Grade alternation in Voro South Estonian.
Grade alternation is characteristic of most Finnic languages. In addition to Voro, and more broadly South Estonian and Estonian, it also appears in Finnish, Karelian, Ingrian and Votic, and to a lesser extent in Ludic, in the northernmost dialects of Veps, and as a relatively late but a complicated phenomenon in Livonian. There are no traces of grade alternation in South Veps and most Central Veps dialects (Viitso 2008 : 143).
Generally, following the example of Estonian and Finnish, grade alternation in other Finnic languages is likewise considered to be the alternation of only two grades, strong (S) and weak grade (W). Finnish has quality alternation where a stop consonant in the strong grade disappears in the weak grade, e.g. kulta (S) : kullan (W) 'gold', and quantity alternation where geminates alternate with single stops, e.g. seppa (S) : sepan (W) 'smith'. It has to be noted that the type of grade alternation known in Finnish and Estonian grammars as strengthening or reverse alternation (Finnish kaanteinen) (e.g. Finnish hammas (W) : hampaan (S) 'tooth') is historically a weakening change.
In Estonian, grade alternation is not only restricted to stop consonants but includes more broadly stem alternations. Unlike in Finnish, quantity alternation in Estonian affects long stressed syllables where the second (Q2) and third quantity (Q3) alternate, e.g. Estonian 'soola (W, Q2) : 'soola (1) (S, Q3) 'salt'. The system of Estonian quantity alternation does not include the first quantity (Q1). At the same time attribution and alternation of quantity is also extended to word forms with quality alternation, and therefore weak forms of quality alternation can be found in all quantities, e.g. 'magi (S, Q1) : 'mae (W, Q3) 'mountain' (Karlsson 1983 : 322-33; Erelt, Kasik, Metslang, Rajandi, Ross, Saari, Tael, Vare 1995 : 144-171).
2. Characteristic traits and types of grade alternation in Voro
The Voro system of stem and non-initial syllable alternations is more elaborate than that of Estonian or Finnish. In addition to quality alternation and the usual alternation of Q2 and Q3 Voro has three more types of quantity alternation:
Alternation of Q1 and Q2 'valama (Q1) : 'vallaq (Q2) 'to pour' Alternation of Q1, Q2 and Q3 'uma (Q1): 'umma (Q2): "umma (Q3) 'one's' Alternation of Q1 and Q3 'vaha'ligu (Q1): 'vaha"likku (Q3) 'smallish'
Thus, it can be said that in the Voro quantity alternation, all three quantities can alternate. If such a type of quantity alternation is to be differentiated from the usual Estonian or Finnic quantity alternation it could be called lengthening alternation.
Until now, lengthening alternation has normally been described simply as gemination (Nigol 1994 : 10; Keem, Kasi 2002 : 26-30), and it has been excluded from the system of grade alternation. The lengthening of short consonants to Q2 in Voro (e.g. kala : kalla 'fish') has been called short gemination and the lengthening to Q3 (e.g 'kala : "kalla 'fish') long gemination. The latter also appears in Estonian, where a short consonant can be lengthened to overlong in illative case, e.g. 'pada : "patta 'kettle'; 'talu : "tallu 'farm'. As the treatments of Finnic grade alternation do not usually include strengthenings, then such lengthenings are not considered to be part of grade alternation in Estonian. Strengthenings have, however, been regarded as part of grade alternation in Estonian and Livonian by Tiit-Rein Viitso (1962 : 46-47), and in Livonian by Hille Pajupuu and TiitRein Viitso (2008 : 265-266).
2.1. Quality and quantity alternation
Historically, quality and quantity alternation have developed depending on whether the second syllable of the word was open or closed. If the second syllable was originally open, a strong grade developed, e.g. *jalkata > "jalga 'leg'. If the second syllable was originally closed, a weak grade developed, e.g. *jalkan > 'jala 'leg'.
In quality alternation, the stem of the strong grade contains a stop consonant or s, and the stem of the weak grade does not contain it, independent of the quantity of the stem variant, e.g. "sarg (S, Q3) : 'sare (W, Q1) 'roach'; 'kasi (S, Q1) : "kae (W, Q3) 'hand'. Quality alternation appeared earlier than the change *t > s before i, so that what originally weakened was a stop consonant not s.
In quantity alternation, the stem of the strong grade is in the third quantity, and the stem of the weak grade in the second quantity, e.g. "takk (S, Q3) : 'tako (W, Q2) 'stallion'.
2.2. Lengthening alternation
If one considers all Voro stem and non-initial syllable alternations within one grade alternation system, then the system should include in addition to quality and quantity alternation a lengthening alternation as a subcategory of the latter type. In such a descriptive system, stem forms of Voro words could be, depending on grade alternation, classified into strong (S) and weak (W) grades, and into lengthened (L) and over-lengthened (OL) grades (see Iva 2007 : 59-60; Juva 2005 : 103-104).
Lengthening alternation is historically the lengthening of the word stem that has developed to counterbalance the shortening and loss of word final sounds., e.g. lengthened grade *talota > ' tallo, over-lengthened *talohen > "tallo 'farm'.
In lengthening alternation, the stem of the strong grade is in Q1, the stem of the lengthened grade in Q2, and the stem of the over-lengthened grade in Q3, e.g. 'tina (S, Q1) : ' tinna (L, Q2) : "tinna (OL, Q3) 'lead, tin'. Table 1 shows the conditions of occurrence of different grades in different grade alternation types.
2.3. Full alternation
In Voro, there are words the forms of which reveal both quality alternation and lengthening alternation. In such words, the stem of the strong grade of quality alternation is lengthened, e.g. habu (S) : "hau (W) : 'hapu (L) : "happu (OL) 'shame', 'pugama (S) : 'pukaq (L) : "pua (W) 'to shear'. Such alternation could be called full alternation, as shown in Figure 1 and on the bottom row in Table 1.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
2.4. Grade alternation in non-initial syllables
Grade alternation normally occurs on the boundary of the first and second syllable, which is exemplified by all of the above examples. Additionally, Voro has grade alternation in suffixes of non-initial secondary-stressed and unstressed syllables as well as in stem-final consonants.
2.4.1. Grade alternation after an unstressed syllable
Suffixal alternation or the grade alternation of unstressed non-initial syllables includes trisyllabic forms of nouns in genitive case (from the beginning of word or primary-stressed syllable), which are mainly in Q1 or Q2, and where there is a short consonant on the boundary of the second and third syllable, but a geminate in the partitive case (and the rest of the following cases). The stem of some of such words has been shortened in the nominative case after the loss of the final vowel, e.g.
'unik (S) : 'unigu (W) : 'unikut (S) 'heap, pile'; 'sinep (S) : ' sinebi (W) : 'sinepit (S) 'mustard'; 'raamat (S) : ' raamadu (W) : 'raamatut (S) 'book'; 'aabits (S) : 'aabidsa (W) : 'aabitsat (S) 'A-B-C book';
and not shortened in some other cases, e.g.
'meeledu (W) : 'meeledu (W) : 'meeletut (S) 'thoughtless; desperate; frantic'; ' fuusiga (W) : ' fuusiga (W) : 'fuusikat (S) 'physics'; A 'meeriga (W) : A 'meeriga (W) : A 'meerikat (S) 'America';
occasionally also in genitive case in disyllabic words of Q3, e.g.
"voet (S) : "voedu (W) : "voetut (S) 'taken';
2.4.2. Grade alternation in secondary-stressed feet
Grade alternation of secondary-stressed syllables in nouns includes trisyllabic forms in Q3, and tetrasyllabic forms where the secondary-stressed syllable is in different cases in different quantities, e.g.
'kana"rik (S) : ' kana' rigu (W) : ' kana"rikku (S) 'heather'; "aas"tak (S) : "aas 'taga (W) : "aas"takka (S) 'year'; "kar"ma(n)n (S) : "kar 'mani (N) : "kar"manni (S) 'pocket'; 'ehi"tuisi (S) : ' ehi' tuisile (W), ' ehi"tuste (S) : ' ehi'tustele (W) 'building'; ' voro"koisi (S) : ' voro' koisilo (W), ' voro"koisto (S) : ' voro' koistolo (W) 'inhabitant of Vorumaa';
alo"maidsi (S) : alo maidsilo (W), alo"masto (S) : alo mastolo (W) 'lower'. (C.f. grade alternation types 14--18, Tables 2 and 4).
In verbs, the grade alternation of secondary-stressed syllables occurs in word forms with a tri-and tetrasyllabic stem in Q1 or Q2, or a disyllabic stem in Q3, e.g.
kergu tama (S) : kerguda (W) 'to lift'; "kao tama (S) : "kaoda (W) 'to lose'; era tuma (S) : eradu (W) 'to stray'; kahmo tuma (S) : kahmodu (W) 'to startle';
mani tsoma (S) : manidso (W) 'to mention'; rapa"hutma (S) : rapa huda (W) 'to shake'.
(See also grade alternation types 15-16, Tables 3 and 5).
As there are two grades in the grade alternation of non-initial syllables, it is best to view it as an alternation of strong and weak grades, which most resembles quantity alternation. A complete correspondence with quantity alternation can be found in the ehitus-and vorokono-type alternation, because in these types, like in quantity alternation, the strong grade is in Q3 and the weak grade in Q2: ehi"tuisi (S, Q3) : ehi tuisile (W, Q2) 'building'. Other word types with non-initial syllable alternation do not coincide with quantity alternation, because there is no alternation of Q2 and Q3, but instead a long (word-finally phonetically half-long) consonant comparable to Q3 and a short consonant comparable to Q1: ' horak (S, = Q3) : ' horaga (W, ~ Q1) : ' horakat (S, ~ Q3) 'red currant'. In the ' kana "riktype, there is partially a direct alternation of Q1 and Q3: ' kana"rik (S, = Q3) : kana rigu (W, Q1) : kana"rikku (S, Q3) 'heather'.
A comparison of Voro, Estonian and Finnish grade alternation in noninitial syllables reveals that such alternation is very rare in Estonian. It only occurs in words with the suffix ik, where Q2 and Q3 (short and long geminate) alternate, e.g. ' korra"lik : ' korra 'liku : ' korra"likku 'decent'. Such alternation is much more common in Voro and Finnish; in both languages it occurs both after an unstressed and secondary-stressed syllable.
Grade alternation after an unstressed syllable (raamat(tu) 'book') est ' raamat (t) : ' raamatu (tt) : ' raamatut (tt) : ' raamatule (tt) vor ' raamat (t) : ' raamadu (d) : ' raamatut (tt) : ' raamatulo (tt) fin " raamattu (tt) : " raamatun (t) : " raamattua (tt) : " raamatulle (t)
Grade alternation after a secondary-stressed syllable (kadastik, katajikko 'juniper copse')
est 'kadas"tik (k): 'kadas' tiku (kk): 'kadas"tikku (kk): 'kadas' tikule (kk) vor ' kadas"tik (k) : ' kadas'tigu (g) : ' kadas"tikku (kk) : ' kadas'tigulo (g) fin kata"jikko (kk) : kata jikon (k) : kata"jikkoa (kk) : kata jikolle (k)
As can be seen from these examples, grade alternation in Voro secondary-stressed syllables corresponds quite closely to that of Finnish after a secondary-stressed syllable. After an unstressed syllable the correspondence is only partial. Both in Voro and Finnish, such word types have a weak grade in genitive, but the difference is that in Finnish, all cases (except essive) starting from inessive are in the weak grade (such as genitive), whereas in Voro they are in the strong grade (such as partitive). Only comitative, which has developed later than other cases from genitive and the * kansak-particle 'with', can be in the weak grade in Voro similar to genitive ('raamadu : 'raama' dugaq 'book'). Hella Keem (1997 : 32), in her noun paradigms has, however, also considered comitative to be in the strong grade ('raamadu : 'raama' tugaq). It has to be mentioned that the grade alternation system of non-initial syllables in the Voro literary language presented here is based on eastern and southern dialects of Voro (above all Vastseliina dialect), which was also the basis for Hella Keem's overview.
The occurrence in various grammatical forms of the different grades of grade alternation in primary-stressed as well non-initial syllables can be examined using grade alternation types (see Tables 2-5).
3. The division of Voro words into those with two, three and four grades
One word can have two, three or four grades. Thus accordingly, words with grade alternation can be divided into those with two, three, and four grades.
Words with two grades have (in quantity and quality alternation) only a strong and weak grade, e.g.
'tukk (S) : 'tuku (W) 'piece'
'kand (S) : 'kanno (W) 'stump',
'argnoma (S) : 'arodaq (W) 'to fork',
or (in lengthening alternation) only a strong and lengthened, or strong and over-lengthened grade, e.g.
'valama (S) : 'vallaq (L) 'to pour',
'kipon (L) : 'kibona (S) 'spark',
'imeq (S) : 'imme (OL) 'wonder'.
Words with three grades have (in full alternation) a strong, lengthened and weak grade, e.g.
'pugama (S) : 'pukaq (L) : 'pua (W) 'to shear', or (in lengthening alternation) a strong, lengthened and over-lengthened grade, e.g.
'talo (S) : 'tallo (L) : 'tallo (OL) 'farm',
'elama (S) : 'ellaq (L) : 'elli (OL) 'to live'.
Words with four grades have a strong and weak, and lengthened and over-lengthened grade, e.g.
'habu (S) : 'hau (W) : 'hapu (L) : 'happu (OL) 'shame',
'laga (S) : 'laja (W) : 'laka (L) : 'lakka (OL) 'broad; wide'.
Only words with full alternation have four grades.
4. Morphophonology of Voro grade alternation
According to certain phonological modifications grade alternation can be classified on the basis of its direction (strengthening/weakening), and type (quantity, length and quality alternation) (Erelt, Kasik, Metslang, Rajandi, Ross, Saari, Tael, Vare 1995 : 144-145; Erelt, Erelt, Ross 1997 : 173-174). Within quantity alternation, it is possible to distinguish an alternation of quantity where only the quantity of the word changes (e.g. 'laiv : 'laiva 'ship', 'kuud' : 'koodi 'code'), and an alternation of length, where additionally the phonological length of a stop, affricate, or sibilant changes (e.g. 'saabas : 'saapa 'boot', 'kuut': 'koodi 'flail'). As was mentioned in the beginning of the article, it has to be kept in mind that strengthening (or reverse) alternation is in fact a weakening change.
4.1. Quantity alternation
In the strengthening quantity alternation of Voro, Q1 and Q3, or Q1, Q2 and Q3 can alternate in addition the usual alternation of Q2 and Q3.
Weakening quantity alternation:
Q3 > Q2 (e.g. 'kapp' : 'kapi 'cupboard', 'parv' : 'parvo 'flight, flock', 'laul : 'laulu 'song')
Strengthening quantity alternation:
Q2> Q3 (e.g. 'kalmoq : 'kalmo 'graveyard', 'lainoq : 'laino 'wave') Q1 > Q3 (e.g. 'imeq : 'imme 'wonder', 'laga : 'lakka 'broad, wide') Q1 > Q2 > Q3 (nt 'kala : 'kalla : 'kalla 'fish')
4.2. Length alternation
Length alternation can take place in a stem when a stop or sibilant is preceded by a long vocalic interval or a voiced consonant, or when followed by a voiced consonant (Erelt, Kasik, Metslang, Rajandi, Ross, Saari, Tael, Vare 1995 : 144-145), e.g. 'luutma : 'looda 'to hope', 'palk : 'palgi 'timber', 'koplama : 'kobladaq 'to hoe', 'libloq : 'liplo 'leaflet'. A special feature of the Voro length alternation as compared to that of Estonian is that in addition to a stop and sibilant it also involves an affricate (e.g. 'parts : 'pardsi 'duck', 'tsirtsama : 'tsirdsadaq 'to splash', 'haitsema : 'haidsedaq 'to bloom').
Weakening length alternation:
(Q3) k, p, t, ts, ss > (Q2) g, b, d, ds, s (e.g. piip : piibu 'pipe', kort's : kordsi 'tavern, pub')
Strengthening length alternation:
(Q2) g, b, d, ds, s > (Q3) k, p, t, ts, s (e.g. loigoq : 'loiko 'cut; paragrph', haidseq : 'haitse 'flower, blossom, bloom')
4.3. Quality alternation
The sub-types of weakening quality alternation are assimilation, substitution and loss. In case of assimilation a combination of a voiced consonant and a stop (or a sibilant derived from it) in the strong grade alternates with a voiced geminate in the weak grade. In substitution, a single stop in the strong grade alternates with v in the weak grade, and the sequences ub, ud, ug and us (< * ut) in the strong grade words containing a long vowel or a diphthong in the first syllable alternate with a short geminate in the weak grade. In case of loss, a stop (or a sibilant derived from it) in the strong grade has been lost in the weak grade.
(Q3) ld > (Q2) ll 'kuld : kulla 'gold'
(Q3) mb > (Q2) mm 'tombama : tommadaq 'to draw'
(Q3) rd > (Q2) rr 'kord : korra 'order, time, floor'
(Q3) rs > (Q2) rr 'kors : 'korro 'stalk'
(Q3) nd > (Q2) nn 'pind : pinnu 'sliver'
(Q3) nd > (Q2) n 'puundma : 'puuna (*' puunna) 'to catch'
b > v tobi : tovo 'disease'
b > vv 'kuub : kuvvo 'coat'
d > vv 'laud : lavva 'board; table'
g > vv loug : lovva 'chin'
s > vv kuus : kuvvo 'six'
d/t > [phi] pada : paa 'kettle', paht : paha 'pigsty'
g/k > [phi] saag : sae 'saw', lohk : loho 'pit'
s > [phi] kasi : kae 'hand'
The subtypes of strengthening quality alternation are dissimilation, substitution and addition. In case of dissimilation a voiced geminate in the weak grade alternates with a combination of a voiced consonant and a stop in the strong grade. In substitution, a weak grade v alternates with a strong grade b, or a v-geminate with ud. In case of addition, a stop has been lost in the weak grade but is present in the strong grade.
The terms strengthening, dissimilation, substitution and addition are purely conventional and follow from the order of presentation of the forms, because in reality they are all cases of weakening.
(Q2) nn > (Q3) nd tunnoq : 'tundo 'feeling, sense'
(Q2) rr > (Q3) rd purroq : 'purdo 'footbridge'
(Q2) ll > (Q3) ld kolloq : 'koldo 'hearth'
(Q2) mm > (Q3) mb kommoq : 'kombo 'custom'
(Q2) v > (Q3) b saivas : 'saiba 'pole'
(Q2) vv > (Q3) d kuvvas : 'kuuda 'axe handle'
0 > g/k ojadaq : 'oiga 'to moan', ohadaq : 'ohka 'to sigh'
0 > d/t tahas : 'tahta 'dough'
5. Types of grade alternation
In Voro, grade alternation together with grammatical endings has an important role in distinguishing grammatical forms. The following grade alternation types reflect the order of occurrence of different grades in the changing paradigm of nouns and verbs. In the case of both nouns and verbs, first the types are presented using abbreviations of different grades (Tables 2 and 3) followed by the examples presented as a changing paradigm of type words (Tables 4 and 5). The paradigm of examples includes forms which cannot be derived on the basis of other forms or which themselves are the basis for other forms. The abbreviations used for the grades in the tables are the following: strong grade (S), weak grade (W), lengthened grade (L), and over-lengthened grade (OL).
Grade alternation types of nouns can be divided into five groups (s. Tables 2 and 4).
I. Type 1 ('oppaja 'teacher') lacks grade alternation.
II. Types 2-5 ('tai 'louse', 'tuu 'work', 'silm 'eye', 'taus 'full') have weakening alternation (only quantity and quality alternation).
II. Types 6 and 7 ('habu 'shame', 'kasi 'hand') have weakening alternation together with lengthening alternation (full alternation).
III. Types 8-12 ('hudsi 'coal', 'vari 'shade, shadow', 'pini 'dog', 'mako 'sweet; insipid', 'ellai 'animal') have only lengthening alternation.
IV. Type 13 ('lateq 'spring') has strengthening alternation.
V. Types 14-18 ('horak 'red currant', 'kanarik 'heather', 'peradu' 'huge; miserable', 'alono 'underlay', 'inemine 'human being') have alternation of non-initial syllables.
Grade alternation types of verbs can be divided into five groups (s. Tables 3 and 5).
I. Type 1 ('konoloma 'to speak') lacks grade alternation.
II. Types 2-7 ('suuma 'to eat', 'vaoma to sink', 'puudma 'to catch', 'laskma 'to let', 'lopma 'to end, to die', 'soimama 'to abuse') only have quantity or quality alternation.
III. Types 8 and 9 ('pugama 'to shear', 'tegema 'to do, to make') have quality alternation together with lengthening alternation (full alternation).
IV. Types 10-14 ('valama 'to pour', 'tuloma 'to come', 'elama 'to live', 'sibama 'to scurry', 'nosoma 'to rise') have only lengthening alternation.
V. Types 15-16 ('kaotama 'to lose', 'rapa 'hutma 'to shake') have alternation of non-initial syllables.
6. The spread of grade alternation in the Voro linguistic area and its repsentation in the Voro literary language
The usual grade alternation occurring on the boundary of the first and the second syllable--both quality and quantity alternation as well as lengthening alternation--has spread throughout the Voro linguistic area and even further. Alternation of non-initial syllables as described above, and used in the Voro literary language in the Voro-Estonian dictionary (Iva 2002 : 592-597) does not have a similar spread in the Voro linguistic area (Keem, Kasi 2002 : 28; Nigol 1994 : 31-32). According to the linguistic feature distribution maps by Mihkel Toomse (1998 : 110-111, 114-115, 125-126) and observations of the present author, this alternation type is more common in the southern and eastern parts of the Voro linguistic area, including the Seto area. According to Mihkel Toomse, the alternation of non-initial syllables is also quite strongly represented in other parts of the Voro linguistic area as one of the main features of South Estonian pronunciation, reaching even as far as Tartu and Mulgi areas. Nevertheless, many of the above word forms could occur without non-initial syllable alternation, above all in the language usage of South and North Voro but also elsewhere in Vorumaa: unik : uniku 'heap', sinep : sinepi 'mustard', raamat: raamatu 'book', aabits: aabitsa 'A-B-C book', visat: visatu 'thrown', voet: voetu 'taken', meeletu 'thoghtless; desperate; frantic', alotso underlay', kotusso 'place, ehitusi building, vorokosi 'inhabitant of Vorumaa, inemisi 'human being', alomisi 'lower'. In the close proximity of the Tartu dialect area, in particular in the more modern language usage, most of these types occur without grade alternation. Thus, a similar system prevails as in literary Estonian where grade alternation only occurs in non-initial syllables in the kanarik-ttype as the alternation of Q2 and Q3: kanariku : kanarikku 'heather'.
It seems that non-initial syllable alternation can be sociolinguisticaly a somewhat sensitive linguistic feature. The table of the recommended word forms of the Voro-Seto written language published in 1995 (Vorokiilne lugomik 1995 : 14) contains word forms with non-initial syllable alternation (raamadu 'book' , korraligu ' decent', Joosobi 'Joseph', kolladso 'yellow'). Variants of the same word forms without alternation (raamatu, korraliku, Joosopi, kollatso) are not recommended, because they are not as typical of Voro. This recommendation has found support in the norm proposed by Hella Keem, where example paradigms always contain only the variants with non-initial syllable alternation (see Keem 1997 : 32). This principle has been maintained in the norm of written Voro and has been used so far.
In Voro, grade alternation together with grammatical endings has an important role in distinguishing grammatical forms. When examining the Voro system of stem and non-initial syllable alternation it seems reasonable to treat it somewhat differently from the traditional treatment of Finnic grade alternation which only includes two grades. In the present article, two more grades have been added to the usual treatment of grade alternation. A unified four-grade alternation system includes cases of gemination which are characteristic of Voro but which up to now have been viewed as separate phenomena. The most characteristic trait of the Voro grade alternation is a phenomenon whereby in certain words the traditional quality alternation occurs together with quantity alternation including all three quantities. Such a quantity alternation could be called lengthening alternation and its co-occurrence with quality alternation could be treated as full alternation which includes all possible grade alternation types.
As compared to literary Estonian, there is an abundance of non-initial syllable alternation in Voro. This, however, is not evenly spread over the Voro linguistic area, but occurs above all in the eastern and southern part of the Voro language area, and thus finds its usage in the Voro literary language based on the language of this area.
University of Tartu and Voro Institute
Erelt, M., Kasik, R., Metslang, H., Rajandi, H., Ross, K., Saari, H., Tael, K., Vare, S. 1995, Eesti keele grammatika I. Morfoloogia. Sonamoodustus, Tallinn.
Erelt, M., Erelt, T., Ross, K. 1997, Eesti keele kasiraamat, Tallinn.
Iva, S. 2002, Voro-eesti synaraamat, Voro (Voro Instituudi toimondusoq 12).
Juva, S. [Iva, S.] 2005, Voro keele astmovaeldusost.--Piirikultuuriq ja-keeleq, Voro (Voro Instituudi toimondusoq 17), 103-112.
Karlsson, F. 1983, Suomen kielen aanne-ja muotorakenne, Porvoo-Helsinki--Juva.
Keem, H. 1997, Voru keel, Tallinn.
Keem, H., Kasi, I. 2002, Voru murde tekstid, Tallinn (Eesti murded VI).
Nigol, S. 1994, Hargla murraku konsonantism, Tallinn.
Pajupuu, H., Viitso, T.-R. 2008, Livonian Polyphthongs.--T.-R. Viitso, Liivi keel ja laanemeresoome keelemaastikud, Tartu--Tallinn, 264-288.
Toomse, M. 1998, Louna-Eesti murded 1-30. Kaardid, Turku (Turun yliopis ton suomalaisen ja yleisen kielitieteen laitoksen julkaisuja 56).
Viitso, T.-R. 2008, Laanemeresoome keelte ajalooline fonoloogia: alglaane meresoome.--T.-R. Viitso, Liivi keel ja laanemeresoome keelemaas tikud, Tartu-Tallinn, 135-144.
--1962, Tuvelisest astmevaheldusest (eriti eesti keeles).--ESA VIII, 44-62. Vorokiilne lugomik, Voro 1995.
(1) In the present article, the signs ' and ' are used to mark word forms; the first sign denotes primary and secondary stressed syllables in Q1 and Q2, and the second sign primary and secondary stressed syllables in Q3.
Table 1 Conditions of occurrence of different grades in different grade alternation types Grade alternation type Grade S W L OL Quality alternation Stop or s Stop or s > [empty set] -- -- Quantity alternation Q3 Q2 -- -- Lengthening alternation Q1 -- Q2 Q3 Full alternation Stop or s Stop or s > [empty set] Q2 Q3 Table 2 Grade alternation types of noun No. SgN SgG SgP SgIll PlG PlP PlIll PlAll 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2 S S S S W S S S 3 S S S S W S S W 4 S W S S S S S W 5 S W S S S/W S S W/W 6 S W L OL L L OL W ~ L 7 S W OL OL L/L L OL S ~ L/L 8 S S OL OL L/L L OL S ~ L/L 9 S S OL OL OL OL OL S 10 S S L OL L L OL S ~ L 11 L L L OL OL OL OL OL 12 L S S S S S S S 13 W S W S S/W S S/W S/W 14 S W S S S S S S 15 S W S S S S S W 16 W W S S S S S S 17 -- W -- S S S S S 18 -- -- -- S S/W S S W Table 3 Grade alternation types of verbs PtsPt No. Sup Inf Akt Pas 1 -- -- -- -- 2 S W W S 3 S W S S 4 S S S W 5 S S S S 6 S S S W 7 S W W W 8 S L S W 9 S L L OL 10 S L S S 11 S L S S 12 S L S S 13 S L S S 14 S L L OL 15 S S S S 16 S S S W IndPr IndPr IndIpf IndIpf Sg1 Sg3 Sg1 Sg3 No. (maq 'I') (ta 's/he') (maq 'I') (ta s/he') 1 -- -- -- -- 2 S S/W S S 3 S S S S 4 W S W/S S/S 5 W S W S 6 W W S S 7 S S S W 8 W S W S 9 W S W OL/S 10 S S S S 11 S S L OL 12 S S OL OL 13 L L S S 14 S S OL OL 15 W S W S 16 W S W S Table 4 Examples of grade alternation types of nouns No. SgN SgG SgP SgIll 1 'oppaja 'oppaja 'oppajat 'oppajahe 2 'tai 'tai 'taid 'taihte 3 'tuu 'tuu 'tuud 'tuuhu 4 'silm 'silma 'silma 'silma 5 'taus 'tavve 'taut 'taude 6 'habu 'hau 'hapu 'happu 7 'kasi 'kae 'katt 'katte 8 'hudsi 'hudse 'hust 'huste 9 'vari 'varo 'varjo 'varjo 10 'pini 'pini 'pinni 'pinni 11 'mako 'mako 'makot 'makkohe 12 'ellai 'elaja 'elajat 'elajahe 13 'lateq 'latte 'latet 'lattehe 14 'horak 'horaga 'horakat 'horakahe 15 'kanarik 'kanarigu 'kana 'rikku 'kana 'rikku 16 'peradu 'peradu 'peratut 'peratuhe 17 'alono 'alodso 'alodso 'alotsohe 18 'inemine 'inemise 'inemist 'ine 'miste No. PlG PlP 1 'oppajido 'oppajit 2 'taie 'taie 3 'toie 'toid 4 'silmi 'silmi 5 'tausi / 'taute 'tausi 6 'hape 'hape 7 'kassi / 'kate 'kassi 8 'hutsi / 'huste 'hutsi 9 'varjo 'varjo 10 'pinne 'pinne 11 'makkido 'makkit 12 'elajide 'elajit 13 'lattide / latete 'lattit 14 'horakido 'horakit 15 'kana 'rikko 'kana 'rikko 16 'pera tuide 'pera 'tuid 17 'alotsido 'alotsit 18 'ine 'miisi / 'ine 'miste 'ine 'miisi No. PlIll PlAll 1 'oppajihe 'oppajilo 2 'taihte 'taele 3 'toihte 'toile 4 'silmi(he) 'silmile 5 'tausi(he) 'tausile / tautele 6 'happe(he) 'haele ~ 'hapele 7 'kassi(he) 'kasile ~ 'kassile / 'katele 8 'hutsi(he) 'hudsile ~ 'hutsile / 'hustele 9 'varjo(he) 'varolo 10 'pinne(he) 'pinele ~ 'pinnele 11 'makkihe 'makkilo 12 'elajihe 'elajile 13 'lattihe / latetehe 'lattile / 'latetele 14 'horakihe 'horakilo 15 'kana 'rikko(he) 'kanarigolo 16 'pera 'tuihe 'pera 'tuile 17 'alotsihe 'alotsilo 18 'ine 'miisi(he) 'ine 'miisile Table 5 Examples of grade alternation types of verbs PtsPt No. Sup Inf Akt Pas 1 'konoloma 'konoldaq 'konolnuq 'konold 2 'suuma 'suvvaq 'soonuq 'suud 3 'vaoma 'vaioq 'vaonuq 'vaot 4 'puudma 'puudaq 'puudnuq 'puvvet 5 'laskma 'laskoq 'lasknuq 'last 6 'lopma 'loppoq 'lopnuq 'lopot 7 'soimama 'soimadaq 'soimanuq 'soimat 8 'pugama 'pukaq 'puganuq 'poet 9 'tegema 'tetaq 'tennuq 'tett 10 'valama 'vallaq 'valanuq 'valot 11 'tuloma 'tullaq 'tulnuq 'tult 12 'elama 'ellaq 'elanuq 'elet 13 'sibama 'sipaq 'sibanuq 'sibat 14 'nosoma 'nostaq 'nosnuq 'nost 15 'kaotama 'kaotaq 'kaotanuq 'kaotot 16 'rapa 'hutma 'rapa hutaq 'rapa 'hutnuq 'rapa hudot IndPr IndPr IndIpf IndIpf Sg1 Sg3 Sg1 Sg3 No. (maq 'I') (ta 's/he') (maq 'I') (ta 's/he') 1 'konolo 'konolos 'konoli 'konol 2 'suu 'suu /'soose 'sei 'sei 3 'vao 'vaos 'vaio 'vaio 4 'puvva 'puud 'puvvi / 'puudse 'puue / 'puudse 5 'laso 'lask 'lasi 'lask 6 'lopo 'lopos 'loppi 'loppi 7 'soima 'soimas 'soimssi 'soimas 8 'pua 'puga 'poi 'pugi 9 'tii 'tege 'tei 'tekk / 'tegi 10 'vala 'vala 'vali 'vali 11 'tulo 'tulo 'tulli 'tull 12 'ela 'elas 'elli 'elli 13 'sipa 'sipa 'sibasi 'sibasi 14 'noso 'nosos 'nossi 'nossi 15 'kaoda 'kaotas 'kaodi 'kaot 16 'rapa huda 'rapa 'hut 'rapa 'hudi 'rapa 'hut
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Date:||Sep 1, 2010|
|Previous Article:||Clauses emerging as epistemic adverbs in Estonian conversation.|
|Next Article:||Tiit-Rein Viitso, Liivi keele ja laanemeresoome keelemaastikud, Tartu-Tallinn 2008. 402 S.|