often feature exemplary figures at the beginning or end, who more or less carry group identity. They are lineage types. The whole trajectory from primeval awareness to codified teachings in space and time thus is dramatically enacted by surprisingly few 'persons'. The rest, approximately until the time of recording, appears a literary construct, that may or may not have a historical basis; who can tell.

This localised convention or craft of laying out a lineage reveals a certain mnemonic efficiency peculiar to story traditions, whole lineage groups are recreated or invented based on very sparse traditional data.

Zhang zhung & Yar lung Conventions

The mnemonic structure of lineages from the ZZNG workshops is reminiscent of similar constructs in Tibetan mnemonic culture.

A very well-known example is the post-hoc design, re-creation and inter-polation of earlier Yar lung dynastic groups (such as in Haarh, 1969, and Linnenborn, 2004), in workshops of other Tibetan historical craftsmen. There too, more or less discrete segments are visible, which cross the gap between the human and the divine: divine descent & mythic ancestors; legendary figures; and finally human-looking or historical figures. Especially in the early parts structurally similar collectives appear, also with equally unimaginative, collective names (the seven Khri, the six Legs, lDe &c.). There, groups also concentrate narration and characteristics in a few epic bearers of identity, e.g. gNya' khri btsan po or Gri gum btsan po.

This does not preclude that early figures would be based on people that existed in space and time, also beyond narratives, but it reveals that there is a certain logic to the conventions of the construction of lineages that surpasses local workshops and relates to mnemonic, possibly oral cultures.

More on Structure

Structurally, early life stories, hinge on only a few unverifiable names, on famous clans and places, but mainly on nondescript details of 'inner experience' and accom-plishments, rather than on historical detail. Place names seem to play a major role in mapping out or establishing a sacred geography, nunc pro tunc (it may be more creative than merely recording received wisdom). Catalogues of places often are a hidden backbone of mythic hagiography. They would typically be inserted with hindsight and thus mostly relate to time and sensibilities of the period of composition.

There are at least three phases leading up to the life stories of (probably) historical persons, which all show traces of recent textual codification, starting the 11th or 12th c. AD:

1. Mere names in a lineage plus emblematic saintly 'experience'.

2. Five-fold elaboration scheme, incidentally defining 3 person types.

3. Epic concentration: inclusion of lengthy and late digresses on the greatest hits on 'inner experience', only for a few, select, 'epic' figures.

These culture heroes usually are figures with a high citation-index, more often than not Masters involved in textual codification.

Note on Narrative & Chronology

As said, in history, chronology usually implies temporal causality. The basic descriptive pattern sought for "this then that", which often implies causality with hindsight. Narrative rather prioritises structures and potentials for meanings.

Academic prioritisation of chronology over religious/mythic narrative has produced demonstrable blind spots in our understanding of non-modern Tibetan historicities and thus leaves major resources of Tibetan knowledge systems unused. The topic at hand is a telling example for this resulting mismatch.

But there also are some very surprising continuities, from early, non-chronological--in fact, instead often spatial--orderings of Tibetan narratives, right into lineage histories. Due to a fixation on text types that reveal chronology and temporal causalities, atypical ones have been almost completely overlooked.

Early, purely chronological systems are of course also extant, since the earliest layers of Dunhuang documents (such as the Old Tibetan Annals).

Time, Narrative, Chronology and Order

As discussed above, examples of non-chronological orderings are ritual recitations of legitimising precedents and persons, recited prior to ritual procedures. Some of those were recorded already very early-on, in ancient, non-Buddhist Tibetan ritualistic documents from Dunhuang from before the early or mid-11th c. AD (e.g. PT1285, cf. the so-called Catalogues of Principalities and the like).

While these narratives all are in time, they are not necessarily ordered chronologically but, e.g., spatially, or according to ritual necessity. Old recitations of ritual antecedents clearly are continuous with later orderings of similar legitimising narratives, as they appear in transmission histories that usually are more explicitly chronological. For example, the ubiquitous transmission lineages (brgyud rim), which, as here, often accompany and authenticate important teaching texts. As we saw, these also often involve cataloguing of sacred space. Temporality is certainly not the only convention of continuity. There also is the very basic fact of systematising data, be that into spatial, ritualistic, ideological, or, indeed, temporal sequences.

Bar snang khu byug One of the ordinary (!) powers of dPon chen btsan po also was to manifest as a Cuckoo. Detail of a Lineage Thangka in a German collection; 15th c. ?, Karmay (1998:4)

Appendix on mNang

When Gyer spungs chen po sNang bzher lod po receives his ZZNG transmissions--here consciously rendered in the Present Tense--from the last lineage holder(s) of each of the three interrupted lineages and the uninterrupted one: to wit, from sTag wer Shing slag can, Zhang zhung bKra shis rgyal mtshan, and Ma hor sTag gzig (rgyud pa 'khrug can), and from Tshe spungs Zla ba rgyal mtshan (rgyudpa 'khrug med), YST.5.63f--that is, the sNyan rgyud rgyas bshad chen mo--usually phrases that as follows: [some previous Master] gyis bdams pa mn[a]ng. The first and most logical solution would be to read mnang as an odd alternative spelling for gnang: to give, grant, bestow, etc. (49) Also, mnang here clearly is not an isolated spelling mistake: it appears three times in the passage.

The use of bdams pa for gdams pa is of course well within the range of the orthographical variance that one would expect for these texts and does not worry me too much. The alteration gnang/mnang is certainly not as common a variant as is the pair gdams pa and bdams pa. The exchange of a sngon 'jug "ma" by a " 'a", for instance in Bon MSs from Dolpo, is very common indeed; as in mtshan and 'tshan (which in fact occurred in the above-mentioned name Tshe spungs Zla ba rgyal mtshan, in YST.5). The alteration of sngon 'jug "ma" instead of "ga"--in my recollection at least--is not common. In fact, at the moment I do not recall any other instance, except gnang/mnang. So, I think we well ought to be careful here and would need additional evidence to be sure.

mNang

The word mnang has been recorded with different meanings, for instance: 1) Ives Waldo:

mnang med pa--hell of waves of torment (one of the {sems can dmyal ba brgyad} eight hot hells) [IW].

But here mnang med pa looks like a variant for the more regular phrase mnar med pa, or aviici hell, the waveless or incessant (maximum torture) one. Well, if mnar ba means torture then mnar med doesn't seem to add up here but let's not go into that now. Anyway, I have a hunch that the alternative spelling ofthe word in this context implies "no escape". Considering the narratives about that very nasty 'loka', that would certainly be an understandable variant.

There is an illuminating passage in the mKha' ' gro rin chen 'phreng ba'i rgyud, on p.87. Purportedly, this text was translated from Sanskrit. The gter ston Lung ston Lha gnyan is said to have received it from Ri khrod pa Tshe dbang rig 'dzin. Karmay, in his Catalogue, on p.11, dates Lung ston Lha gnyan to 1088-1124 or 1112-1148. The mKha' 'gro rin chen 'phreng ba'i rgyud is included in the Ye khri mtha' sel, the so-called Indian cycle of rdzogs chen, which, as is well known, is likewise considered to have Indian roots.

In section 34, which strives to ascertain the proper spelling of words (heard), on p.86f. there appears an interesting series of paired words, which all sound or look fairly similar, yet are very different (in meaning). Fortunately, for us, each entry comes with a brief defining context. This section is preceded by chapters on the proper manner of reading mantras (32) and the pronunciation of mantras in the bKa' 'gyur(33). In short, apart from the rituals pertaining to the mandala and the like, this text also has a lot of other interesting things to offer, such as materials on phonetics and other linguistic matters. I really would need to spend more time with this text--significantly more than I presently have--to be sure about anything. This text certainly deserves closer study; but since it is only tangential to our present concern, for now, I will merely quote a small representative sample:



 ... saphyogs dma' dang lus kyi rma/

 byin gyis brlabs dang chu dar rlabs/

 bros dor mnang dang mi bu mna'/...



For our purposes, that passage turns out to be very helpful. Here (too?) mnang seems to relate to something like escaping (bros) or abandoning (dor).

I don't think that the meaning that is recorded in this passage is necessarily very relevant to our particular context of use, but it may relate to what Ives Waldo has recorded as an alternative rendering for avIci hell. In any case, mnang, however infrequent it may be, is an existing word after all, and that may go some distance to explain the likelihood of orthographical confusion, somewhere down the line.

2) There is an on-line verb dictionary the Verbinator 2000 (50) that includes mnang and mnangs as different aspects of the same verb and has an interesting array of meanings:

mnang: Present: mnang DK. Past: mnangs DK. Future: mnang DK. Imperative: mnangs DK. Meaning: To satisfy, to be satisfied, to be possible DK.

Its authorship and origins are unknown to me and I have no idea which sources or data it is based on (apart from other such works, as referenced in the document; legenda?).

3) Tsanlha: mnang bar bzhagpa (legs su brgyan pa < brDa yig blo gsal mgrin rgyan).

4) In translations from Sanskrit mnangs translates Skt bhoga

5) In the Li shi'i gur khang we find nor pa'am srid.

All five semantic fields of mnang do not seem to apply to the ZZNG context. This should encourage us to pursue the option of an alternative spelling for gnang after all. We therefore need an occurrence of mnang in a context similar to the one found in the ZZNG, meaning gnang. By stroke of luck, in several bsGrags pa gling grags editions, I found a passage that has exactly what I was looking for, evidence for mnang and gnang, as variants, in a similar context of: giving, bestowing or granting.

This is a passage where the sPu rgyal King sTag ri gnyan gzigs bestows various honours upon his sku gshen (which Samten-la so nicely translated as "body guard"). The name of his sku gshen is Ra sangs kyi bon po Khri ne khod (cf. Khyung po Ra sangs rje rgyal, elsewhere). As you will know, sTag ri gnyan gzigs is said to be the great-grandson of lHa tho tho ri gnyan btsan and the grandfather of Khri Srong btsan (sgam po); so about that time (the late sixth to early seventh century AD). In this passage he bestows honours on his sku gshen for rescuing him from prison, when he was in dire straits, captured by the King of lHo brag.

Dolanji, Khedup Gyatso (reportedly based on the 'Oslo MS'):



 p.87.5ff: (... bon gyi gsas mkharyang mang bar bzhengs so/)

 drin lan dang che thabs su bon gshen la [p.88] rtsigs byin pas/

 gral g yas gral rtse la sku gshen de 'jog

 bal po'i gdan khri dang za 'og gi gdan/

 yig tshang du gser gyi phud bu gnang ngo /



bKa' brten, Vol.72:



 p.53.3ff: (... bon gyi gsas mkhar yang bzhengs so/ )

 drin len dang che thabs su bon gyi sku gshen la gtsigs byin pa/

 gral g-yas gral gyi rtse la sku gshen de 'jog

 ba so'i khri dang za 'og gi gdan bting /

 yig tshang du gser gyi phud bu gnang ngo /



An edition that Per Kvaerne styles 'Nagchu MS' and that tends to be more verbose, reads the last part as:

... yig tshang gser gyis phud bu dang 'thing gis bum pa yang mnang /

A MS that Dondrup Lhagyal has edited (styled 'sNyan(g) rong MS' in Bellezza), which reportedly is very close to the 'Nagchu MS'--and may be even more verbose than that one already is--has:



 f.35.3ff: (... bon gyis gsas mkhar mangpo yang bzhengs so/)

 drin lan dang che thabs su/ sku gshen la rtsig phul ba/

 g yas gral gyi rtse la sku gshen 'jog

 ba so'i gdan khri dang za 'og gis gdan gnang /

 yig tshang du gser gyis phud bu dang 'thing gis bum pa yang mnang /



This passage is in fact part of a very involved story with a long and complex history, more about this will follow at another occasion. I assumed that in this context mnang is simply represents a different way of spelling a more familiar word, such as, perhaps, gnang. Thus, the phrase probably will have to be emended to: [some previous Master] gyis gdams pa gnang.

I have a hunch that we would be well advised to separate our query for the meaning of mnang from that for mnangs, because in their real occurrences seem to tend into rather different semantic directions. In the following I shall gather some occurrences and semantical deliberations on mnangs.

mNangs

In 'OT' documents. One meaning at least (mnangs su bcad see PT1287 (51) and PT0016 & ITJ0751) (52), roughly seems to relate to the mnangs/bhoga semantic field mentioned in 5 and 6; in this case: appropriating livestock or property, as booty or something like that? I therefore did not mention that again. I presume that the mnangs su bcad pa that bTsan lha rendered as bdag gir bzung ba relates to such occurrences.

An occurrence of mnangs in the Ge khod lha la rten mkhar gzugs (KT.242:357-461; supposedly a gter ma text, but as of yet of unclear origins) seems perfectly in line with the 'OT' occurrences.

Nathan Hill in The Old Tibetan Chronicle, Chapter I, in RET 10, (53) p.98, n.4, has some interesting references for mnangs as well:

"Uray (1966: 245 n. 21) tentatively suggests that mnangs is the past tense of a verb 'to kill' and related as the causative to the verb nongs 'to die.'

Zhang (1985) defines the word as 'wealth.'" (54)

Sigla

dBra Nyams rgyud rgyal ba'i phyag khrid, 'by' Bru chen rGyal ba gyung drung (N.B. contains sPa bsTan rgyal dpal bzang po's lineage history!), published by mKhan po dBra tsa bsTan 'dzin dar rgyas, Kathmandu 2002, NB. deb gzugs; cf. Sh

GS rDzogs pa chen po zhang zhung snyan rgyud bka' rgyud skor bzhi, in rGyal gshen gSung rabs Nyams zhib dPe skrun Khang, Vajra Publications: Kathmandu 2006, NB. deb gzugs

K.I bKa' 'gyur, 'first' edition, see AYKC

K.II bKa' 'gyur, 'second' edition

K.III bKa' 'gyur, Mongyal Lhasay Rinpoche, 'third' edition, Sichuan 1996

KII.110 Zhang zhung snyan rgyud, contained in volume 110 of the 'second' edition of the bKa' 'gyur (K.II), this is the edition that is followed in Kvaerne et al. (2003)

N History and Doctrine of Bon-po Ni.spanna-Yoga, published by Lokesh Chandra and Tenzin Namdak, New Delhi 1968, NB. deb gzugs

N2 rDzogs pa chen po zhang zhung snyan rgyud kyi gsung pod, published by Yongs 'dzin Sangs rgyas bstan 'dzin, New Delhi n.d., NB. dpe cha

NT rDzogs pa chen po zhang zhung snyan rgyud bka' rgyud skor bzhi gsung pod, in Zhang Bod Shes rig dPe tshogs (Zhang Bod Educational and Cultu<t>ral Texts), arranged by sNang mtha' bsTan 'dzin nyi ma, 770 pp., 2005 Tibet Autonomous Region, NB. deb gzugs

NyR Zhang zhung snyan brgyud kyi bon skor bka' brgyud skor bzhi, blockprint from Nyag rong, printed by Nyag rong ba bya btang mChog sprul Tshe dbang 'gyur med, the dPe rtsis is by Shar rdza bKra shis rgyal mtshan (1859-1934), NB. dpe cha

Sg Zhang zhung snyan brgyud kyi bon skor, manuscript from bSam gling, Dol po, NB. dpe cha

Sh.2 Zhang zhung snyan rgyud skor, published by Sherab Wangyal together with the sNyan rgyud nam mkha' 'phrul mdzod nges skor, Dolanji 1972, NB. deb gzugs; cf. dBra

Snell Zhang zhung snyan brgyud bka' brgyud skor bzhi, microfilm of blockprint of D.L. Snellgrove, JOLM/3/471 (filmed by J. Briggs 9-Oct-1962), NB. dpe cha

T.III bka' brten, published by Sokde Tenpai Nyima Rinpoche, Lhasa 1996; this edition came out together with the third edition of the bka' 'gyur by Mongyal Lhasay Rinpoche but is actually the first edition, it corresponds to the Osaka/Kathmandu catalogue

TNL rDzogs pa chen po zhang zhung snyan rgyud bka' rgyud skor bzhi'i gsung pod, Triten Norbutse Library, 2002, NB. dpe cha

YST Zhang zhung snyan rgyud bon skor, published by Yongs 'dzin Sangs rgyas bstan 'dzin, Dolanji 1974, NB. deb gzugs

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Henk Blezer

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(1) Actually only five should be counted, see below, other texts here have Lazlaba'i bla ma lnga.

(2) The first (mngal skyes) seems to be a dislocated group heading of the rGyud pa 'khrug med, in analogy to the previous three headings at the rGyud pa 'khrug can, to wit, drod skyes, sgong skyes, and rdzus skyes.

(3) Also taught by Zlabargyal mtshan {ring brgyud), the last lineage holder of the rGyud pa 'khrug med, last of the last group, the mKhas pa lo pari gyi rgyud pa (bzhi). Also carries the name Ra sangs (YST.6.152.5).

(4) Cf Dharmabodhi, or even more interestingly: Bodhidharma, the legendary patriarch of Chinese Chan.

(5) Slob dpon 'Phrin las nyi maRin po che: contemporary king sTag ri gnyan gzigs (5th/6th c. AD?). He spread the teaching to Sum pa through Sum paA ba ldong and through him it went to China, through rGya sgom gSal ba !od chen (or directly to both from Khrin ne khod); Namkhai Norbu (<Srid pa spyi mdos): by Krin ne khol, which he believes to be a contemporary.

(6) The order of transmission varies (cf Legs bshadmdzod, f.146b); this order suggests Sum paandKhyung po Abaldong are different.

(7) See the first lineage-holder of the rGyud pa "khrug can. drod skyes 'Chi med Isug phud nas brgyud pa.

(8) See the second lineage-holder ol die rGyud pa 'khrug can, drod skyes 'Chi med Isug phud nas brgyud pa and the first of die sgong skyes Ye gshen tsug phud nas brgyud pa.

(9) Cf. (lie Buddhist figure Grum ye shcs rgyal mtshan. aka Grum siting slag can.

(10) Royal preceptor to. so contemporary of, Lig myi rhya; therefore traditionally dated to approximately 7th or 8th (Bon sources) e, AD, depending on -which Yar lung Emperor he is associated with. He is also said to have been taught by Tshe spungs zla ba rgyal mtshan [ring brgyud) and 'fa pi ra tsa (in vision: nye brgyud).

(11) Many thanks go to Gerd Manusch, for carefully reading and improving the redaction of this article.

(12) Forthcoming in Oxford & Bonn PIATS, Emerging Bon, Bonn 2010.

(13) For an overview of historical genres see Vostrikov 1962 and van der Kuijp 2005.

(14) See Blezer 2006:436; with my sincere apologies for the lack of elegance to quote myself.

(15) To avoid the problematic term "paradigm", following general custom, I here rephrase historical sensibility or consciousness as historicity. Following Neil Whitehead (2003:xi), I define the term historicity as "cultural schema[ta] and subjective attitudes that make the past meaningful ... the cultural proclivities that lead to a certain historical consciousness within which ... histories are meaningful ... Historicity thus encompasses historiography, which is the culturally particular methodology of how the past may be written or otherwise expressed."

(16) Early, purely chronological systems are of course also extant from the earliest layers of Dunhuang documents (e.g., the Old Tibetan Annals).

(17) See e.g., Beckwith 1981 and 2009, and Kapstein 2000; for a tentative chronology, see Martin 1991.

(18) Cf. Walter, forthcoming 2009.

(19) Cf., amongst others, Richardson 1998 and Li and South Coblin 1981, Takeuchi et al. 2009.

(20) But cf. the earliest samples of beginning narrativisation, such as we find in the relatively late Dunhuang source called the Old Tibetan chronicle (PT1281 and IOL1284).

(21) See the comparative symposium and publication project on Framing Discourse and the Special Case of 'Nativism' in Buddhist Environments.

(22) These stories about places seem to have played a major role in establishing (so not merely recording) a sacred geography.

(23) See N.1.38.2-40.5, Sh.2.1.562.6ff and YST.5.14.4ff (cf. YST.5.46.4).

(24) See N.1.55.6-56.6, and Sh.2.1.516.5.

(25) See Sh.2.1, p.514.2-5: dgung lo brgyad cu bgrangs pa dang /mdo khams kyi khams pa gnyis kyis gdams ngag zhus nas/ don thams cad rdzogs pa dang / da dpe gnang bar zhus pas/ sgros 'dogs gcod pa don gyi rgyud pa la/ yig chung gi lhad ma zhugs pa zhig dgos pa yin/ nga la yi ge ka tsam zhig yod re gsungs nas dbu bsnyung bzhes/ phyis yang ston gyis yi ger 'debs par zhu ba phul/ nan bskyed nas yang yang zhus pas/ 'bri mkhan gsum gyi bla ma'i thugs la bris pas zhag nyi shu'i khongs su 'bri rgyu byung / de nas dbu bzung nas dpon sras rnams kyis kyang / brjed tho than thun yig chung du zhus nas bkod pa yang gda'o/.

Cf. N.1, pp.54.5-55.6: sku tshe'i gzhug la mdo khams kyi khams pa gnyis kyis dpe zhu byas pas/ bla ma'i zhal nas sgros 'dogs gcod pa don gyi rgyud pa la/ yig chung gyi lhad ma zhugs pa yin pas/ bla yi ge 'bri ru med pa la/yang ston gyis zhu ba phul nas/ nged gnyis kyis brjed tho bkod pa ma yin pa'i/ nga la yi ge khyi lce tsam gcig yod re gsungs nas/ dbu bsnyung bzhes pas/ de la khams pa yid ches nas/ 'bris mkhan gsum gyis bla ma'i thugs nas bris [55] pas! zhag nyi shu'i khongs su gsum btub ma bcu gsum 'phring/ shog gu brgya nyi shu tsam byung / de man ched dpon sras rnams kyis kyang / brje tho yig chung than thun zhus so/.

(26) But cf. beginning lineage part of the sNyan rgyud brgyas bshad chen mo (YST.5)?

(27) See sPa btsun bsTan rgyal seng ge dpal bzang po's (Zhang zhung snyan rgyud kyi) brGyudpa'i bla ma'i rnam thar (N.1) below, the colophon to Bru rgyal ba g yung drung's text in Sh.2.1/K.III.101.1, and the rDzogs pa chen po zhang zhung snyan rgyud kyi bka' rgyud skor bzhi'i 'chad thabs, p.28.5-29.2: (gnyis pa 'grol byed kyi khrid la gnyis ste/) lo rgyus byung khungs/ dngos [29] gzhi'i gdam pa gnyis so// dang po ni/ rnam thar rgyas bsdus gang rung tshar gcig bshad/ gnyis pa dngos po'i gdam pa la gnyis ste/ bka' rgyud dang nyams rgyud do/.

(28) Sh.2.515.1ff.: lo gnyis shu'i dus su bru la stod pa dang / mkhu ston dbang phyug la thug nas shes rgyud grol ba dang / g yas bru ston rje btsun/ rme'u ston lha ri gnyan po rnams la thug nas dus tshod de'i gra thog la mkhas zer ba byas/ ba ri lo tsa ba la tshad ma dbu ma sher gsum gyi rig pa mkhas par bslabs/ ...

(29) Cf. sNyan rgyud dbang gi yig chung yig phran cha tshang cha lag cha rkyen dang bcas pa (YST.14, p.411.6). There is no real colophon, but there is some information included (inserted?) after the first concluding benedictions: deng gsang yang ston dpal bzang bdag gi dngos grub yin. It indicates that it is now in the hands of Yang ston dpal bzang, but it does not indicate where this sNyan rgyud dbang originates. See also sNyan rgyud brda dbang (YST.15, pp.431.9ff.): gong ma rim par rgyud nas/ rtogs ldan dad shes/ rtogs ldan [432] bsams rtan [bsam gtan] rin chen/ khyung sgom tshul 'od [i.e. Khyung btsun tshul khrims 'od zer]/ gur sgom tshul rgyal! hor sgom 'dul rin [do not confuse with an earlier figure, 'Or sgom Kun 'dul, this is 'Or sgom 'Dul ba rin chen, aka mTshan ldan 'dul ba, the 9th abbot of g Yas ru dben sa kha]/ de la bdag yang ston dpal bzang gis zhus/ ? yang rgyud pa gcig la/ chig chod dad shes/ bru rgyal ba g yung drung / des rtogs ldan kun 'od/ des ri pa sher blo/ des hor sgom de la bdag gis zhus sho/ 'bum rje 'od kyis mdzad pa'i dbang rgyas 'bring sdus pa gsum yod pa la/ gsal zhing go bde' bar khrigs su/ yang ston dpal bzang bdag gis zhal zhes yan chad yi ge bris/ ghal [ 'gal] 'khrul ci mchis bon skyong rnams la bshags dge' bas bdag gzhan smin grol thob par shog/ sd ma yd/ dg[e]'o/ / dge'o// kra shis ...

Yang ston dpal bzang wrote this to clarify and and rearrange, for easier understanding, what appears in the long middle and short versions prepared by 'Bum rje 'od. The sNyan rgyud dbang gi yig chung (YST. 16), also followed the same path, from rTogs ldan dad shes to Yang ston dpal bzang: [436.8f] rtogs ldan dad shes bya bral gzhon tshul rnams nas rim par rgyud nas/ deng sang yang ston dpal bzang bdag gi dngos grub du babs s-ho/ dge'o ...

(30) His biography is omitted from Sh.2.1/K.III.101.1; N.1, p.86.5f.: dgung lo sum cu so gcig lon pa dang / ston pa'i zhabs kyis bcags g yas ru gtsang du gshegs so/ snyi mo bzang ri'i grva sar zhang bar thang ba sum ston [Zhang ston bSod nams dpal and Sum ston lHa 'bum] rnam gnyis kyi drung du/ rgyud sde bshad nyan bslabs/ gshen chen ye shes blo gros kyi drung du/ so sor thar pa'i sdom pa mnos/ 'gro ba'i mgon po sman gong pa'i drung du dbang bzhi rdzogs par zhus/ khyad par gcen po 'bum rje 'od kyi drung du/ rdzogs pa chen po snyan rgyud kyi gdams ngag zhus nas/ theg pa gsum ldan gyi bon la dka' ba spyad nas grub pa thob pa lags so/.

(31) Cf. the use use in Sh.2.1, p.588.2-6, the section leading up to the colophon: snyan rgyud kyi skor 'di rnams kyang / snyan rgyud chen mo'i skor 'di/ skyes bu'i lus dang 'dra ba yin/ sgron gzer ma bu cha lags dang bcas pa 'di/ nang gi don lnga dang 'dra ste/ med thabs med pa'i man ngag gi skor/ lha khrid dang bshad srol las sogs ni/lus kyi gos sam mgo'i zhva'am/rkangpa'i lham mam/bcingspa'i ske rag lta bu gang la gang dgos kyi gdams par rtogs la/ de dag kyang sngar gyi grub chen gong ma rnams kyi dus su/ bka' skyong dang mi ma yin la'ang / gang dga' ci bder ba ma tshud pa dang / snod ldan yang dkon par byung bas/ rgyas bsdus 'bring po rdzogs par ma bstan/ gdams pa skor res kyang gang zag gi mgo thon pa ltar mkhyen nas/ skor re skor re phye nas bstan pas/ da lta kha 'thor ba ltar gyur pa yang de'i gnad yin/ da lta yang thams cad rdzogs par tshogs na yang rab/ de min skor re kyang mgo thon pa ltar snang ngo /

(32) See Martin 1991, lemma 127. For the dating of Rang grol bla ma's birth to 1364 rather than 1304, both based on dPal ldan tshul khrims, see Vitali (1996:482); for its traditional dating to or 1328, see mKhan chen Nyi ma bstan 'dzin and Kvaerne 1914.

(33) Cf. Martin 2003:512f.

(34) KGKC:222.4: rnam thar chen mo? rnam thar chung ba/ (mTsho sngon 1993)

(35) YTKC:1159: rnam thar rgyas pa rang grol bla ma rgyal mtshan yan/ (in Bon bKa' 'gyur II).

(36) The ones by Yang ston chen po; these are not extant anymore (but cf. beginning of YST.5?). See, amongst others also Yang ston dPal bzang's rDzogs pa chen po zhang zhung snyan rgyud kyi rtsis byang above, the colophon to Bru rgyal ba g yung drung's text in Sh.2.1/K.III.101.1, and the rDzogs pa chen po zhang zhung snyan rgyud kyi bka' rgyud skor bzhi'i 'chad thabs, p.29.1.

(37) Paris 2008 conference on "Publishing and Editing: The Evolution and Future of Writing in Tibet", forthcoming.

(37) From the original blockprint in possession of the sMan ri Khri'dzin, which is print-identical with the edition by Lokesh Chandra and Lopon Tenzin Namdak: History and Doctrine of the Bon-po Nispanna-yoga (Sata-pitaka Series, Indo-Asian Literatures, Vol.73), New Delhi 1968; the second page-numbers refer to the latter.

(38) Se bon sha ri dbu chen, IDe bon gyim tsha rma chung, Me nyag ice tsha mkhar bu, and Bla chen Dran pa nam mkha' (but in the mKhaspa mi bzhi usually sTong rgyung mthu chen).

(39) This may have to be read as an alternative title, even though it also regularly appears in Tibetan historical texts as a demarcation of an introductory section, or as we shall see, in a table of contents.

(40) This dang po probably corresponds to the same in Bru.543.3: da nye ba'i brgyud pa la gsum ste/dang po'byung ba 7 khungs bstan pa dang/bar du rkyen gyis ma nub pa'i rgyu mtshan dang/tha ma rim gyis dar zhing rgyas pa'i tshul lo/. The other indications are missing in the Ma nub. Does this indicate that the first part of section I was borrowed later, perhaps from Bru or another source?

(41) N.B. these are: sTong rgyung mthu chen, IDe bon gyim tsha rma chung, Me nyag Ice tsha mkhar bu, and Se bon sha ri dbu chen. So the preceding figure, sTong rgyung mthu chen, is one of them (the following, Dran pa nam mkha' is not; cf. Bru and Reynolds).

(42) Note that De shi de rtso is a name (pace Reynolds).

(43) This reference to sil bu'i dus, like that to mNga' ris earlier, dates the text as posl-phyi dar.

(44) Cf. above: sil bu'i dus.

(45) Cf.'dren pa, drangs pa, drang ba, drongs pa, as in Bru.

(46) Cf. P1042.96.

(47) Read this as: a man's price.

(49) Theoretically, mnng could of course also be a bsdud tshig for a two-syllable word, something in the manner of man n...ng (cf. man ngag?). But man ngag could only be erroneously rendered as mnng. But then it is the only two-syllable word that I could think of that would make much sense in this context (assuming that people do make mistakes with abbreviations and granting that this would also make the sentence very elliptic, verb etc. missing). Needless to say, I certainly did not want suggest that man ngag could properly be abbreviated that way. But it is a good thing that you warn people, who perhaps are less familiar with the logic of Tibetan abbreviations, about that: my shorthand might cause confusion and lead people to make unwarranted assumptions.

(50) See: http://tendrel.net/tibetan/dictionary_wylie.xml.

(51) See: http://otdo.aa.tufs.ac.jp/archives.cgi?p=Pt_1287&k=mnangs.

(52) See: http://otdo.aa.tufs.ac.jp/archives.cgi?p=ITJ_0751&k=mnangs.

(53) See: http:// himalaya.socanth.cam.ac.uk/collections/journals/ret/pdf/ret_10_05.pdf.

(54) Cf. bhoga, points 5 and 6 above. References (as in Hill): Uray (1966). "'Greng, the alleged old Tibetan equivalent for the ethnic name Ch'iang." Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 19. 245-256. Zhang Yisun (1985). Bod rgya tshig mdzod chen mo / Zhang Han Da Cidian. Beijing: Mi rigs dpe skrun kang / Minzu chubanshe.



DPON CHEN BTSAN PO



dmu rgyal ba blo gros kyi slob ma

dpon chen btsan po N.36.3-38.2, SGK.41

YST.5.46.3: gu rib tsen po; cf. YST.5.72.3: dpon tsen po

Sh.2.1.561.6: grub thob chen po



Sh.2.1.561.6ff.--Bru sgom YST.5.72.3ff, in list up to

(1242-90), 13th c. AD Yang ston, discussion up

 to Bru sgom



[561,6] de yis grub thob [72,2] ?! bla ma de'i slob

chen po la brgyud de/ ma dpon chen tsan po'i



de'i lo rgyus la/ (lo rgyus la lnga) !!



 dang po rtsang ma mi lus (thob

 pa/yab dang yum gyi lo gyus ni/)



yul da rog gi brag ri/ yul da rog gi bra ri na/



yab gshen thog la rtse mo/ yab sku gshen thog la rtse mo



yum mang wer za rgyan dang yum mang wer za

chung ma gnyis la



lo bcu gnyis su sras ma rgyan chung ma gnyis la/

byung/ lo bcu gcig du sras med pa la/



nub gcig nyal ba'i nyams nyin gcig bud med na chungs

snang la/ gsum g-yar nas chags gcags

 pa'i dus na/mo rang gis brums

 la snyes nas 'dug tsam na/



[562] nub phyogs brag rong nyams la nub kyi brag bseb

dkar po'i gseb nas nas sprul pa byung ste/de yang

 brag rong dkar po'i nang nas/



rin po che'i zung khrol le rin po che'i brums khrol le

ba'i nang nas/ dug pa'i nang nas/



khye'u chung mtshan ldan sprul pa'i khye'u mtshan

pa gcig byung ba dang rol ldan gcig yongs nas mo dag

pa rmis/ la chags pa spyad pa rmi

 tsam na/



de'i phyi lo sras shig sku phyi de lo dus na sras gcig

khrungs/ Itam pa ni



rlung nas dge la dad pa bla ma tsan po yin no/

byang chub kyi sems dang

ldan pa zhig byung/



 gnyis pa las 'phro (dang

 skal bar ldan pas/) grub

 thob kyi bka' 'drin can

 dang byi ltar nyal ba'i lo

 rgyus ni/



 lo bdun brgyad la dge' ba

 gcig pu byed pa gcig byung

 nas/



cher 'khrungs nas zang lo bcu gsum la zang zang

zang lha brag na/ lha [73] brag du/



dmu rgyal ba blo gros dmu' rgyal ba'i blo gros la

bzhugs pa la



zang zing mang po phul nas bdams pa zhus ste gnang

gdams pa thams cad rdzogs ngo/khrab glong lnga rgya

par zhus pas gnang zhing/ phul yang gsung/

nyams len byas pas/



 gsum pa byas khyad par

 can gang du rten pa'i tshe

 du bzhes pa ni/



 yab yum shi nas



*1* snga ma'i las sad nas

rtogs pa yid ches grub pa

snyems pa nyin zhag bdun

nas byung gsungs/ [see below]



de nas g-yas ru shangs kyi g-yas ru shangs kyi ri rtser

ri rtseng 'grims shing dka' 'drim gyin bzhugs ste/

spyad mdzad/



rkyang ded du dril bas zag

med mchog gi sku thob ste/



 *5* bya rgyal rgod po lta bu'i

 rnal 'byor pa yin gsung ngo/



 *3* brten pa i tshe ni tshe

 la dbang ba'i rig 'dzin yin

 pas! stong dang drug rgya

 rdzogs pa dang/

 gzhan don skye ba rang

 dbang can yin ste/



 *4* 'dul bya 'dul ba'i dus

 la pab ma bab kyis/skye ba



 dang 'chi bar snang ba las so/



 don la 'di tsam gcig bzhes

 bya ba med do/



 bzhi thun mong gnas skabs

 kyi grub rtags yon tan ni/



 lus khams skye nas zag pa

 zad pas/



khams kyi zas yi dgos pa kham gyi zas med dang

dang/ chog pa dang/



khu byug tu sprul nas rtag sku g-yu' bya khu byug tu

gzigs su gshegs pa dang/ sprul nas/



mi ma yin gyis gus pa 'bul nub phyogs rtag gzig gi yul

ba dang du shegs pa dang/



zla ba mang po ting nge

'dzin la bzhugs pa las sogs/



*2* grub rtags rdzu 'phrul

bsam gyis mi khyab cing/

[see below]



*3* tshe la rang dbang thob

pas stong dang drug brgya

rdzogs pa dang/rang dbang

can gyi skye ba blang ste/

[see above]



lho nub srin po'i kha gnon lho nub srin po'i kha gnon

byed gsungs/ mdzad do/



*4* 'on kyang dus la bab ma

bab kyi skye ba dang 'chi

bar snang ba las/ [see above]



*3* kho bo'i tshe tshad 'di

yin bya ba med/ [see above]



*5* lar bya rgyal rgod po lta

bu'imal 'byoryin/'[see above]



 *2* de las sogs grub rtags

 du mnga' 'o/



 lnga pa rtogs pa mngon gyur

 thun mong ma yin pa ni/



 bla ma'i nyams kyi man

 ngag btab nas/



 *1* rtogs pa shar ba dang/

 yid ches pa dang/grub pa

 snyems pa gsum zhag bdun

 [74] la byung nas/



sprul pa'i sku dang gnyis sprul pa'i sku dang dgongs

su med pa '0/ pa gnyis su med do/



 (de yan chad ni zhang

 zhung gi grub thob bdun gi

 yon tan lo rgyus sho/



Sh.2.1.561.6ff.--Bru sgom KII.110.4.14r.7ff.--

(1242-90), 13th c. AD Khyung po rang grol

 (b.1364) 14th-15th c. AD



[561,6] de yis grub thob [14r.7] tha ma de'i slob ma

chen po la brgyud de/ dpon chen btsan po'i



de'i lo rgyus la/ lo rgyus la/



 dang po gtsang ma ml lus

 thob pa yab dang yum gyis

 [14v] lo rgyus ni/



yul da rog gi brag ri/ yul da rog gis brag ris nas



yab gshen thog la rtse mo/ yab sku gshen thog lha rtse

 mo dang/



yum mang wer za rgyan yum ni mang wer za rgyal

chung ma gnyis la chung ma gnyis la/



lo bcu gnyis su sras ma lo bcu gnyis su sras med

byung/ cing yod pa la/



nub gcig nyal ba'i nyams nyin cig bud med gsum la

snang la/ chags bcol nas/mo rang gis

 brums nas sngas nas 'dug

 tsam na/nyams la



[562] nub phyogs brag rong nub kyi brag rong dkar po'i

dkar po'i gseb nas gseb nas/



rin po che'i zung khrol le rin po che'i phrod khra le

ba'i nang nas/ 'dug pa'i nang nas



khye'u chung mtshan ldan sprul pa'i khye'u mtshan

pa gcig byung ba dang rol ldan cig 'ong ste/des mo la

pa rmis/ rol pa rmis tsam na/



de'i phyi lo sras shig sku de'i phyir lo dus na sras

khrungs/ cig bltams pa ni/



rlung nas dge la dad pa bla ma btsan po yin no/

byang chub kyi sems dang

ldan pa zhig byung/



 gnyis pa las 'phro dang

 skal bar ldan pas/bka' 'drin

 gyis bla ma dang ci ltar

 mjal nas/



 lo bdun Ion nas dge ba gcig

 bu byed pa cig byung ngo/



cher 'khrungs nas zang lo bcu Ion nam [sa erased]

zang lha brag na/ zang zang lha brag nas/



dmu rgyal ba blo gros dmu lam rgyal blo gros

bzhugs pa la bzhugs pa'i drung du mjal nas/



zang zing mang po phul nas gdams pa zhus pas thugs la

gdams pa thams cad rdzogs btags nas zang zing 'bul ba

par zhus pas gnang zhing/ mang po phul lo/

nyams len byas pas/



 gsum pa sa gnas khyad par

 can gang du brten pa'i tshe

 gang du bzhugs pa ni/



 yab yum drongs nas



*1* snga ma'i las sad nas

rtogs pa yid ches grub pa

snyems pa nyin zhag bdun

nas byung gsungs/ [see below]



de nas g-yas ru shangs kyi g-yas ru shang gyis ri tse

ri rtseng 'grims shing dka' 'drim cing bzhugs/

spyad mdzad/



rkyang ded du dril bas zag

med mchog gi sku thob ste/



 *5* bya rgyal rgod po lta bu'i

 rnal 'byor pa yin gsungs/



 *3* brten pa'i tshe ni tshe

 lo dbang ba'i rig 'dzin yin

 pas/stong dang drug brgya

 rdzogs [15r] dzags pas/

 gzhan don skye ba rang

 dbang can yin te/



 *4* gdul bya 'dul ba'i

 skabs la bab ma bab kyi



 skye ba dang/'chi ba ltar

 snang ba las/



 'di tsam cig bzhes bya ba

 rang med do/



 bzhi pa thun mong gnas

 skabs su kyi yon tan grub

 rtags ni/



 lus khams dang skye gnas

 na zag pa zad pas/



khams kyi zas yi dgos pa khams kyi zas mi dgos pa

dang/ dang/



khu byug tu sprul nas rtag sku lus g-yu bya khu byug

gzigs su gshegs pa dang/ tu sprul te/



mi ma yin gyis gus pa 'bul rtag gzigs yul du gshegs pa

ba dang dang/



zla ba mang po ting nge

'dzin la bzhugs pa las sogs/



*2* grub rtags rdzu 'phrul

bsam gyis mi khyab cing/

[see below]



*3* tshe la rang dbang thob

pas stong dang drug brgya

rdzogs pa dang/rang dbang

can gyi skye ba blang ste/

[see above]



lho nub srin po'i kha gnon lho nub tu srin po'i kha

byed gsungs/ gnon mdzad do/



*4* 'on kyang dus la bab ma

bab kyi skye ba dang 'chi

bar snang ba las/ [see above]



*3* kho bo'i tshe tshad 'di

yin bya ba med/ [see above]



*5* lar bya rgyal rgod po lta

bu'imal 'byoryin/'[see above]



 *2* de la sogs grub rtags

 du mnga' ba legs so/



 lnga pa rtogs pa mngon gyur

 thun mong ma yin pa ni/



 gdams pa btab nas zhag

 bdun nas



 *1* rtogs pa shar ba/yid

 ches pa grub pa snyems

 pa'i gsum byung nas



sprul pa'i sku dang gnyis sprul pa'i sku dang dbyer

su med pa '0/ med do/



 (des zhang zhung gi grub

 thob bdun gyis yon tan lo

 rgyus bstan pa '0/)



Sh.2.1.561.6ff.--Bru sgom N.36.3-38.2--sPa btsun

(1242-90), 13th c. AD 15th c. AD



[561,6] de yis grub thob [36,3] bla ma de'i slob ma

chen po la brgyud de/ ni//dpon chen btsan po'i



de'i lo rgyus la/ lo rgyus la lnga/



 dang po gtsang ma mi lus

 thob pa yab dang yum gyi

 lo rgyus ni/



yul da rog gi brag ri/ yul da rog gi brag ri na/



 gdung rus thog lha zhig yin



yab gshen thog la rtse mo/ yab sku gshen thog lha rtse

 mo dang/



yum mang wer za rgyan yum ni mang wer za rgyan

chung ma gnyis la chung ma gnyis la/



lo bcu gnyis su sras ma lo bcu gnyis su sras med

byung/ cing yod dus na/



nub gcig nyal ba'i nyams nyin zhig bud med gsum la

snang la/ chags bcol nas/mo rang gis

 brums la bsnyan nas yod

 tsam na/nyams snang la



[562] nub phyogs brag rong nub kyi brag rong dkar po'i

dkar po'i gseb nas gseb nas/



rin po che'i zung khrol le rin po che'i brum khrol le

ba'i nang nas/ ba'i nang nas/



khye'u chung mtshan ldan sprul pa'i khye'u mtshan

pa gcig byung ba dang rol ldan zhig yongs nas/des mo

pa rmis/ la spyod pa rmis tsam na/



de'i phyi lo sras shig sku phyi lo dus su sras gcig

khrungs/ bltams pa ni/



rlung nas dge la dad pa dpon btsan po yin no/

byang chub kyi sems dang

ldan pa zhig byung/



 gnyis pa las 'phro dang

 skal bar ldan pas/bka' 'drin

 can gyi bla ma dang [37] ji

 ltar mjal na/



 lo bdun brgyad Ion nas

 kyang dge ba gcig pu byed

 pa byung ngo/



cher 'khrungs nas zang lo bcu gnyis nas zang zang

zang lha brag na/ lha brag tu/



dmu rgyal ba blo gros dmu rgyal ba blo gros

bzhugs pa la bzhugs pa'i drung du mjal/



zang zing mang po phul nas gdams pa zhus pas thugs la

gdams pa thams cad rdzogs btags nas/zang zing gi 'bul ba

par zhus pas gnang zhing/ mang po drin lan du phul lo/

nyams len byas pas/



 gsum pa sa gnas khyad par

 can gang du brten pa'i tshe

 du bzhugs pa ni/



 yab yum gnyis grong nas/



*1* snga ma'i las sad nas

rtogs pa yid ches grub pa

snyems pa nyin zhag bdun

nas byung gsungs/ [see below]



de nas g-yas ru shangs kyi g-yas ru shangs kyi rtse

ri rtseng 'grims shing dka' 'grims kyin bzhugs/

spyad mdzad/



rkyang ded du dril bas zag

med mchog gi sku thob ste/



 *5* bya rgyal rgod po lta

 bu'i rnal 'byor pa yin no/



 *3 * brten pa'i tshe ni tshe

 la dbang ba'i rig 'dzin yin

 pas/stong dang drug brgya

 rdzogs pa dang/

 gzhan don skye ba rang

 dbang can yin pas/



 *4* gdul bya 'dul ba'i dus

 la bab ma bab kyis/skye



 dang 'chi bar snang ba la/



 'dl tsam pa zhes bya bar

 med do/



 bzhi pa thun mong dang

 gnas skabs kyi yon tan grub

 rtags ni/



 lus khams skye gnas kyi zag

 pa zad pas/



khams kyi zas yi dgos pa khams kyi zas mi dgos pa

dang/ dang/



khu byug tu sprul nas rtag sku lus g-yu bya khu byug

gzigs su gshegs pa dang/ tu sprul nas



mi ma yin gyis gus pa 'bul rtag gzigs su gshegs pa dang/

ba dang



zla ba mang po ting nge

'dzin la bzhugs pa las sogs/



*2* grub rtags rdzu 'phrul

bsam gyis mi khyab cing/

[see below]



*3* tshe la rang dbang thob

pas stong dang drug brgya

rdzogs pa dang/rang dbang

can gyi skye ba blang ste/

[see above]



lho nub srin po'i kha gnon lho nub tu srin po'i kha

byed gsungs/ gnon mdzad pa 'o/



*4* 'on kyang dus la bab ma

bab kyi skye ba dang 'chi

bar snang ba las/ [see above]



*3* kho bo'i tshe tshad 'di

yin bya ba med/ [see above]



*5* lar bya rgyal rgod po lta

bu'imal 'byoryin/'[see above]



 *2* de las sogs pa'i grub

 rtags du mnga' ba la sogs so/



 lnga pa rtogs pa mngon gyur

 thun mong ma yin pa ni/



 gdams pa btab nas zhag

 bdun nas/



 *1* rtogs pa shar ba/yid

 ches pa/grub pa bsnyems pa

 gsum byung nas/



sprul pa'i sku dang gnyis sprul pa i sku dang gnyis

su med pa '0/ su med pa lags so/



 (de zhang zhung gi grub thob

 drug gi yon tan lo rgyus bstan

 pa o438] zhang zhung gi grub

 thob drug gi mjug dpon rgyal

 btsan po nas gnyis su brgyud

 de/smad rgyud dang stod

 rgyud do/dang po sa smad nas

 brgyud de/dpon btsan pos sa

 smad du/lhun grub mu thur

 dang/gshen rgyal g-yung

 drung lha rtse gnyis la rgyud

 pa ni/smad rgyud de nyams

 rgyud kho na byung pa '0/?)

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Article Details
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Author:Blezer, Henk
Publication:The Tibet Journal
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9CHIN
Date:Sep 22, 2009
Words:28827
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