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Gomphonema Ehrenberg (Bacillariophyceae) in a lotic environment of the Upper Parana River Floodplain, Brazil/Gomphonema Ehrenberg (Bacillariophyceae) em ambiente lotico da planicie de inundacao do Alto Rio Parana.

Introduction

The Upper Parana River floodplain is characterized by heterogeneous habitats that confer high biodiversity to this environment (Thomaz, Bini, & Bozelli, 2007, Agostinho, Pelicice, & Gomes, 2008). Periphytic algae are one of the aquatic communities found in this ecosystem, with a high proportion of diatoms (Bacillariophyceae), especially in lotic environments. These algae present morphological adaptations that favor their attachment to substrates (Wehr & Sheath, 2003).

The diatom genus Gomphonema Ehrenberg is well represented in aquatic environments, presenting high richness and abundance. Gomphonema species are characterized by cuneiform cells in girdle view and hetero polar cells in valve view (Round, Crawford, & Mann, 1990). They generally attach to solid substrates through mucilage pads or stalks, secreted from the apical pore field located at the valve basis (Tremarin, Ludwig, Bertolli, Faria, & Costin, 2009a). In addition, cells possess a single H-shaped plastid with a central pyrenoid (Cox, 1996, Round et al., 1990). Several Gomphonema species are cosmopolitan. However, the morphological variability of frustules makes the taxonomy of this genus difficult (Krammer & Lange-Bertalot, 1986, 1991).

Approximately 90 Gomphonema species have been described for South America, 28 of which were recently proposed (Reichardt, 1995, Lange-Bertalot, Kulbs, Lauser, Norpel-Schempp, & Willmann, 1996, Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, 1998, Rumrich, Lange-Bertalot, & Rumrich, 2000, Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot, & Garcia-Rodrigues, 2005, Silva, Nogueira, & Souza, 2011). Approximately 40 of those species have been recorded in Brazil (Torgan, Becker, & Prates, 1999, Tremarin et al., 2009a, Santos, Tremarin, & Ludwig, 2011).

Almost 22 species of Gomphonema have been recorded for aquatic environments in Parana (Tremarin, Freire, Bertolli, & Ludwig, 2009b), and only four species for Mato Grosso do Sul. The present study is the first floristic survey of Gomphonema in the Parana River floodplain, contributing to the knowledge and characterization of aquatic biodiversity in this region, including ecology and biomonitoring studies, for which the correct identification of taxa is essential.

The goal of the present study was to perform a taxonomic analysis of species of the genus Gomphonema in a lotic environment of the Upper Parana River Floodplain, contributing to the knowledge regarding the distribution of these species.

Material and methods

The study site is the Ipoita Channel (22[degrees] 50'S; 53[degrees] 33 W), located in the Upper Parana River floodplain, which connects the Ivinhema and Parana rivers, with an average depth of 3.2 m. Samples were taken at three different sampling sites in this channel: site 1 at the connection with the Parana River, site 2 in the middle of the channel, and site 3 at the connection with the Ivinhema River (Figure 1). This channel is inserted in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, although it is practically on the border with the state of Parana.

The substrates used were petioles of Eichhornia azurea (Sw) Kunth in the adult stage (Schwarzbold, 1990), selected from banks of this macrophyte of similar shape and size and under similar environmental conditions.

Collections were performed in June, September and December 2013, and in February 2014. Periphytic algae were collected from the sixth or seventh plant internode of submerged mature petioles of Eichhorniaazurea (Sw.) Kunthas recommended by Schwarzbold (1990). This macrophyte was selected to this research because it was the most abundant and is used as a standard plant for the PELD- Long Term Ecological Research. Two petioles were collected randomly at each site, placed in 150 mL Wheaton bottles, sprayed with distilled water, and kept in boxes with ice. The periphytic material was subsequently removed using stainless steel bladesw rapped inaluminum foil and jets of distilled water. The resulting material was fixed in1:1 Transeau solution (Bicudo & Menezes, 2006).

Part of the sample was oxidized with potassium permanganate and hydrochloric acid, according to Simonsen (1974) as modified by Moreira-Filho and Valente-Moreira (1981). Due to the high amount of organic matter in the blades, the material was oxidized again according to Hasle and Fryxell (1970). The resins used to mount permanent slides were Hyrax for the first method and Nafrax for the second. One slide was mounted per site sampled in certain periods, resulting in 12 slides, in total. These slides were not quantified, but all of them were analyzed for species richness.

Gomphonema species were analyzed using a binocular microscope with amicrometer ocular and 100x objective, and images were captured using an Olympus DP-071 camera. The terminology used for species description followed Round et al. (1990). Taxa identification was based, whenever possible, with the original literature referred to in the text. Samples were deposited in the Herbario of Universidade Estadual de Maringa (HUEM).

To record the occurrence of taxa distribution was conducted a review of literature with taxonomic approach.

Results and discussion

A total 11 species and 3 taxonomic varieties belonging to genus Gomphonema were identified (Table 1). These taxa were distributed in one channel of the Upper Parana River floodplain, located between the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and Parana (Table 2).
Identification key for Gomphonema species and
varieties included the following observations:

1. Presence of stigma                                      2
1. Absence of stigma                  Gomphonema brasiliense
  2. Inconspicuous areolation                              3
  2. Conspicuous areolation                                4
3. Valvelength 35 [mciro]m or longer                       5
3. Valvelength 26 [micro]m or shorter                      6
  4.Valve width 10.5 [micro]m or lower                     9
  4. Valve width 12.5 [micro]m or higher                  10
5. Valves slightlylanceolate   Gomphonema affine var. affine
5. Valves clavate                           Gomphonema salae
  6. Valves lanceolatetoelliptic-lanceolate                7
  6. Othervalve shapes                                     8
7. Apices subcapitateto subrostrate; bases
      Subcapitate                        Gomphonema lagenula
7. Apices subrostrate;
      basesattenuate-rounded             Gomphonema parvulum
8. Central area unilateral formedby a
      shortened median stria           Gomphonema angustatum
8. Central area rounded                   Gomphonema pumilum
9. Number of striaein 10 [micro]m 13 or fewer             10
9. Number of striaein 10 [micro]m 14
     or more                           Gomphonema laticottum
  10. Axial area linear                                   11
  10. Axial area slightlyundulate      Gomphonema neonasutum
11. Valvethin and narrow, lanceolate,
       with expanded center                Gomphonema subtle
11. Othervalve shapes                                     12
  12. Raphe sternum wide                   Gomphonema costei
    12. Raphe sternum narrow                              13
13. Raphefiliform                   Gomphonema sphaerophorum
13. Rapheslightly sinuous                                 14
  14. Valvelength longer than
         54 [micro]m          Gomphonema turns var.coarctata
  14. Valvelength shorter than
          35 [micro]m                   Gomphonema mexicanum


Gomphonema affine var. affine Kutzing, Bacill. Nordhausen. p. 86, pl. 30, fig. 54, 1844 (Figure 2/ 1-19).

Valves slightly heteropolar, lanceolate, with apices rounded and bases attenuate-rounded. Raphe sternum narrow and linear. Raphes lightly sinuous with proximal ends slightly bent towards the stigma. Central area is asymmetrical, expanding until the valve margin is on one side of the valve due to the wider spacing of the median striae. Stigma located close to the medianstria. Striae straight to radiate, with one shortened striaon one side of the central nodule. Areola inconspicuous. Length: 35.8-51.7 [micro]m; width: 7.6-10.5 pm; 9-13 striae in 10 [micro]m.

Gomphonema affine is similar to Gomphonema amoenum Lange-Bertalot in its dimensions and valve outline. However, G. amoenum presents subrostrateapices and more radiate striae (Reichardt, 1999). The results of the analyzed population are in agreement with the morph metric data (length 36-88 [micro]m, width 9-13.6 [micro]m, 8-11 striae in 10 [micro]m) of the tropical species material analyzed by Reichardt (1999).

Occurrence in samples: Huem-24354, 24355, 24356 collected on June 15th, 2013; Huem-24357, collected on August 30th, 2013.

Gomphonema angustatum (Kutzing) Rabenhorst, Fl. Eur. Alg. I, p. 283, 1864.

Basionym: Sphenella angustata Kutzing, Kies. Bacill. Diat., p. 83, pl. 8, fig. 4, 1844 (Figure 2/ 27-31).

Valves heteropolar, narrow lyclavate-lanceolate, with apices subrostrate and bases attenuate. Raphe sternum linear and narrow. Raphe straight or slightly sinuous, with proxima lends slightly bent towards the stigma. Central area unilateral formed by a shortened median stria. Stigma located close to the median stria. Striae straight, slightly radiate at the ends and with wider spacing at the median region of the valve. Areolae inconspicuous. Length: 16.4-21.1 [micro]m; width: 3.5-4.7 [micro]m; 11-15 striae in 10 [micro]m.

This species was found in others studies conducted in the state of Parana. In Tremarin et al. (2009a), this species was found in the macrophyte Potamogeton polygonus and the individuals were larger than observed in our study.

Occurrence in samples: Huem-24354, 24355, 24356 collected on June 15th, 2013; Huem-24361, collected on November 29th, 2013.

Gomphonema brasiliense Grunow in Schneider, Naturw. Beitr. Kenntn. Kauk., p. 110, 1878 (Figure 2/ 20).

Valves slightly heteropolar, lanceolate, with apices cuneate-rounded and bases narrowly rounded. Raphe sternum wide and lanceolate. Raphes lightly sinuous with proxima lends bent towards the stigma. Central area rounded. Stigma absent. Striae short, straight toradiate along the length of the valve. Areolae inconspicuous. Length: 36.4 [micro]m; width: 6.4 [micro]m; 15 striae in 10 [micro]m.

Gomphonema brasiliense ssp. pacificum Moser, Lange-Bertalot and Metzeltin can be differentiated from Gomphonema brasiliense by its narrower valves (3.6-5.2 [micro]m) (Moser, Lange-Bertalot, & Metzeltin, 1998).

Occurrence in samples: Huem-24354, collected on June 15th, 2013; Huem-24363, collected on February 18th, 2014.

Gomphonema costei Metzeltin and Lange-Bertalot in Lange-Bertalot, Iconogr. Diatomol. 5: 115, pl. 154, fig. 7-12, 1998 (Figure 2/ 39-42).

Valves heteropolar, lanceolate, slightly swollen at the median region, with rounded apices and bases. Raphe sternum lanceolate. Raphe sinuous with proxima lends bent towards the stigma. Stigma rounded located close to the central nodule. Striae straight toradiate at the ends, coarse and shortened long the full length of the valve. Areolae conspicuous, difficult to observe. Length: 41.7-48.8 [micro]m; width: 7.0-8.2 [micro]m; 9-10 striae in 10 [micro]m.

Gomphonema costei and Gomphonema evexus Hohn has very similar valve outline as well as identical dimensions and density of striae, suggesting that the species may be synonymized in the future (Patrick et al., 1966).

Occurrence in samples: Huem-24354, 24355, 24356 collected on June 15th, 2013; Huem-24357, collected on August 30th, 2013; Huem-24360, collected on November 29th, 2013; Huem-24365, collected on February 18th, 2014.

Gomphonema lagenula Kutzing, Kies. Bacill. Diat., p. 85, pl. 30, fig. 60, 1844 (Figure 2/ 32-38).

Valves heteropolar, lanceolate to ellipticlanceolate, with apices subcapitateto subrostrate and bases subcapitate. Raphe sternum narrow and linear. Raphe straight with proxima lends bent towards the stigma. Central area unilaterally expanded, delimited by shortened median striae. Stigma located at the end of the median stria. Striaeuniseriate, straight to slightly radiate, with central striae more widely spaced than the others. Areola inconspicuous. Length: 21.1-25.8 [micro]m; width: 5.8-6.4 [micro]m; 14-16 striae in 10 [micro]m.

Occurrence in samples: Huem-24354, 24355, 24356 collected on June 15th, 2013; Huem-24357, 24358, 24359 collected on August 30th, 2013; Huem-24360, 24361, 24362, collected on November 29th, 2013; HUEM-24363 , 24364, 24365, collected on February 18th, 2014.

Gomphonema laticollum Reichardt (2001) in Jahn et al., Studies on Diatoms, p. 199, pl. 5, fig. 1-14, 2001 (Figure 3/ 49-52).

Valves clavate, swollen at the median region and with little pronounced constriction between the median region and the apex. Apices widely rounded and bases attenuate-rounded. Raphe sternum narrow and linear. Raphe sinuous with proxima lends dilated in a pore shape, bent towards the stigma. Central area irregular delimited by shortened median striae. Stigma present. Striae uniseriate and radiate, formed by conspicuous areolae. Length: 21.1-25.8 [micro]m; width: 5.8-6.4 [micro]m; 14-16 striae in 10 [micro]m.

Reichardt (2001) reviewed the species Gomphonema truncatum Ehrenbergand G. capitatum Ehrenberg and proposed G. laticollum Reichardt because it presents striae less pronounced constriction close to the valve apices.

Occurrence in samples: Huem-24354, 24355, 24356 collected on June 15th, 2013; Huem-24357, collected on August 30th, 2013.

Gomphonema mexicanum Grunow in Van Heurck, Syn. Diat. Belg., pl. 24; fig.3, 1880. (Figure 3/ 66-73).

Valves heteropolar, lanceolate, with apices broadly rostrate and bases attenuate-rounded to subcapitate. Raphe sternum narrow and linear. Raphe weakly undulate, with proxima lends dilated in a pore shape. Central area unilaterally expanded, delimited by a shortened median stria. Stigma punctiform located close to the median stria. Striae straight to radiate close to the valve ends. Areola conspicuous, difficult to observe. Length: 20-34.7 [micro]m; width: 8.8-10.5 [micro]m; 12-13 striae in 10 [micro]m.

Gomphonema mexicanum is very similar to G. affinopsis Metzeltin, Lange-Bertalot and GarcfaRodrfguez, differentiated by the punctiform shape of the stigma, whereas in G. affinopsis, the stigma is elongated (Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, 1998).

Occurrence in samples: Huem-24354, collected on June 15th, 2013; Huem-24357, collected on August 30th, 2013.

Gomphonema neonasutum Lange-Bertalot and Reichardt in Lange-Bertalot, Iconogr. Diatomol. 5: 121, pl. 156, figs. 1-4, 1998 (Figure 3/ 45-48).

Valves heteropolar, lanceolate, slightly wollen at the median region, with apices cuneate-apiculate to cuneate-subrostrate and bases attenuate-rounded. Raphe sternum narrow and linear. Raphe sinuous with proxima lends dilated in a pore shape, bent towards the stigma. Central area irregular delimited by shortened median striae. Stigma located close to the median stria. Striae uniseriate, radiate. Areola conspicuous. Length: 67-89.4 [micro]m; width: 14.7-17 [micro]m; 9-10 striae in 10 [micro]m.

Gomphonema neonasutum is similar to G. turris in valve morphology and size but differs in the apiculate shape of the apices (Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, 1998).

Occurrence at the samples: Huem-24354, collected on June 15th, 2013; Huem-24357, 24358, collected on August 30th, 2013; Huem- 24361, 24362, collected on November 29th, 2013; Huem 24363, collected on February 18th, 2014.

Gomphonema parvulum (Kutzing) Kutzing, Spec. Alg., p. 65, 1849. Basionym: Sphenella parvula Kutzing, Kies. Bacill. Diat., p. 83, pl. 30, fig. 63, 1844 (Figure 3).

Valves heteropolar, lanceolate to ellipticlanceolate, with apices subrostrate and bases attenuate-rounded. Raphe sternum linear, narrow. Raphe straight to slightly sinuous with proxima lends bent towards the stigma. Central area irregular and narrow, delimited by a shortened median stria. Stigma present. Striae uniseriate, straight to slightly radiate at the ends.

Areola inconspicuous. Length: 14.1-19.4 [micro]m; width: 4.7 [micro]m; 14-17 striae in 10 [micro]m.

Gomphonema micropus Kutzing is morphologically similar to Gomphonema parvulum var. parvulum. However, the two species can be differentiated according to their differently organized apices and striae (Krammer & Lange-Bertalot, 1986, Reichardt, 1999). Gomphonema micropus also differs by being longer (19-44 [micro]m) and wider (6.3-9 [micro]m), and by its lower density of striae (11-14 in 10 [micro]m) (Reichardt, 1999).

Occurrence in samples: Huem-24355, 24356, collected on June 15th, 2013; Huem-24357, collected on August 30th, 2013; Huem- 24361, 24362, collected on November 29th, 2013.

Gomphonema pumilum (Grunow) Reichardt and Lange-Bertalot, Nova Hedwigia 53(3-4): 528, pl. 6, figs. 4-11, 1991.

Basionym: Gomphonema intrincatum Kutzing var. pumila Grunow in Van Heurck, Syn. Diat. Belg., pl.24, figs. 35-36, 1880 (Figure 3/ 53).

Valves clavate, with apices rounded and bases attenuate. Raphe sternum linear, narrow. Raphe filiform with proxima lends dilated in a pore shape, bent towards the stigma. Central area rounded. Stigma present. Striae straight to radiate. Areola inconspicuous. Length: 19.4 [micro]m; width: 4.1 [micro]m; 10 striae in 10 [micro]m.

Occurrence in samples: Huem-24354, 24355, 24356, collected on June 15th, 2013; Huem-24357, 24359, collected on August 30th, 2013; Huem-24360, 24361, 24362, collected on November 29th, 2013; Huem-24363, 24364, 24365, collected on February 18th, 2013.

Gomphonema salae Lange-Bertalot and Reichardt in Lange-Bertalot, Iconogr. Diatomol. 5: 548, pl. 157, figs. 3-5, 1998 (Figure 3/ 64-65).

Valves clavate, swollen at the median region and with slightly pronounced constriction between the median region and the apex. Apices cuneatesubrostrate and bases attenuate-rounded. Raphe sternum slightly linear, narrow. Raphe weakly sinuous with proxima lends bent towards the stigma. Central area unilateral, delimited by a shortened median stria. Stigma located close to the median stria. Striae uniseriate, straight to radiate close to the apices, with wider spacing at the median region. Areola inconspicuous. Length: 42.3-48.2 [micro]m; width: 10-10.5 [micro]m; 12-13 striae in 10 [micro]m.

Gomphonema neonasutum differs from G. salae in size, and the apiculate shape of the apices. Furthermore, the number of striae in G. salae is greater than in G.neonasutum and G. turris (Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, 1998).

Occurrence in samples: Huem-24354, 24356, collected on June 15th, 2013.

Gomphonema sphaerophorum Ehrenberg, Ber. Bek. Verh. Kongl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berl., p. 78, 1845 (Figure 2/ 21-26).

Valves heteropolar, lanceolate, with apices rostrate-capitate to subrostrate and bases capitate to subcapitate. Raphe sternum linear and narrow. Raphe filiform with proximal ends simple and rounded. Central area unilateral formed by a shortened median stria. Stigma located close to the median stria. Striae slightly radiate. Areolae rounded. Length: 43.5-56.4 [micro]m; width: 12.9-13.5 [micro]m; 9-12 striae in 10 [micro]m.

Occurrence in samples: Huem-24354, 24355, 24356 collected on June 15th, 2013; Huem-24363, 24364, 24365, collected on February 18th, 2014.

Gomphonema subtile Ehrenberg, Abh. Konigl. Akad. Wiss. Berl. 1841: 416, 1843 (Figure 3/ 61-63).

Valves heteropolar, lanceolate, with apices capitate and bases rounded. Raphe sternum narrow, linear. Raphe straight with proxima lend dilated in a pore shape. Central area unilateral formed by a shortened median stria. Stigma located close to the median stria. Areolae conspicuous but difficult to observe. Length: 46.4-49.4 [micro]m; width: 7.6-8.2 [micro]m; 9-10 striae in 10 [micro]m.

Occurrence in samples: Huem-24354, collected on June 15th, 2013; Huem-24360, collected on November 29th, 2013; Huem-24363 , 24365, collected on February 18th, 2014.

Gomphonema turris var. coarctata (Frenguelli) Frenguelli, Rev. Mus. La Plata, Sec. Bot. 3: 275, 1941.

Basionym: Gomphonema turris f. coarctata Frenguelli, An. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. 4: 423, pl. 4, figs. 35-36, 1933 (Figure 3/ 43-44).

Valves clavate, lanceolate, with apices cuneatesubrostrate and bases attenuate-rounded. Raphe sternum linear, narrow. Raphe slightly sinuous with proximal ends dilated in a pore shape and bent to wards the stigma. Central areae lliptic or asymmetric, delimited by irregular shortening of the median striae. Stigma located close to the median stria. Striae uniseriate, straight to radiate near the ends. Areolae conspicuous. Length: 54.7-58.2[micro]m; width: 15.2-15.8 [micro]m; 10 striae in 10 [micro]m; 18-22 areolae in 10 [micro]m.

Occurrence in samples: Huem-24354, 24356 collected on June 15th, 2013.

In this study, only Gomphonema neonasutum is the first record to the state of Parana (Table 1). The species that have been widely distributed was G. lagenula and G. parvulum. Only Gomphonema lagenula Kutzing, a species with cosmopolitan distribution, occurred in all sampling sites and in all months.

The Ipoita Channel is influenced hydrologically by Parana and Ivinhema rivers. The sampling site 3, located close to the Ivinhema River, was the most species-rich area (Table 2). This can be explained by the characteristics of the Ivinhema River, which has natural hydrodynamics, and because it is located in a protected area where there is still marginal vegetation and many flood areas (Souza Filho & Stevaux, 1997).

The lowest number of taxa occurred in the sampling site 1, at the connection with the Parana River (Table 2). Parana River is strongly impacted by dams and has higher water transparency and lower nutrient concentrations (Agostinho et al., 2008, Roberto, Santana, & Thomaz, 2009). The differences between these rivers may help to explain the distribution of species in the floodplain, and even the success of some species in certain habitats. Fluctuations in the water level of the Ivinhema River are independent from levels in the Parana River (Souza Filho, Comunello, & Rocha, 2005), and this pattern also contributes to increase habitat heterogeneity among different riverine habitats in the floodplain (Roberto et al., 2009), elevating the biodiversity in this area. Higher periphyton biomasses, for example, are usually found in the Ivinhema River, which carries more phosphate than the Parana River (Leandrini, Fonseca, & Rodrigues, 2008).

Conclusion

The present study contributes to the knowledge regarding diatom biodiversity in this region, and it provides support to future ecological and biomonitoring studies in the Upper Parana River Floodplain. The results emphasize the lack of taxonomic studies for the region and the importance thereof to the knowledge of biodiversity.

Doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v39i2.32134

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the Long Term Ecological Research (Programa Ecologico de Longa Duracao--PELD) and the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico CNPq) for financial support, and the Center for Research in Limnology, Ichthyology and Aquaculture (Nucleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aquicultura--Nupelia) for logistic support during the field work.

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Received on June 1, 2016.

Accepted on October 28, 2016.

Nicolli Cristina Osorio (1) *, Priscila Izabel Tremarin (2), Thelma Veiga Ludwig (2) and Liliana Rodrigues (1)

(1) Laboratorio de Algas Periflticas, Departamento de Biologia Geral, Nucleo de Pesquisa em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aquicultura, Programa de PosGraduacao em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquaticos Continentais, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Avenida Colombo, 5709, 87020-900, Maringa, Parana, Brazil. (2) Laboratorio de Ficologia, Departamento de Botanica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil.

* Author for correspondence. E-mail: nicolli_cristina@hotmail.com

Caption: Figure 1. Upper Parana River floodplain. The dashed line indicates the Ipoita Channel.

Caption: Table 1. Taxa of Gomphonema (Gomphonemataceae) recorded in Ipoita Channel in the Upper Parana River floodplain. It occurs in different regions (1: connection with Parana River, 2: middle of the channel; 3: connection with Ivinhema River) and months (Jun: June, Sep: September, Nov: November, 2013; and Feb: February, 2014).

Caption: Figure 2. 1-19: Gomphonema affine var. affine. 20: Gomphonema brasiliense. 21-26: Gomphonema sphaerophorum. 27-31: Gomphonema angustatum. 32-38: Gomphonema lagenula. 39-42: Gomphonema costei. Scale: 10 [micro]m.

Caption: Figure 3. Gomphonema turris var. coarctata. 45-48: Gomphonema neonasutum. 49-52: Gomphonema laticollum. 53: Gomphonema pumilum. 54-60: Gomphonema parvulum. 61-63: Gomphonema subtile. 64-65: Gomphonema salae. 66-73: Gomphonema mexicanum. Scale: 10 [micro]m.
Table 2. Taxa distribution of Gomphonema recorded in Ipoita Channel
in the Upper Parana River floodplain, located between the states of
Mato Grosso do Sul and Parana.

Taxa                                       Taxa Ocurrence

                                               Parana

G. affine var.                    Caetano (1984), Moreira (1990),
  affine Kutzing               Leandrini (1999), Rodrigues and Bicudo
                                (2001), Cetto, Leandrini, Felisberto,
                                and Rodrigues (2004), Bigunas (2005),
                                Silva, Tavares, Aquino, and Wengrat
                                (2007), Pires (2013) Contin (1983),
                                Cecy (1986), Shirata (1986), Contin
                                (1990), Lozovei and Shirata (1990),
                                        Cetto et al. (2004),

G. angustatum                         Moro, Bicudo, Melo, and
  (Kutzing) Rabenhorst               Schmitt (2004), Tremarin
                                  et al. (2009a and b), Bertolli,
                               Tremarin, and Ludwig (2010), Bertolli

G. brasiliense Grunow           (2010), Faria (2010) Ludwig (1987),
                                Lozovei and Shirata (1990), Moreira
                              (1990), Rodrigues (1991), Moro, Garcia,
                                    and Oliveira Junior (1994),

G. costei D. Metzeltin                 Brassac (1999), Atab
  & H. Lange-Bertalot                 (2000), Szawka (2001),
                                Cetto et al. (2004), Bigunas (2005),
                                Piccinini (2005), Aquino and Tavares
                                (2006), Silva et al. (2007), Pires
                                 (2013), Marquardt, Furstenberger,
                                Chaouiche, Caparica, and Carapunarla
                              (2010) Brassac (1999), Ferrari (2004),

G. lagenula Kutzing             Costin (2007), Pires (2013) Costin
                                (2007), Santos (2007), Pavan (2008),
                                   Tremarin et al. (2009a and b),
                                 Bertolli et al. (2010), Bertolli
                              (2010), Marquardt et al. (2010), Faria
                               (2010), Silva, Ludwig, Tremarin, and
                               Vercellino (2010), Moresco, Tremarin,
                                Ludwig, and Rodrigues (2011), Pires
                                        (2013), Marra (2015)

G. laticollum Reichardt           Silva et al. (2007), Tremarin et
                                 al. (2009a and b) Bertolli et al.
                                 (2010), Bertolli (2010), Marquardt
                                et al. (2010), Silva et al. (2010),
                                       Bartozek et al. (2013)

G. mexicanum Grunow                  Piccinini (2005), Costin
                                    (2007), Silva et al. (2007)

G. neonasutum H.                  First record Moreira-Filho and
  Lange-Bertalot                Momoli (1963), Moreira-Filho et al.
  & E. Reichardt                 (1973), Cecy, Valente-Moreira, and
                              Hohmann (1976), Lozovei and Luz (1976),
                                  Moreira-Filho, Cecy, and Valente-
                                Moreira (1976), Lozovei and Hohmann
                                 (1977), Stankiewicz (1980), Contin
                                (1983), Caetano (1984), Cecy (1986),
                               Shirata (1986), Ludwig (1987), Contin
                                 (1990), Lozovei and Shirata (1990)
                                  , Moreira (1990), Moro (1991),
                               Rodrigues (1991), Train (1991), Moro
                                and Fursternberg (1993), Moro et al.
                                  (1994), Tavares (1994), Momoli
                                      (1997), Brassac (1999),

G. parvulum                    Leandrini (1999), Atab (2000), Tavares
  (Kutzing) Kutzing             and Valente-Moreira (2000), Rodrigues
                                      and Bicudo (2001), Szawka
                                (2001), Bittencourt-Oliveira (2002),
                                Borges, Rodrigues, Pagioro, and Train
                                (2003), Cetto et al. (2004), Ferrari
                                (2004), Train and Rodrigues (2004),
                                   Bigunas (2005), Felisberto and
                                 Rodrigues (2005), Ludwig, Bigunas,
                                  Neiva, Coquemala, and Piccinini
                              (2005), Neiva (2005), Piccinini (2005),
                                  Rodrigues et al. (2005), Costin
                                (2007), Santos (2007), Silva et al.
                               (2007), Borges, Train, and Rodrigues
                               (2008), Pavan (2008), Tremarin et al.
                                 (2009a a and b), Bertolli et al.
                               (2010), Bertolli (2010), Marquardt et
                               al. (2010), Faria (2010), Silva et al.
                                 (2010), Fontana and Bicudo (2012),
                                Pires (2013), Marra (2015) Moreira
                                 (1990), Brassac (1999), Leandrini
                                (1999), Atab (2000), Ferrari (2004),
                                      Bigunas (2005), Piccinini

G. pumilum Grunow               (2005), Costin (2007), Silva et al.
  Reichardt &                  (2007), Pavan (2008), Bertolli et al.
  Lange-Bertalot               (2010), Bertolli (2010), Faria (2010),
                                 Moresco et al. (2011), Silva et al.
                                        (2010), Marra (2015)

G. salae Lange                     Tremarin et al. (2009a and b)
  -Bertalot & Reichardt                     Faria (2010)

G. sphaerophorum Ehrenberg            Train (1990), Moro and
                                Fursternberg (1993), Tavares (1994),
                                    Brassac (1999), Tavares and
                                          Valente-Moreira

G. subtile Ehrenberg            (2000), Rodrigues and Bicudo (2001),
                                 Ferrari (2004), Train and Rodrigues
                                     (2004), Aquino and Tavares
                                (2006), Santos (2007), Silva et al.
                                 (2007), Pavan (2008), Marquardt et
                                  al. (2010), Fontana and Bicudo
                                        (2012), Marra (2015)

G. turns var.coarctata             Tremarin et al. (2009a and b)
  (Frenguelli) Frenguelli

Theses and dissertations were included, since they register the
species and this information was not published in scientific
article.
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Author:Osorio, Nicolli Cristina; Tremarin, Priscila Izabel; Ludwig, Thelma Veiga; Rodrigues, Liliana
Publication:Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences (UEM)
Article Type:Ensayo
Date:Apr 1, 2017
Words:6787
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