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Gone but not forgotten council leaders, 1934-1952.

To prevent lack of understandable interest and knowledge gaps in the American Counseling Association's (ACA) roots and its development, we spotlight the American Council of Guidance and Personnel Associations (hereinafter referred to as the Council) leaders who were assisted by members to solve what was, at that time, professional organization concerns. They looked ahead to shape the next generations of the developing profession of counseling. Gladding and Newsome (2004) credited the Council's hidden history with the formation of what has become ACA (p. 9). Some historical information associated with each leader's administration is reported in this article. Because of space restrictions, little is said about the professional lives of the Council leaders, and almost nothing is revealed about them personally.

* A Review of the Council

Anecdotal information selected from the senior author's (the first author) personal files provide brief tributes to the 17 professional organization leaders of the Council confederation (see Appendix A). Each of the 9 men and 8 women leaders was elected/appointed by the Council representatives annually at conventions or at skeleton conferences from 1943 through 1946, the World War II (WWII) era when national conventions were banned, transportation was curtailed, and travel restrictions were enforced.

No specific, systematic rotation plan existed on paper; leaders chosen were representatives of four major constituent professional associations of the Council: American College Personnel Association (ACPA), Eastern College Personnel Officers (ECPO), National Association of Deans of Women (NADW), and National Vocational Guidance Association (NVGA).

We explain collaboration functions among professional organization leaders and members a short time before the Council's formation in 1934 and chart progress during the existence of the Council until dissolution procedures that began in 1952 were completed. For several years prior to 1951, the Council was moving toward becoming the American Personnel and Guidance Associations. The committee to consider unification presented its landmark report at the Council convention in March 1950, which led to the establishment and implementation of the new Personnel and Guidance Association (PGA). Although most of the Council leaders are little known in counseling literature, their combined leadership actions in a prehistory period of nearly 2 decades made the formation of ACA possible.

ACA has several prototypes. Six years after the founding of ACA's progenitor association known as the Council, the word American was dropped from the title when the original plan of organization was revised. The Council leaders created the structure of the PGA and conducted the first election of officers in the summer of 1951. The word American was added to PGA during the 1952 joint convention of the Council and the new PGA in Los Angeles to avoid having an acronym that was similar to the professional golfers' association. APGA was chartered on July 1, 1952. Meanwhile, the Council's books were closed after 18 years of operation. After restructuring 31 years later, the APGA became the American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) in 1983, then was recast as the American Counseling Association (ACA) in 1992, representing the counseling profession worldwide.

During 1984-1985, the AACD board of directors and the last AACD senate recognized the Council's golden anniversary. Information was placed in the archives of AACD as a historical remembrance (P. J. McDonough, personal communication, July 31, 1984) and commemorative statements about the Council's history appeared in three issues of Guidepost (now Counseling Today; AACD, 1985; Sheeley, 1984, 1985).

* Coalition Backdrop

Members of several guidance, personnel, and placement service professional associations who held annual conventions during the late 1920s and early 1930s dealt with professional education problems in schools and colleges; these problems grew out of changes in the social order of the depression days. Unemployment averaged 18.2%. To take advantage of lower hotel rates until the early part of WWII, the conventions were held the week before the meeting of the National Education Association, Department of Superintendence; the Department of Superintendence later (1938) changed its name to the American Association of School Administrators. When national conventions of the Council were renewed in 1947, they were not held with AASA.

The guidance-related associations at national conventions often conducted open meetings, joint sessions, and other program activities that were shared with members of different organizations. Among those major associations were the ACPA, NADW, and NVGA, whose combined membership numbered several hundred annually. During the late 1940s, after WWII, and in the early 1950s, membership numbers of ACPA and NVGA each increased to 1,000 or more.

A major issue for guidance and counseling associations during the 1920s and 1930s was how to coordinate and consolidate the annual conventions to avoid program overlapping. Other duplication concerns of association leaders and members included federation formation, affiliation, and association membership building. With the formation of the Council in 1934, each association was allowed to preserve its identity and autonomy.

One of the cooperating organizations, the Personnel Research Federation (PRF), printed a small folder of approximately 40 pages of programs for six organizations at the Cleveland, Ohio, convention in 1929. Programs of 10 cooperating organizations were published by the American Council on Education at the 1930 convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Former President Francis Bradshaw, who chaired ACPA's coordinating committee (an intergroup planning committee), reported at the Detroit convention in 1931 that his committee was meeting, cooperating, and coordinating with other organizations.

An important milestone was reached in 1933 after the national convention in Minneapolis, Minnesota. At the end of his ACPA presidency (1933), Jack E. Walters agreed to chair that association's coordinating committee, which included incoming ACPA President Karl M. Cowdery ( 1933-1935) and former NVGA President Harry D. Kitson (1922-1924). After the convention in Minneapolis, this coordinating committee decided that financial backing was needed to carry on.

Coordinating committee members sent a letter dated March 1, 1933, to President F. P. Keppel of the Carnegie Corporation with a request that his foundation sponsor a movement to form a federation and coordinate a program among several national professional organizations interested in guidance and personnel services. Also, Keppel's foundation was requested to conduct an occupational study of the effects of the depression and technological advances on the success requirements and careers of college-trained graduates. Also, appeals to discuss convention program coordination were sent by representatives of several other associations to Keppel.

The appeals and proposals voiced by association leaders were heard. Grounded in the reality of that time period, the leaders' letters became roadmaps and catalysts for action. Keppel forwarded the letters to National Occupational Conference (NOC) leaders who called an organization meeting in April 1933 in New York City. At that meeting, association representatives on NOC's committee on joint planning, chaired by Walter Bingham, arranged a plan for cooperative action and a program for the guidance and personnel convention in 1934 at Cleveland. At a joint luncheon in Cleveland to discuss joint planning for the future, an agreement was reached to appoint representatives to a meeting of the proposed Council. Bingham was named temporary chairperson. Possible consolidation proposals were discussed. Other groups, including NADW leaders, were hesitant to join any kind of centralized coordinating body. But discussions revealed satisfactory agreement on a cooperative arrangement to continue and expand coordination.

* Cooperation and Coordination

Bingham convened a meeting of the representatives on March 16, 1934, in New York City; during that time, 12 people (most from that region) representing nine associations met as the executive committee of the new Council and elected officers. At that meeting in New York and at subsequently called work gatherings, representatives from the associations drew up and adopted plans for cooperative action. The associations banded together to deal with concerns that were common to each of them.

The goals of the Council, stated in a memorandum regarding organization and procedure, were to achieve closer cooperation, work toward higher professional standards, and promote guidance and personnel principles and practices without minimizing each association's activities and special missions. The primary function of the Council was to arrange a joint day of meetings (called Council Day) for the annual convention. At that time, the leadership position carried far less prestige than it has for presidents in recent years, but professional responsibilities were numerous (D. S. Bridgman, personal communication, January 23, 1968). A delegate assembly, renamed the board of representatives in 1940, represented the official annual meeting of the Council. The delegate assembly/board of representatives was composed of up to three representatives from each member association and one representative from each affiliate association. The Council also functioned with a smaller executive committee.

Eight member and two affiliated associations with a mix of different fields of interest and work areas composed the original Council. They were

* American Association of Collegiate Registrars

* American College Personnel Association

* Institute of Women's Professional Relations

* National Association of Deans of Women

* National Federation of Bureaus of Occupations

* National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc.

* National Vocational Guidance Association

* Personnel Research Federation

* Southern Women's Educational Alliance

* Teachers College Personnel Association

Before the end of 1934, ECPO became affiliated with the Council and agreed to contribute $15 to the support of the infant Council. Members of ACPA, ECPO, NADW, and NVGA cooperated with the meetings of college and school workers and other groups representing organizations with smaller membership or that had less interest in personnel and guidance services. The representatives to the Council were member association presidents or alternates. The Council's executive committee or board of representatives annually elected a chairman, a vice chairman (renamed president and vice president in 1940), and a secretary-treasurer; there was no headquarters office or staff. Although no systematic rotation plan for electing the 17 Council leaders existed, women and men with ACPA, NVGA, NADW, and ECPO memberships were predominant among the individuals elected to Council leadership positions. The delegate assembly and board of representatives determined policies and authorized special committees such as the joint program, purposes and activities, and financial arrangements. The central Council's work was funded by the associations or special grants.

* Council Leaders

Harry D. Kitson (1934-1935)

The first professional chosen to chair the Council was Harry D. Kitson, who represented NVGA as an executive committee member. The Council's principle activity during 1934 was program planning of the 1935 Atlantic City convention meetings by the joint program committee (see Appendix B). More than 1,000 college deans, personnel and guidance officers, and social workers attended the Council's first national convention. One afternoon during the convention, Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt presented a 20-minute address before a large gathering consisting primarily of women.

At the Council's first convention in Atlantic City in 1935, Kitson reviewed the history of the Council's formation in his keynote address titled "Our Common Cause." Committees also considered joint publication of a journal called The Guidance and Personnel Journal. A centralized headquarters was discussed. The committee on financial arrangements recommended that a $1 registration fee for each association's convention registrant be allocated to the work of the coordinating organization plus a minimum contribution of $25 from each active and affiliated member organization of the Council whenever the registration fees did not amount to the minimum fee.

Still interested in the Council's activities 10 years after the close of his term, Kitson attended the Council's working conference as a representative of NVGA late in March 1945 in New York City (see Appendix C).

Sarah M. Sturtevant (1935-1936)

At the 1935 Council conference in Atlantic City, Sturtevant was elected chairperson for 1935-1936. She had served as an executive committee member of the Council representing NADW from 1934 to 1935. The new association met in St. Louis for the second annual convention. Sturtevant presided at the Council's keynote luncheon, presented her annual report at a joint session that afternoon, and presided at a business meeting of official association representatives that evening. In her report, Sturtevant stressed that the term guidance included such special services as educational, health, psychological, vocational, and educational counseling (Sheeley, 1977, p. 11).

Donald S. Bridgman (1936-1937)

Donald S. Bridgman was a member of the council delegate assembly for 6 years, from 1934 to 1940, during which time he represented either the PRF or ACPA. A frequent presenter at ACPA annual conventions, he was elected the first secretary-treasurer of the Council during 1934-1935 and presented a financial report at the Council convention in Atlantic City. He was appointed to chair the Council's program committee during 1935-1936.

Bridgman was chosen to chair the Council during 1936-1937 (D. S. Bridgman, personal communication, January 23, 1968). At the Council's third convention in 1937 in New Orleans and during Council Day, he presided at the keynote luncheon (joint session) and at the annual open meeting that followed, when he presented the annual report of the chairman. Also, he presided at a Saturday morning breakfast meeting for official representatives of the several associations of the Council who elected his successor.

Fred C. Smith (1937-1938)

Fred C. Smith served on the Council's executive committee during 1934-1935 as an NVGA representative. Vice chairperson of the Council during 1936-1937, he chaired the coordination committee that year and presented his committee report at the joint session in New Orleans. Near the close of that Council convention, Smith was chosen to chair the organization for the 1937-1938 term.

As Council chairperson during 1937-1938, Smith met with executive committee members at the Gibson Hotel in Cincinnati on Thursday, May 20, 1937, and again on November 6, 1937. The theme chosen for his term was "The Coordination of Personnel and Guidance Work in Education." At the fourth annual Council Day convention opening in Atlantic City, federation members attended the Council's joint luncheon, which was followed by the joint session and the annual open meeting. Two other Council joint sessions, a morning session and an evening program, and a reception were conducted on Friday. Smith presided at the keynote luncheon and the annual open business meeting, to which all members of the contributing associations were invited and during which he presented his annual report. Smith challenged the young association to move beyond its infancy and expand its operation beyond convention program coordination. A breakfast and business meeting for Council officials was held Saturday morning, and Smith also presided at that meeting.

Irma E. Voigt (1938-1939)

A former president of the Ohio Association of Deans of Women, Irma E. Voigt was elected president of NADW in 1935 and held that office for 2 years. During 1936-1937, Voigt chaired the NADW program committee and also worked closely with the general Council joint program group. On Saturday morning at the Council's 1938 business meeting in Atlantic City, Voigt was elected to chair the Council during 1938-1939. The fifth Council convention was held in Cleveland in 1939. On Tuesday evening of that convention week, official representatives of the Council's member associations met for a business session. The next day, the Council's opening session of the morning was followed by the joint luncheon and a series of afternoon joint sectional meetings. The Council's coffee hour was held on Friday afternoon.

At a joint general session on Friday evening, using the theme "Our Common Cause," Voigt reported that before a future policy of the Council could be decided upon, careful consideration was needed about the whole question of the future policy of guidance. She stated that the most significant work of the Council during the 1938-1939 term centered on the work of the future policy committee. This committee outlined a 2-year program in May 1938 and continued its study through correspondence and two subsequent meetings. On Council Day at the fifth convention, Voigt stated that a review of organizations dealing with guidance resulted in an invitation to official representatives of some 120 organizations to attend and discuss the overall question of guidance before moving forward to transform deliberate, thought-out action into new ventures.

A. J. Brumbaugh (1939-1940)

Brumbaugh was president of ACPA for a 2-year term (1937-1939); during that time, he was a member of the Council's delegate assembly and was chosen to chair the Council during the 1939-1940 term. Brumbaugh and other Council representatives met in New York City for 1 day in early December 1939. He and two other members of a steering committee were selected to attend a Saturday meeting, which was held in Washington, DC, on February 17, 1940, and was sponsored by the American Council on Education. The joint committee, which included other Council representatives, discussed ways to coordinate personnel work at the college level.

The sixth annual Council convention took place in St. Louis in 1940. The Council's delegate assembly met one afternoon. Joint meetings for members of the cooperating organizations of the Council were held all day Thursday. The opening joint session was held in the Law School Auditorium of St. Louis University, where the role of education in emotional adjustment was discussed. Cooperating associations discussed the Council's policy committee report. A recommendation was made and approved that the Council drop the word American from its name. A panel discussion was held on the future of student personnel work at a joint session of Council organizations. The association was requested to establish a college section that included an executive committee, whose task was to coordinate college personnel work in the Council.

When annual conventions were curtailed in 1942, A. J. Brumbaugh helped to plan the Council's January 1943 work conference in New York City.

Harriet M. Allyn (1940-1942)

First, Harriet M. Allyn was vice president of NADW during 1933-1935; then during 1937-1939, she was president. In 1940, the board of representatives of the Council, in St. Louis, appointed her to serve as vice chair of the Council. She became president after the resignation of Warren K. Layton in November 1940. The updated Council plan of organization changed the title of its leadership position from chairman to president. The seventh annual convention sponsored by the Council was held in Atlantic City. The associations received a proposal for deliberation from the Council recommending that meetings be held at a time and place other than during AASA conventions.

Association representatives attended a meeting of the Council board of representatives in New York City in November 1941, when the revised plan of organization for the Council was presented. WWII added difficulties beyond the norm for the program planners who were arranging the 1942 San Francisco conference, which was poorly attended. Regulations limiting professional travel during wartime restricted national meeting attendance.

The program and arrangements committee of the Council was composed of individuals who had the same responsibility with the contributing associations. The Council financed the printing of the convention programs. The Council's eighth annual convention was again held prior to the annual gathering of the AASA. Presiding at a Wednesday afternoon Council luncheon meeting, E. G. Williamson led a general discussion on four phases of personnel work. On Council Day, President Allyn announced the accomplishment of two important objectives: to begin the process of incorporating the Council and to operate under a structured but highly flexible plan of organization. She proposed that the Council next deal with its financial structure. At the second Council business meeting, E. G. Williamson proposed that Council officers write reviews of their work and send the information, by letter, to the constituent members. This task was undertaken so that they would continue their contributions to the Council treasury, thus enabling the coordinating organization to continue to be effective.

Warren K. Layton (1942-1943)

One of three NVGA delegates to the Council during the annual convention in Cleveland, Ohio (1939), Warren K. Layton was elected vice chairperson to serve during 1939-1940. At the 1940 convention in St. Louis, the board of representatives appointed Layton to chair the Council. He resigned that position in November 1940 and was replaced by Harriet M. Allyn. At the second business meeting during the 1942 San Francisco conference, Layton was elected again to head the Council. A meeting on May 1942 was planned for the Council's board of representatives. President Layton was directed to appoint a committee to study policy matters and to request each constituent organization to poll its entire membership on the matter of changing the time and/or place of the annual meeting, separate from the AASA. As a basis of voting, a letter listing the pros and cons of this recommendation was drafted by the Council. Constituent members of the Council decided at a planning committee meeting (Chicago, November 27-28, 1942) to cancel the 1943 annual convention. Instead, the planning committee suggested a joint working session ("skeleton") conference that would include invited officers and selected persons who chaired committees of the Council's cooperating organizations. Layton estimated that approximately 4,600 professional persons belonged to the organizations affiliated with the Council.

President Layton invited consultants and other groups from industry, government, and the military forces to join him in New York City for several days in January 1943 to discuss how vocational counselors and personnel workers could contribute more effectively to the personnel policies of the armed forces and the war manpower commission. The opening session of the work conference considered guidance related to youth careers that had been interruped by war service. The theme of that first session was preservice guidance. Subjects for later sessions included in-service guidance, wartime health and welfare services, postwar guidance, and other subjects counseling groups would face in the postwar period.

Helen M. Voorhees (1943)

During the wartime alternate Council conference, held in New York City during January 1943, the board of representatives chose Helen M. Voorhees to serve as president. Extremely active with ACPA during the 1930s, she served as ACPA president during 1939-1941 and was a member of the Council's delegate assembly and board of representatives. A spring meeting of the Council's board of representatives was held on April 13, 1943, at the Biltmore Hotel in New York City. At the executive work-session program, eight constituent Council groups were represented by 16 professionals; Voorhees presided. The resolutions approved at the January 1943 conference were discussed and summarized, and means for wide distribution were planned. Additional personnel were added to the Council's legislative committee, the editorial committee was continued, and the appointments of a new committee on public relations were to carry out the plans. A resolution was prepared and sent to President Harry Truman and to the Veterans Administration. Anticipated appointment of large numbers of rehabilitation officers required that they be experts who were trained and experienced in vocational counseling and personnel work. The Council offered advisory services regarding proper sources of qualified personnel. The Treasurer's report showed a cash balance of $718.12 and accounts receivable of $315.00, making total assets $1,033.12.

At the April 1943 meeting, a decision was made to hold the next conference as a work session with the fall meeting of the Council's board of representatives during November 1943. All members of constituent organizations who wanted to attend were invited as observers. One day of the conference was reserved for the Council and the second day for meetings of the constituent organizations. A November morning session was devoted largely to rehabilitation. Lieutenant C. Gilbert Wrenn, Bureau of Naval Personnel, and Dr. Harry A Jager, Chief of Occupational Information and Guidance Services, were two of the speakers. In the afternoon at a business meeting, a radio program to reach the constituent memberships was planned. A Council dinner meeting was held during that evening.

M. Eunice Hilton (1943-1945)

Eunice Hilton chaired the Council's nominating committee of the board of representatives at the San Francisco convention in 1942. At the April 1943 Council meeting in New York City, she was elected program chairperson and coordinator of the planned fall meeting of the Council's board of representatives that year. Subcommittee chairmen working with Hilton included Gladys F. Gove on radio announcements and Clarence W. Failor on local conferences. At their meeting on November 18, 1943, the board of representatives appointed Hilton as president.

At the March 1944 Council board of representatives meeting in New York City, prospects for a national Council convention in 1945 were minimal. A committee was appointed to carry out plans for a series of regional conferences to be held in January and February 1945 at Atlanta, Chicago, Denver, New York City, and San Francisco. Each member organization would hold its own meetings. One or more Council general meetings were scheduled. NVGA appointed regional chairmen to collaborate in developing the Council program in each area. At the next meeting of the Council's board of representatives in November 1944, the board cancelled the regional conference plan after the U.S. Department of Transportation requested that travel be curtailed. The theme of the conference was to have been mobilizing community counseling resources.

Marion R. Trabue (1945-1946)

At the work conference in New York City during January 1943, Marion R. Trabue participated as a panel member on the Council program on useful personnel techniques and instruments. The NVGA board of trustees appointed him as one of two representatives to the Council, a position he held for 5 years. Trabue was a member of the Council's central planning committee of the canceled regional conferences. At the Council meeting held in February 1945, at the Columbia University Club, the board of representatives elected him president.

As president of both the Council and the NVGA, Trabue presided when the board of representatives convened in Chicago in September 1945. The group decided against holding a national conference in 1946 but agreed to conduct 9 or 10 regional conferences in selected cities during March and April 1946 to serve a majority of members. Conference cities included Atlanta, Cincinnati, Denver, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York City, Portland, San Francisco, and Washington, DC, with planning committees in each area appointed by the Council who planned for Council sessions and assisted member organizations in developing their own programs. Planning committee members for each area met in November 1945. More people attended the regional conferences than had attended a national Council convention. Council president Trabue met with the board of representatives at Hotel Pennsylvania in New York City for 2 days during February 1946. The Council decided to conduct their next national meeting in 1947.

Elsie May Smithies (1946-1947)

Smithies was NADW president during 1943-1945 while she was serving on the Council's board of representatives. She was appointed vice president (1945-1946) of the Council by the board of representatives. Her appointment as president (1946-1947) took place at Hotel Pennsylvania in New York City on February 27, 1946. She was president when the first national Council meeting was held at Columbus, Ohio, the Council's ninth national convention. Originally scheduled in Chicago, the convention was moved to Columbus when Chicago hotels would not ensure accommodation of all members without discrimination. Smithies guided the activities of the Council and presented its work at the all-association luncheon on Council Day. "I recall so well that it was necessary at the first postwar meeting of the organization to review what the aims and purposes of the organization had been previously" (E. M. Smithies, personal communication, February 20, 1968). She reported that new members and former members needed the "cobwebs brushed aside" (E. M. Smithies, personal communication, February 20, 1968). A preliminary announcement of the Council convention program announced the theme. ACPA, NAWD, and NVGA were listed as the major convention sponsors, with the cooperation of six other professional groups.

Daniel D. Feder (1947-1948)

The Council's board of representatives appointed Daniel D. Feder to preside during the 1947-1948 term, after he had served as president of ACPA during 1945-1947. The 10th annual Council convention was held in Chicago during late March and early April 1948. Feder was a key leader in moving the Council convention to Columbus, Ohio, in 1947. At his insistence, ACPA and the Council was among the first national organizations to adopt open resolutions against meeting in any city that practiced discrimination. His presidential address to the Council at the 1948 convention led to the creation of the study commission whose report led to the formation of the PGA (D. D. Feder, personal communication, October 23, 1974). Feder served as APGA president during 1960-1961.

Joan Fiss Bishop (1948-1949)

Joan Fiss Bishop was appointed president of the Council in Chicago during the 1948 spring convention. A past president of the ECPO, a regional prototype of the ACPA, she considered herself a junior in the crowd and, hence, less controversial for selection in a very historic period (J. F. Bishop, personal communication, September 16, 1976). She presided at the 11th Council convention, which was again held in Chicago, during April 1949. Tuesday was set aside as Council Day when common meetings were held among the Council organizations. For the first time, appointed committees were handled through a placement desk. (Professionals who were interested in career positions checked in at the placement desk.) Following Feder's suggestion, a study commission of 14 members representing the 10 associations within the Council submitted their report, a statement of an educational philosophy that provided a climate in which personnel services could operate effectively. At the meeting of the Council's board of representatives on April 17, 1949, board members voted that the report of the study commission be presented on Council Day, March 28, 1950, with their approval and then be referred to the constituent organizations. The personnel associations, like many other organizations, seemed to have many transient members, depending upon their specializations.

Howard R. Beattie (1949-1950)

The first and only Canadian to serve as president of the Council was Howard R. Beattie. His appointment by the board of representatives during the Easter convention in Chicago in 1949 followed his service as the Council secretary during 1948-1949. During his presidency, 10 constituent organizations concerned with guidance and personnel work were associated with the Council. After the Council planning meetings at Toronto, Canada, in July and in Atlantic City on October 19, 1949, a council committee to consider unification (CCU) was established. The 12th Council convention was held in Atlantic City late in March 1950. On Council Day morning (March 28th), the study commission's report was presented, followed by the CCU report. After discussion, an important proposal was made to reorganize the Council into an international personnel and guidance association. As recommended by the CCU, the Council's reorganization plan was taken back to the constituent organizations for consideration during 1950-1951 and final action. Beattie (personal communication, September 1, 1976) reported the highlight of his presidency: "The recommendations for a new organization were sufficiently endorsed to warrant referral to the 1951 convention for further action."

Hilda Threlkeld (1950-1951)

Formerly president of the deans of women during 1945-1947, Hilda Threlkeld presided at the Council's annual banquet in 1948 and introduced Daniel D. Feder, the main speaker. Threlkeld was appointed vice president of the Council by the board of representatives at Chicago in 1949. She was appointed president the next year when the plan was to conduct a 1-year study of unification proposals and present the subject in Chicago in 1951 during the Council's 13th annual convention. Council Day sessions were held on Tuesday. The unification issue was one of the major topics of discussion. Various groups discussed joining forces with groups in other fields in an overall organization for personnel and guidance workers. One of the paramount issues then was whether or not members of those groups wanted to give up membership in a significant "smaller" group and join efforts with a "larger" one. There also was considerable discussion of the word personnel and its significance for guidance workers. Praising the plan for joint work at a state women deans meeting in Louisville, Kentucky, Council president Threlkeld said that personnel work was receiving more and more emphasis and if deans of women remained aloof from other professionals in the field, they were likely to be ignored. An opposing view was that guidance was only a third of the work of deans and did not give consideration to other responsibilities of the deans.

Clifford G. Houston (1951-1952)

The board of representatives appointed Clifford G. Houston (ACPA delegate) to preside over the Council during 1951-1952. In March 1951, the Board asked him to reserve, for the emerging APGA, the Stevens Hotel in Chicago for the 1953 convention. A great deal of the board's time and effort during late 1951 and early 1952 was devoted to the planning of the 14th Council convention, which was scheduled for Los Angeles during late March and early April 1952.

Robert H. Shaffer, president of the PGA during 1951-1953, met with NVGA's president (Clifford Erickson) during Sunday and Monday, September 22-23, 1951, at which time NVGA's facilities, including the headquarters office and the journal were made available to the PGA officers. NVGA leaders contributed as fully as possible to the development of a strong PGA at the earliest possible time. Later in 1951, on October 6-7 (Saturday and Sunday), the first meeting of the executive council of the Personnel and Guidance Association was held in Chicago. Much time was devoted to the discussion of matters relating to criteria for divisional affiliation with PGA, professional journals and publications, regional activities, the central office, and the orderly transition from the Council to PGA.

Receiving instructions from the Council's board of representatives on April 3, 1952, Houston took steps in May, June, and July of that year to dissolve the Council legally. It had been incorporated in the state of New Jersey. Early in 1953, he appointed an auditing committee to audit Council accounts, after which the balance was transferred to APGA.

At the APGA Chicago convention, during the opening assembly on March 30, 1953, Houston turned over to President Robert H. Shaffer the notice of dissolution of the Council.

* Conclusion

This article evoked time travel for older ACA members who remember, heard, or read about the Council's collaboration operation. Newer members were introduced to Council organization and functioning, which led to the formation of APGA in 1952.

With political savvy, the Council's board of representatives or other designated officials chose 17 leaders during the 18-year sweep of ACA's early history from 1934-1952. NADW provided six leaders, ACPA five, NVGA five, and ECPO one. Among those four major constituent service and professional associations of the Council, ACPA and NVGA joined to form PGA in 1951. Referendum results of NADW members revealed their preference to retain autonomy and remain independent of the new PGA. Two other associations joined ACPA and NVGA as divisions to form APGA in 1952. Council directions were inspired by the visions the leaders had about the future of counseling. Council leaders modeled the beginnings of a new collaboration, forged a new association that has become ACA, and then dissolved their confederation. Readers may want to review and compare how the growth to become ACA has improved upon the fabric of what an older generation of dedicated leaders produced.


Council Leaders, Dates, and Associations Represented

Harry D. Kitson, 1934-1935 (NVGA)

Sarah M. Sturtevant, 1935-1936 (NADW)

Donald S. Bridgman, 1936-1937 (ACPA)

Fred C. Smith, 1937-1938 (NVGA)

Irma E. Voigt, 1938-1939 (NADW)

A. J. Brumbaugh, 1939-1940 (ACPA)

Harriet M. Allyn, 1940-1942 (NADW)

Warren K. Layton, 1942-1943 (NVGA)

Helen M. Voorhees, 1943 (ACPA)

M. Eunice Hilton, 1943-1945 (NADW)

Marion R. Trabue, 1945-1946 (NVGA)

Elsie May Smithies, 1946-1947 (NADW)

Daniel D. Fader, 1947-1948 (ACPA)

Joan Fiss Bishop, 1948-1949 (ECPO)

Howard R. Beattie, 1949-1950 (NVGA)

Hilda Threlkeld, 1950-1951 (NADW)

Clifford G. Houston, 1951-1952 (ACPA)


Convention Cities, Themes, Dates, and Hotels

Atlantic City; no theme identified; February 20-23, 1935; Haddon Hall

St. Louis; no theme identified; February 19-22, 1936; Coronado Hotel

New Orleans; no theme identified; February 17-20, 1937; St. Charles Hotel

Atlantic City; The Coordination of Personnel and Guidance Work; February 23-26, 1938; Chalfonte-Haddon Hall

Cleveland; The Community and Personnel Adjustment; February 22-25, 1939; Hotel Cleveland

St. Louis; The Future of Student Personnel Work; February 21-24, 1940; Coronado Hotel

Atlantic City; The Role of Personnel Work in the Defense of Democracy; February 19-22; 1941; Chalfonte-Haddon Hall

San Francisco; Arming the Vocational Counselors for War Service; February 19-20, 1942; Hotel Mark Hopkins

1943-1946; annual council conventions cancelled (a)

Columbus; Developing the Human Resources of Democracy; March 28-31, 1947; Deshler-Wallick Hotel

Chicago; Personnel Work as a Profession; March 29-April 1, 1948; Stevens Hotel

Chicago; Achieving Common Goals in Guidance; April 18-21, 1949; Stevens Hotel

Atlantic City; The Personnel Profession: Achievements and Objectives; March 27-30, 1950; Chalfonte-Haddon Hall

Chicago; Personnel Resources for Improving Human Relations; March 26-29, 1951; Stevens Hotel

Los Angeles; Improving Human Relations; March 30-April 3, 1952; Biltmore Hotel

(a) See Appendix C for Council Conferences 1943-1947.


Council Conferences 1943-1947

Chicago; May 1942; Board of Representatives

Chicago; November 27-28, 1942; Planning Committee Meeting New York City; January 15-18, 1943; Biltmore Hotel; Board of Representatives

New York City; April 13, 1943; Biltmore Hotel; Board of Representatives

New York City; November 18-19, 1943; Biltmore Hotel; Board of Representatives

New York City; March 2, 1944; Biltmore Hotel; Board of Representatives

New York City; November 16, 1944; Biltmore Hotel; Board of Representatives

New York City; February 22, 1945; Columbia University Club; Board of Representatives

Chicago; September 24, 1945; Board of Representatives

Chicago; November 1945; Planning Committee Members

New York City; February 27-28, 1946; Hotel Pennsylvania; Board of Representatives


American Association for Counseling and Development. (1985, May 23). AACD senate passes resolutions at final meeting. Guidepost, 27, 9.

Gladding, S. T., & Newsome, D. W. (2004). Community and agency counseling. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hail.

Sheeley, V. L. (Ed.). (1977, January 13). Courageous leaders: Brief commentaries and a pictorial record. Guidepost, 19, 7-13.

Sheeley, V. L. (1984, December 6). Council's past examined after 50 years. Guidepost, 27, 8.

Sheeley, V. L. (1985, January 10). Council's history examined after 50 years. Guidepost, 27, 4.

Vernon Lee Sheeley and Fred E. Stickle, Department of Counseling and Student Affairs, Western Kentucky University. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Vernon Lee Sheeley, Department of Counseling and Student Affairs, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101-1031 (e-mail:
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Title Annotation:Profiles; American Counseling Association
Author:Sheeley, Vernon Lee; Stickle, Fred E.
Publication:Journal of Counseling and Development
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 22, 2008
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