Gluck and the Prosodic Appoggiatura.
The appoggiaturas proposed for feminine line endings are said to be necessary for prosodic reasons and so do not count as an ornament. (3) The ear, however, makes no such distinction. The prosodic appoggiatura is just as obtrusive as other appoggiaturas when overused, and, because it alters the harmony, it needs careful treatment. Whereas tone repetition in a line ending does not tire the ear because it does not add or change anything, excessive appoggiaturas quickly become a wearisome mannerism.
Although the castrato Pier Francesco Tosi (1723) chides composers who provide the appoggiaturas instead of leaving them to the singer, (4) his German translator, the Berlin court composer Johann Friedrich Agricola, adds a revealing comment in 1757: "It would seem almost necessary to invent warning signs showing where not to place them in order to restrain the appoggiatura mania of the most recent Italian singers and instrumentalists." Implying that Tosi would be on the side of the composer if he were writing in 1757, Agricola asks: "Now whom would our author scold?" (5) Tosi's remarks reflect the seventeenth century, the time of his vocal career, when more composers left ornamentation to the performer.
As Italian singers peregrinated throughout Europe, the appoggiaturas went with them. In 1752, Berlin court flutist Johann Joachim Quantz protests against these "offensive wailings," comparing overuse of musical embellishments to nausea produced by overindulging in the most appetizing delicacies: "A magnificent, noble, and spirited song can be made inferior and silly by poorly introduced appoggiaturas." (6) The "wailing" associated with appoggiaturas suggests the maudlin effect that was exploited in a buffo style, as described by the Italian vocal teacher Giovanni Battista Mancini (1777), who, like others, restricts this ornament to lyric expressions (and implies a much slower tempo than customary today).
The pupil is advised not to use these [appoggiaturas, trills, mordents] except in lyrical pieces and suitable expressions, for they do not belong everywhere. And far too many ignore these precepts and abuse them. To prove me right, just go to the theater and hear a man or woman singing an aria of invective with great fervor and using an appoggiatura on such words as Tyrant, Cruel, Implacable, and so forth, thereby ruining the intent of the exclamation... The rule about not overdoing the appoggiatura applies only to serious song. When it is used often in the buffo style, not only does the singer not commit an error, but he earns applause. The same overuse that produces laughter in serious song wins cheers in buffo style. (7)
These comments from eighteenth century authorities raise concern about the rule for appoggiaturas in The New Grove Dictionary of Opera.
Theorists during the late Baroque period and the Classical period agree that, when 'feminine endings' to a phrase--in recitative and, generally, in lyrical music--are notated with a pair of notes at the same pitch, the first of them accented, the first note must be executed as an appoggiatura (the 'prosodic appoggiatura') in accordance with the verbal accentuation... The "blunt ending," with a note repeated from a strong accent to a weak one at the end of a phrase, was always avoided. The rule applied not only to final cadences but also to intermediate breaks at line endings, and even to repeated notes in the middle of a line when the first falls on a strong beat. (8)
In support of this rule, the article cites eighteenth century authorities: Tosi, Georg Philipp Telemann, Agricola, Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg, Johann Adam Hiller, Mancini, Domenico Corri, Johann Carl Friedrich Rellstab, Johann Baptist Lasser, and Johann Friedrich Schubert. These writers, however, provide a much different picture, as seen below. The only evidence that might be interpreted in this manner derives from a very few nineteenth century Italian singers. Also cited in support of this rule is the French vocal writer Alexis de Garaude (ca. 1813), who simply says that the Italians often use a type of appoggiatura or petite note placed above and in place of the first [of two notes having the same pitch] on the strong beat of the measure. (9) Noting that multiple appoggiaturas are better suited to Italian song than French, Garaude adds: "Especially in Gluck's operas, it is necessary to beware of the abuse made today with this ornament, which often damages the harmony and distorts the composer's dramatic intention." (10)
GLUCK AND CALZABIGI
In the dedication written by librettist Ranieri Calzabigi (and signed by Gluck) from their reform opera Paride ed Elena, fidelity to the score is specified.
The more one seeks truth and perfection, the greater is the need for precision and exactitude. What distinguishes Raphael from the crowd of mediocre painters is scarcely perceptible. An alteration that does not spoil a caricature will completely disfigure a portrait of a beautiful woman. It takes only some change in the manner of expression for my aria from Orfeo, "Che faro senza Euridice," to become a dance for marionettes. An appoggiatura out of place, a trill, a roulade, a rapid run can destroy a whole scene in an opera of this genre. (11)
When music's goal is to replicate declamation, as Calzabigi and Gluck wished, a poorly placed appoggiatura can indeed ruin the intended effect. Declamation strives to mirror speech patterns and does not invite ornaments. Calzabigi's letter to the Mercure de France (1784) explains their objective.
Twenty-five years ago I thought that the only music appropriate to dramatic poetry, especially for dialogue and the arias we call d'azione, would approach natural, animated, vigorous declamation more closely; that declamation itself was only an imperfect music; and that it could be notated if we had signs sufficient to mark all the intonations, inflections, bursts, softenings, and nuances of infinite variety, which the voice uses when declaiming. (12)
Observing that no other composer was attempting this musical imitation of spoken declamation, Calzabigi explains how he declaimed the Italian text of his Orfeo ed Euridice to Gluck, as he did also with another opera to the Italian composer and singer Vito Giuseppe Millico. He indicated the nuances that an Italian speaker would use, such as pauses, slowness, rapidity, and degree of speech intensity. Inventing symbols to mark the most striking features, he placed them between lines throughout Orfeo, adding annotations when signs were insufficient. Calzabigi's procedure differs from simply setting strong and weak syllables to music appropriately. A truly innovative approach, it may have aimed to reproduce in music the dramatic delivery for which the French theater was renowned throughout Europe.
When music historian Charles Burney visited Vienna, he spoke with individuals who had been impressed with the speech-like qualities in the performance of the Calzabigi/Gluck Alceste.
... the reader will infer... that there are no divisions [passagework] in the voice-parts; no formal closes [cadenzas] at the end; scarce any but accompanied recitatives, and that not one da capo is to be found throughout the piece... the music only gave energy or softness to the declamation, as the different situations of the several characters required. The syllables were indeed lengthened, and the tones of speech ascertained, but speech it still was, even in the airs, which are almost all of what the Italians call the Parlante or speaking kind. (13)
Gluck and Calzabigi also agreed about banishing roulades, cadenzas, and everything extravagant in the music of their time. When their Alceste was to be performed in Bologna in 1778, Calzabigi sent instructions denying the singers liberty to change their parts: "This music does not permit such ornaments." He hoped that the prima donna would limit herself to "expressing Alceste's pure and plain music well." (14)
According to Hector Berlioz, the words from Gluck's score for Paride ed Elena (see above) apply to all types of infidelity in the execution of musical works, and are especially true with respect to Gluck's compositions. He was gratified that the Paris Opera revival of the composer's Alceste reflected respectful exactitude: "The singers changed scarcely one note of their roles; the melodies, the recitatives, and the choruses were reproduced exactly as the composer wrote them." (15)
Giuseppi Carpani's 1812 biography of Joseph Haydn expresses similar views. After hearing the soprano Christine Gerardi in the Vienna performance of Haydn's Creation (1798), Carpani notes that the composer had utilized the beauty and agility of her voice to full advantage. He compares Haydn to Gluck, for both wanted fidelity to the written notes.
This music succeeds when executed with simplicity, precision, expression and lovely legato, but without fiorettare [added embellishment]. Trivialities, even the smallest, would be out of place, because, as with Gluck's music, each note is what it should be... Additions and variations here are like alterations in the paintings of great masters: they tarnish instead of beautifying. (16)
In his book about Italian opera (1772), Antonio Planelli likewise advises composers to include everything in their scores, and "leave nothing to the singer's caprice, nor permit him to add the least appoggiatura." He also strongly supports the Gluck/Calzabigi reform opera. (17)
Gluck composed several operas for the Paris Opera during the 1770s, spending months there preparing the performance of each one. In this endeavor, he was closely allied with the Paris writer Francois Arnaud, who in 1774 says that Gluck uses the blunt line ending (tone repetition) in recitative to avoid having an appoggiatura applied.
To escape from the uniformity of feminine line endings always accompanied by a languishing and silly appoggiatura or trill destroying everything genuine, the composer [Gluck], following the Italian example, leaves it to the bass to end the phrase. He does not habitually use two different notes on the penultimate and last syllables, but assigns the same pitch to one and the other. In stressing the penultimate syllable, the last one has only the weak resonance that the language's character requires. (18)
Soon afterward, Arnaud's article was translated into German and presented as the first essay in Riedel's Ueber die Musik des Ritters Christoph von Gluck (1775), most probably in consultation with Gluck. (19) When referring to the Italian usage, Arnaud meant those Italians who agreed with the advice from Tosi about avoiding an appoggiatura on a penultimate syllable.
I find that all the modern singers... go to the final note of the aforementioned inferiori cadences with an appoggiatura on the penultimate syllable of a word, and this likewise is a defect. It seems to me that on such occasions the appoggiatura is pleasing only on the last syllable [a masculine line ending], according to the old style or that of those who know how to sing. (20)
In excluding an appoggiatura for feminine line endings, Tosi and Arnaud are on solid ground from a composition standpoint. This ornament should be slurred to its main note, creating a melisma having only one syllable. When an appoggiatura is substituted for the penultimate note of a feminine ending, it usurps the main note and gives the ornament a whole syllable for itself. This is what happened in certain cases, but it should be recognized as a corruption of the appoggiatura's basic structure. In 1786, the Berlin musician Rellstab finds it difficult to reconcile the standard composition rules for recitative with this form of appoggiatura. In recitative, he says, every note must have a syllable, but the appoggiatura is always connected to its main note on one syllable, creating a melisma, and so cannot have its own syllable. If the singer performs Example 2a as in Example 2b, the appoggiatura has a syllable for itself, which would be wrong; secondly, since a new syllable must be enunciated on the main note, it is necessarily separated from the appoggiatura. (21)
Whereas ornamentation impedes declamation and turns recitative into song, retaining the repeated note line ending allows the phrase to finish in a speech-like manner. In another essay, La Soiree perdue de l'Opera, Arnaud stresses Gluck's sparse use of ornaments. Agreeing with his stance in this matter, the Correspondance litteraire (1776) observes: "No one is asking from M. Gluck trills, appoggiaturas, roulades and all these little ornaments that good taste disdains." (22)
As justification for altering Gluck's notation, modern writers have cited Domenico Corri's Select Collection of the most Admired Songs, Duetts... (ca.1782), which comprises his arrangements of well known arias. Although he specifies that the alterations of composers' works are his own, his naming a famous singer in connection with each aria (e.g., "Sung by Gaetano Guadagni") has led some today to infer that the decorations derive from the singer. Corri permitted himself considerable license in arranging a composer's work. For example, Gluck said above that his aria "Che faro senza Euridice" from Orfeo ed Euridice cannot tolerate the slightest change, but Corri changes its time values and has the orchestra play after each of the singer's phrases instead of with them. He also adds copious embellishment in this aria (Example 3).
If Gluck is representative of composers who wished their works performed as written, Corri stands at the opposite end of the spectrum, as seen in his preface: "Either an air, or recitative, sung exactly as it is commonly noted, would be a very inexpressive, nay, a very uncouth performance; for not only the respective duration of the notes is scarcely even hinted at, but one note is frequently marked instead of another, as is the case where a note is repeated, instead of that note with its proper appoggiatura or grace." But he adds that a composer's appoggiatura could be removed: "Sometimes again, an appoggiatura is marked instead of a note which ought to receive, perhaps, the particular emphasis of the voice." (23) In other words, Corri argues for the liberty to alter a composer's work--not for appoggiaturas wherever possible. His nine-measure recitative excerpt from Gluck's Orfeo adds an appoggiatura at every line ending, but it was customary for pedagogic writers to do the same solely to demonstrate how the ornament is applied. Since he allows removing a composer's appoggiatura, his example does not imply that an appoggiatura should be added at every line ending. In his 1810 collection, Corri modifies his views, criticizes singers who add ornaments lavishly, and greatly lessens his own alterations of other composers' works--thus indicating that his earlier collection was a fashion of the times. With respect to recitative, he writes: "When a Bar, or the half of a Bar begins with two similar notes, the first of the two is often sung a note higher." (24) There is no imperative for appoggiaturas here, and this may be what he intended in his earlier collection. The inadvertent omission of necessary qualifying information is commonplace in publications from the period.
Editorial appoggiaturas often damage Gluck's harmony, as in the recitative "Ecco un nuovo tormento" from Orfeo ed Euridice, where the second appoggiatura cue produces a tritone, and the third, parallel fifths (Example 4). Such harmonic errors are excused today on the basis of a passage from Telemann (1725/26), who observes that church recitative line endings are "now and then" sung with an appoggiatura. He urges caution when making such an addition: "If one has not paid attention to whether a modulation sometimes certainly seems to go against the bass, one would, for all that, sing [Example 5]." (25) A mistranslation has led to thinking that he recommends an appoggiatura even if it introduces a progression alien to the harmony or in conflict with the bass. But there would have been no reason to begin the sentence as he does if that were the intended meaning. Telemann issued a warning, not a recommendation, for the tense of "singe" is subjunctive instead of imperative. Two other points of interest: 1) Telemann's text concerns church recitative, the slowest form and the one most receptive to appoggiaturas; and 2) they can be applied just "now and then."
Instead of permitting the harmonic license inferred incorrectly from Telemann's text, early writers stress that ornaments must conform to the rules for composition. Criticizing performers who neglect this tenet, Quantz declares that every dissonance requires both proper preparation and resolution: "Otherwise, it would be and remain a highly displeasing sound." (26)
Another recitative from Orfeo ed Euridice demonstrates that Gluck himself occasionally concludes a phrase with a long appoggiatura, written in standard notation, when it is dramatically appropriate (Example 6); the instance in m. 193 appears also in the original violin II part. In contrast, the modern editorial cues in mm. 190-191 assume that the singer will be capable of adding unnotated appoggiaturas, and that the orchestra will be able to imitate them by ear. (27) Not only is this an unrealistic expectation, but orchestra members were required to execute their parts exactly as written, according to lexicographer Heinrich Christoph Koch (1802), among others: "The ripienist should make neither more nor fewer of the smallest note or ornament ... than what is explicitly written in his part." (28) While appoggiaturas were restricted to consonant harmony, the cue added in m.191 occurs in dissonant harmony, producing a fifth resolving to a fourth against the bass--a significant harmonic error.
THREE TYPES OF RECITATIVE
A comparison can be drawn between Gluck's declamatory style and the requirements for simple theater recitative in the Italian style. As the primary vehicle for presenting the action, the latter was accompanied by continuo only. Eighteenth century writers distinguish theater recitative from the chamber and church forms. Tosi mentions appoggiaturas only in connection with church recitative (which grants the singer more liberty than chamber and theater recitative), adding that this slow form should convey "a lofty nobility throughout." In contrast, theater recitative, except in a soliloquy style, permits no embellishment: "The liberty for artifice is removed to avoid harming the natural narrative." (29)
The association of appoggiaturas with church recitative is found again in Johann Adam Hiller's vocal method (1780), which classifies recitative as follows:
* Theater: sung the most quickly because it represents ordinary speech (no mention of ornaments).
* Chamber: permits some "not extravagant" ornaments in harmony with the text.
* Church: slow delivery, with an occasional strengthening appoggiatura. (30)
The period made a further distinction between simple recitative and that accompanied by treble and bass instruments. The latter often expresses some emotional state for which song may be appropriate. In contrast, simple theater recitative should avoid interfering with the dramatic elements, as specified by the following German writers:
* Scheibe (1745): "The singer should make a point of speaking spontaneously and vividly, adding no ornaments, and therefore imitating ordinary speech in a completely natural manner." (31)
* Agricola (1757): "To avoid hindering the natural narration, theater recitative permits none of the same optional ornaments [an occasional small ornament in church recitative at the final cadence]." (32) An exception may be made for theater recitative in monologue form having the character of chamber recitative.
* Rellstab (1786): "If he knows what action is in the theater, the singer should make few or no appoggiaturas." Rellstab prefers the repeated note ending for church and chamber recitative as well. (33)
* Lasser (1798): "Theater recitative, insofar as it is merely narrative, permits no small embellishments at all." (34) When accompanied by orchestra, he adds, it may accept ornaments if they enhance the expression.
The totally bare nature of simple recitative is corroborated also by Paris aesthetician Pierre Esteve (1753): "Italian recitative is almost never listened to in Italy; one goes to a performance only to hear ariettes... The Italians pass rapidly from their completely plain recitative to the most brilliant ariettes." (35)
In Stefano Arteaga's history of the Italian theater (1785), ornaments are proscribed in simple recitative: "Just as the exposition of a discourse in rhetoric... is not decorated with tinsel, embellishment must not be added to the played or vocal parts of simple recitative, because ... the spectator cannot be moved if ornaments distract his attention from the thread of the action." Arteaga extends this exclusion to accompanied recitative. (36)
In general, the better the composer, the more care was taken to supply details of embellishment. In asserting that recitative line endings should be written in their correct performance manner, a pseudonymous writer in Berlin's Kritische Briefe (1762) criticizes those who write the falling fourth ending differently than they intend it to be sung (Example 7).
Without a doubt, this notation [Example 7a for Example 7b] is objectionable, because of course one should not without reason write differently than one is to sing; and because many singers, lacking sufficient judgment, can err and be led astray, particularly in the middle of a recitative. (37)
The latter clause implies that Example 7b is seldom useful within a recitative, but belongs at the end of a section because of the emphasis it lends--an emphasis often inappropriate in other locations. In 1804, Schubert's vocal method uses a similar example to declare that the falling fourth can be sung as in Example 7b only when a more declamatory emphasis is desirable. (38) Throughout the eighteenth century, many composers wrote this cadence both ways within the same piece, thus designating the correct performance manner themselves.
In sum, simple theater recitative, whose goal of speech imitation resembles the declamation in the Gluck/Calzabigi reform operas, rarely if ever permits adding an appoggiatura. If the composer has not provided any appoggiaturas in accompanied recitative, an occasional one might be acceptable, provided that it is compatible with the text and harmony. But no eighteenth century writer lends support to the modern assertion that feminine line endings always require the prosodic appoggiatura.
Fidelity to the score is specified in Gluck's and Calzabigi's Paride ed Elena and corroborated by Carpani when he observes that "each note is what it should be" in Haydn's music, as in Gluck's. To this can be added Arnaud's explicit testimony about Gluck's avoidance of appoggiaturas in repeated note line endings; the many writers who advise against appoggiaturas in simple theater recitative; and the requirement for harmonic integrity when adding ornaments.
(1.) Christoph Willibald Gluck, Orfeo ed Euridice, ed. Anna Amalie Abert and Ludwig Finscher, Gluck Samtliche Werke I/1, 3rd ed. (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1986).
(2.) Cited by Henry Pleasants, "Excerpts from Ferdinand Hiller's 'Chatting with Rossini (1856)'," Opera Quarterly 9, no. 4 (Summer 1993): 46.
(3.) As defined by Will Crutchfield, "The Prosodic Appoggiatura in the Music of Mozart and his Contemporaries," Journal of the American Musicological Society 42, no. 2 (Summer 1989), 229-274, at 229, 270. "The familiar appoggiatura can either be what I will call prosodic--expressing the weight of an accented syllable of text and finding its resolution on a weak syllable--or purely melodic--musically the same, but sung on a single syllable and independent of any prosodic mandate ... In Italian and German music of Mozart's day, essentially all feminine line endings were 'leaned upon' in one way or another; the simplest of these devices is the often unwritten prosodic appoggiatura." Frederick Neumann countered with "A New Look at Mozart's Prosodic Appoggiatura," in R. Larry Todd and Peter Williams, eds., Perspectives on Mozart Performance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 92-116.
(4.) Pier Francesco Tosi, Opinioni de' cantori antichi e moderni (Bologna, 1723), 22f.
(5.) Johann Friedrich Agricola, Anleitung zur Singkunst, trans. with commentary of P. F. Tosi, Opinioni de' cantori (Berlin, 1757; rpt. 1966), 58. "... beynahe nothig schiene, Warnungszeichen zu erfinden wo kein Vorschlag gemacht werden soll, um der Vorschlagssucht der neuesten walschen Sanger und Instrumentisten, welche hierinn, um die Wette, einander nachzuahmen suchen, Einhalt zu thun? Auf wen wurde unser Schriftsteller alsdenn schelten?"
(6.) Johann Joachim Quantz, Versuch einer Anweisung die Flote traversiere zu spielen, 3rd ed. (Berlin, 1789; rpt. 1953), 82 (VIII/19). "Ein prachtiger, erhabener und lebhafter Gesang, kann durch ubel angebrachte Vorschlage niedrig und einfaltig ... werden."
(7.) Giovanni Battista Mancini, Riflessioni pratiche sul canto figurato, 3rd ed. (Milan, 1777), 143f. "Contuttocio avverta bene lo scolare di non servirsene che nelle cantilene, e nelle espressioni convenevoli, giacche anche questi abbellimenti non anno luogo dappertutto, che che [sic] taluni, che ignorano questa regola, ne facciano grande uso. Che io dica il vero, basta andare in Teatro per sentire che un cantante, o una cantatrice in un' aria, per esempio d'invettiva, cantando col maggior fervore dell' azione, accompagna la sua sensibile appoggiatura tutte le parole di tiranno, crudele, spietato, e simili, e guasta cosi il buon ordine della esclamazione... La regola, che ho data di non doversi caricare l'appoggiatura, non e generale, ma si ristringe solo al canto serio; ma se il buffo la carica, non solamente non commette errore, ma ne ricava applauso; poiche quell' istessa caricatura, che fatta da un serio ne ricaverebbe le risa, fatta da un buffo ne riporta le approvazioni."
(8.) "Appoggiatura," in Stanley Sadie, ed., The New Grove Dictionary of Opera (London: Macmillan, 1992), 1:155f. This article appears to have been based principally on Crutchfield's "Prosodic Appoggiatura" article, for Neumann's response does not appear in Sadie's bibliography and probably was published too late for inclusion.
(9.) Alexis de Garaude, Nouvelle methode de chant (Paris, ), 42f. "Les italiens emploient souvent une espece d'appogiature ou petite note placee au dessus et en place e la premiere, dans le tems fort de la mesure."
(10.) Ibid., 21. "C'est surtout dans les operas de Gluck qu'il faut bien se garder de l'abus que l'on fait aujourd'hui de cet agrement, qui porte souvent atteinte a l'harmonie, et denature l'intention dramatique de l'auteur."
(11.) The original text is reproduced in Gluck's Paride ed Elena, Samtliche Werke, I/4, Rudolf Gerber, ed. (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1954), xii. "Piu che si cerca la verita e la perfezione, piu la precisione e l'esatezza son necessarie. Sono insensibili le differenze, che distinguono Raffaello dal gregge de'pittori dozzinali, e qualche alterazione di contorno che non guasta la somiglianza d'un viso caricato disfigura interamente un ritratto di bella donna. Non si vuol nulla, per che la mia aria nell'Orfeo: 'Che faro senza Euridice' mutando solamente qualche cosa nella maniera dell'espressione diventi un saltarello di burattini. Una nota piu o meno tenuta, un rinforzo trascurato di tempo o di voce, un' appogiatura fuor di luogo, un trillo, un passaggio, una volata puo rovinare tutta una scena in un'opera simile."
(12.) Ranieri Calzabigi, "Lettre au redacteur du Mercure de France" (signed 25 June 1784), Mercure de France (Paris, 21 August 1784), 128-137 at 134-136. "J'ai pense, il y a 25 ans, que la seule musique convenable a la poesie dramatique, et surtout pour le dialogue et pour les airs que nous appelons d'azione, etoit celle qui approcheroit davantage de la declamation naturelle, animee, energique; que la declamation n'etoit elle-meme qu'une musique imparfaite; qu'on pourroit la noter telle qu'elle est, si nous avions trouve des signes en assez grand nombre pour marquer tant de tons, tant d'inflexions, tant d'eclats, d'adoucissemens, de nuances variees, pour ainsi dire, a l'infini, qu'on donne a la voix en declamant."
(13.) Charles Burney, An Eighteenth-Century Musical Tour in Central Europe and the Netherlands, P. A. Scholes, ed. (London: Oxford, 1959), 93.
(14.) Quoted by Corrado Ricci, I teatri di Bologna nei secoli XVII e XVIII (Bologna, 1888; rpt. 1965), 628. "Questa musica non ammette tali abbellimenti." P.632: "Qualora Ella voglia limitarsi a bene esprimere la pura e nuda musica d'Alceste..."
(15.) Hector Berlioz, A travers chants, ed. Leon Guichard (Paris: Grund, 1971), 224. "Les chanteurs ne changent presque pas une note de leurs roles; les melodies, les recitatifs, les choeurs sont reproduits absolument tels que l'auteur les ecrivit."
(16.) Giuseppe Carpani, Le Haydine (Milan, 1812), 185f. "Questa musica va eseguita con semplicita, esattezza, espresione e portamento, ma senza fiorettare. Le frascherie, anche le piu leggieri, sarian qui fuor di luogo, perche, alla maniera del Gluck, ogni nota e cio che deve essere,... Le aggiunte e i variamenti sono qui siccome i ritocchi ne' quadri de' grandi maestri: li macchiano, anzi che abbellirli."
(17.) Antonio Planelli, Dell' opera in musica (Naples, 1772), 133. "... il Compositore dee in quella esprimer tutto, e nulla abbandonare all' arbitrio del Cantante, ne permettere, che costui vi aggiunga di suo capo la menoma appoggiatura." Also 148-151.
(18.) Francois Arnaud, "Lettre de M. l'A. [A.sup.**] a Madame D'(first published in the Gazette de Litterature) reprinted in Memoires pour servir a l'histoire de la revolution operee dans la musique par M. le Chevalier Gluck, Gaspard-Michel Leblond, ed. (Naples, 1781; rpt. 1967), 29-39 at 37. "En effet, lorsque pour echapper a l'uniformite des desinences feminines, toujours accompagnees ou d'un port de voix languissant & niais, ou d'un trille destructeur de toute vraisemblance, le Compositeur [Gluck], a l'exemple des Italiens, laisse a la basse le soin de terminer la phrase; il n'a garde d'affecter deux differentes notes a la penultieme & a la derniere syllabe, mais il assigne le meme son a l'une & a l'autre, en sorte qu'en appuyant sur la penultieme, la derniere n'a plus que la foible resonnance qu'exige le caractere de la Langue."
(19.) Friedrich Just. Riedel, Ueber die Musik des Ritters Christoph von Gluck (Vienna, 1775), 1-26, at 22.
(20.) Tosi, Opinioni, 86. "Sento, che tutti i Moderni... vanno alle suddette Cadenze inferiori con una Appoggiatura alla nota finale su la penultima sillaba del vocabolo, e questo ancora mi sembra difetto, parendomi, che in quella occasione l'Appoggiatura non sia gustosa, che sull' ultima sillaba all' uso antico, o di chi sa cantare."
(21.) Johann Carl Friedrich Rellstab, Versuch uber die Vereinigung der musikalischen und oratorischen Declamation (Berlin, 1786), 47f. "... im Recitativ muss auf jeder Note eine Silbe ausgesprochen werden, der Vorschlag muss an der Hauptnote mit herangezogen werden, kann also darum keine besondere Silbe haben; sange nun der Sanger [example showing the penultimate note of a blunt ending displaced by an appoggiatura] so wurde der Vorschlag erstlich eine Silbe fur sich erhalten, welches falsch ware; zweytens wurde, da auf der Hauptnote eine neue Silbe ausgesprochen werden muss, diese nothwendig vom Vorschlag getrennt...."
(22.) [Francois Arnaud], La Soiree perdue a l'Opera (Paris, 1776), passim. Correspondance litteraire (May, 1776), M. Tourneux, ed. (Paris: Garnier freres, 1877-82), 11:262. "On ne demande point a M. Gluck des cadences, des ports de voix, des roulades et tous ces petits agrements que le bon gout dedaigne."
(23.) Domenico Corri, A Select Collection of the most Admired Songs, Duetts... (Edinburgh, ca.1782), 1:2f.
(24.) Domenico Corri, The Singer's Preceptor (London, ), 1:70.
(25.) Georg Philipp Telemann, Der harmonische Gottesdienst (1725/26), ed. Gustav Fock, in Musikalische Werke (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1953), vol. II, v-vi. "Und hat man sich nicht daran zu kehren, ob schon bisweilen eine Modulation wider den Bass zu laufen scheinet, als wenn es hiesse: [ex.] so singe dennoch: [ex.]."
(26.) Quantz, Versuch, 102 (XI/6). "Sie denken eben so wenig auf die Regeln der Setzkunst, welche erfordern, dass jede Dissonanz nicht nur gut vorbereitet werden, sondern auch ihre gehorige Auflosung bekommen, und also dadurch erst ihre Annehmlichkeit erhalten musse; da sie ausserdem ein ubellautender Klang seyn und bleiben wurde."
(27.) The second observation is from Neumann, "Mozart's Prosodic Appoggiatura," 107f. Further examples occur in mm.196 and 194 of this piece.
(28.) Heinrich Christoph Koch, "Ripienspieler," in Musikalisches Lexikon (Frankfurt am Main, 1802; rpt. 1964), 1267. "Der Ripienspieler darf weder die kleinste Note oder Spielmanier mehr oder weniger machen... als ausdrucklich in seiner Stimme vorgeschrieben ist."
(29.) Tosi, Opinioni, 41f. "Il Teatrale toglie ogni arbitrio all' artificio per non offendere ne suoi diritti la narrattiva naturale, quando pero non fosse composto in qualche Solliloquio all' uso di Camera."
(30.) Johann Adam Hiller, Anweisung zum musikalisch-zierlichen Gesange (Leipzig, 1780), 100.
(31.) Johann Adolph Scheibe, Critischer Musikus (Leipzig, 1745 (2)), 746. "Auch muss sich der Sanger angelegen seyn lassen, frey und munter zu sprechen, keine Singauszierungen hinzu zu thun, und also ganz ungekunstelt der ordentlichen Rede nachzuahmen."
(32.) Agricola, Anleitung, 152. "Das theatralische Recitativ leidet keine dergleichen willkuhrliche Auszierungen, um der naturlichen Erzahlungskunst nichts in den Weg zu legen."
(33.) Rellstab, Versuch, 48. "Auf dem Theater muss der Sanger, wenn er weiss was Action ist, uberdem wenig oder gar keine Vorschlage machen, und ich will selbst in der Kirche und der Kammer, wo das Recitativ des Feyerlichen wegen langsamer und mit mehreren edlen Verzierungen gesungen wird, lieber die platte Ausfuhrung." Cited by Neumann, "Mozart's Prosodic Appoggiatura," 101.
(34.) Johann Baptist Lasser, Vollstandige Anleitung zur Singkunst (Munich, 1798), 160. "Das Theatralische Recitativ, sofern es bloss erzahlend ist, leidet gar keine Ausschmuckung."
(35.) Pierre Esteve, L'Esprit des beaux arts (Paris, 1753), 2:24. "Le Recitatif Italien n'est presque jamais ecoute en Italie, on ne va au Spectacle que pour entendre les Ariettes.... Les italiens passent rapidement de leur recitatif le moins orne, aux Ariettes les plus brillantes."
(36.) Stefano (Esteban) Arteaga, Le Rivoluzioni del teatro musicale italiano (Bologna, 1785; rpt. 1969), 2:118. "Non si dee aggiugnere alcun abbellimento ne dalla parte del suonatore, ne dalla parte del cantante ai semplici recitativi, come non s'inorpellano nella retorica l'esposizione d'una ragione o la narrativa d'un fatto; perocche... lo spettatore non potrebbe commuoversi in seguito se gli ornamenti gli impedissero di prestar al filo dell' azione la dovuta attenzione."
(37.) Pseudonym ("Amisallos"), "Unterrichts vom Recitativ," Kritische Briefe uber die Tonkunst, ed. Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg, 2/3 (Berlin, 4 September 1762), 253-416 at 351f. (Brief 109). "Diese Schreibart ist ohne Zweifel verwerflich, weil man naturlicher Weise und ohne Ursache nicht anders schreiben soll, als man singet; und weil viele Sanger, wegen nicht genugsamer Einsicht, dadurch irre gemacht, und verfuhret werden konnen, besonders in der Mitte eines Recitativs." While this article has been attributed to Marpurg (and sometimes dated erroneously 1763), he was simply the editor, although he may have contributed articles under a pseudonym, as did all the other writers. For further discussion about the passage in Brief 109, see Neumann, "Mozart's Prosodic Appoggiatura," 102f.
(38.) Johann Friedrich Schubert, Neue Singe-Schule oder grundliche und vollstandige Anweisung zur Singkunst, 2nd ed. (Leipzig, ), 142. "Die zweisylbigen Einschnitte oder Schluss-Falle werden von den Componisten verschieden vorgeschrieben. Z. E. Ein Sanger hat die Freiheit die Stelle bei (a) wie bei (b) vorzutragen, wenn nur dadurch, so wie hier, mehr deklamatorischer Nachdruck bewirkt wird."
Beverly Jerold's recent publications include two books: 1) The Complexities of Early Instrumentation: Winds and Brass, which treats the earliest instruction to help composers avoid these instruments' limitations, for they often produced parts that were deemed unplayable; and 2) Music Performance Issues 1600-1900, which reprints nineteen articles on subjects such as Beethoven's tempo marks, dotting, vocal performance, vibrato, keyboard instruments, embellishment, and temperament. A practicing keyboard musician, she recently gave papers for the American Handel Society (to be published in Handel News, a newsletter published by the Friends of the London Handel Festival) and the Boston Early Music Festival.
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|Title Annotation:||Christoph Willibald Gluck|
|Publication:||Journal of Singing|
|Date:||Nov 1, 2017|
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