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Production of acids as a byproduct of fermentation activity in dough.


Proteolytic enzyme in kiwi.


Modification of a product by the inclusion of cheaper, inferior materials.

aerated confections

Whipped confections (such as marshmallow and nougat) consisting of a stable foam. The two most common approaches to making these confections are adding a gelling agent to meringue while it is whipping and adding a gelling agent to cooked sugar syrup and whipping it to the desired stage.

a la carte

Dessert item served without accompanying sauces or other components, unlike plated desserts. A la carte may also refer to an item which is not part of a prix fixe menu.

a la minute

Preparation of food to order.

almond cream

Filling for a variety of baked goods, including the classic Pithivier, various Viennoiserie, fruit tarts, and cake layers. Its ingredients typically include butter, sugar, eggs, almond meal, flour (sometimes), and rum.


Sodium aluminum sulfate. Used as a chemical leavener due to its ability to react with baking soda in the presence of heat and produce carbon dioxide.


Instrument that discerns specific physical characteristics of dough, quantifying the balance between elasticity and extensibility and strength. These values appear on the spec sheet as P, L, P/L, and W, respectively.


Holes, or cell structure of the crumb.

amino acids

Basic components of protein.

amuses bouche

Tiny savory treats served as an introduction to the meal.

analytical data

Spec sheet details of flour characteristics such as moisture content, ash content, protein content, and enzyme activity.

angel food method

Angel food cakes are named for their pure white crumb and light texture. The three basic ingredients are sugar, egg white, and flour. Due to the large ratio of sugar to flour, the egg foam is made with half of the quantity of sugar and the remaining sugar is folded into the egg foam with well-sifted flour.

applied method

Piping technique that uses a cone to apply an embellishment that highlights existing decoration or design. The surface can be any texture because the tip of the cone is usually held just above it.

arrival time

Time required for the top of a farinograph curve to reach the 500 FU line after the mixer has been started and the water introduced. This value is a measurement of the rate at which flour takes up water during the formation of the dough.

ash content

Amount of bran present in flour after milling. Ash content affects dough characteristics and fermentation activity.


Process that involves premixing the flour and water and allowing it to rest for a minimum of 15 to 20 minutes. This step increases hydration of the flour, which leads to a better gluten structure. Also, the increased enzyme activity that occurs enhances extensibility of the dough.


baked custard

Custard that is baked and set in the oven. An example of this type of custard is creme brulee.

baked pie

Style of pie that begins with an unbaked shell that is filled with fruit or custard and then baked. It may have a single or double crust. Examples of baked pies include apple, blueberry, and pumpkin.

baked tarts

Tarts in which the tart dough is baked with the filling. Common fillings for this style of tart include frangipane, almond cream, ricotta cheese, or rice.

baking ammonia

Also known as ammonium bicarbonate. In the presence of moisture and heat, this chemical leavener reacts rapidly to produce carbon dioxide and ammonia gas that leavens the batter or dough and then dissipates once the item is baked.

baking powder

Combination of baking soda, acidic salts, and a small amount of starch for stabilization.

baking soda

Also known as sodium bicarbonate or bicarbonate of soda. When it comes into contact with moisture and acid, carbon dioxide gas is produced. Baking soda is also used to balance the neutralizing value for baking powder.


Earliest known cereal to be cultivated. Historically, its flour was relied upon for making bread; the high-starch, low-gluten content produced dense, flat loaves. Today it is used mostly in beer brewing.


Primary flavoring component of mousse. The egg foam or whipped cream is folded into this mixture to add lightness. The base may be fruit puree, ganache, or a cooked-stirred custard such as creme Anglaise.

basic buttercream

Sugar-sweetened whipped butter, often lightened with egg foam or egg whites. The essential ingredients for basic buttercream are powdered sugar and butter and/or shortening.


Measurement used to quantify the sugar density of any given liquid.

Bavarian cream

Type of mousse based on creme Anglaise, whipped cream, and gelatin.


Fat component in laminated dough that is enclosed in the detrempe. Also referred to as roll-in fat.


Historically an Italian preferment, a biga is prepared using flour, water, and yeast, with a hydration of approximately 50 to 55 percent. It is allowed to ferment at 60[degrees]F (16[degrees]C) for 18 hours. Today, the term biga is often improperly used as a generic name for a preferment.

binding agents

Stabilizers such as gelatin, agar powder, modified starch, and pectin; such agents help to set the formula, which allows the product to take on the shape of a mold and to be handled for cutting and packaging.


Community of microorganisms that attaches to solid surfaces exposed to water and excretes a slimy, glue-like substance.

Bioterrorism Act

Laws enacted in 2002 to protect the health and safety of Americans from an intended or actual terrorist attack on the nation's food supply.

biscuit jaconde method

Variation on the separated egg sponge method. It is characterized by the addition of nut flour into the cake batter, as well as by a design that is applied through a thicker batter. Biscuit jaconde is baked in thin sheets.

biscuit method

Mixing method that produces a flaky structure as desired in biscuits and scones. First, cold fat is cut into flour and other dry ingredients. Liquid ingredients are then added to the mixture and blended to incorporation.

bittersweet chocolate

Dark chocolate in which the cocoa content averages between 64 and 85 percent.

blast freezer

Freezer used to freeze products quickly, minimizing the dryness and crystal formation inside products.

blending method

Fastest and easiest mixing method for muffins, quick breads, and scones. The dry ingredients are simply added to the liquid ingredients. Also called the muffin method.

blind baked

Pie or tart dough baked alone, without filling.

blitz puff pastry

Pastry dough similar to a very flaky pie dough. Cold butter is mixed into the dough with large pieces remaining visible. The dough is then rolled out and folded a number of times to create flaky layers.

blown sugar

Decorative application of cooked sugar in which air is pumped or blown into satinized sugar and the piece is manipulated to represent the vision of the pastry chef.


Molded frozen dessert named for its classic dome shape. It is traditionally comprised of multiple layers of parfait-type mixtures.

book fold

Book folds can be done by folding the sheeted dough in four, with the center spine offset to ensure consistent layering. Also known as a double fold.

bottom-up assembly

Refers to the method of assembling cake from the bottom up. These cakes can be assembled in ring molds, cake frames, or other molds with no bottom. This may be required due the presence of a cake wall.

bread pudding

Popular dessert made from a baked mixture of dried bread, custard base, and flavorings.


Crunchy sugar confections based on cooked sugar syrup to which nuts or seeds have been added.


The percentage of sugar in a solution.


Proteolytic enzyme in pineapple.

bubble sugar

Result of the bubbles that occur in sugar when it hits a layer of alcohol on parchment paper or silicon sheets.

bulk fermentation

See first fermentation

butter press

Hydraulic press that efficiently and consistently forms uniform blocks of butter at the push of a button.


cacao bean

Seeds from the pod of the Theobroma cacao tree. Cacao beans are processed to make chocolate.

cake frames

Metal frames (available in the size of a sheet pan or a half sheet pan) that are designed for assembling specialty cakes.

cake syrup

Sugar syrup made with less sugar than water (commonly 2:1, water to sugar). Used to moisten cakes, it adds a minimal amount of sweetness.

cake wall

Strip of thin cake that surrounds the sides of the dessert.

calcium carbonate

Mineral added to sugar to make it opaque.

Calvel, Raymond

A French Master Baker known for his in-depth studies of the dough system. Also known as the developer of the autolyse process.


Sugar that has been cooked dry, or in solution to a light to dark brown color. Also a sugar confection with a caramel flavor and a texture which can range from soft and chewy to firm.


Process that occurs when sugar is heated above 320[degrees]F (160[degrees]C). The sugar changes color from clear to light yellow and progresses to darker tones of brown, evolving the initial sweet flavors into richer, nutty, and slightly bitter flavors.

carbonates of soda

Ash produced from the burning of certain plants that live in or by the sea. This alkaline substance was one of the first leaveners used in baking.

carbon dioxide

Gas produced as yeast metabolizes sugars.

carotenoid pigments

Natural components of the wheat kernel that are responsible for the creamy color of flour and some aroma production.

cast sugar

Technique of pouring sugar into lightly greased metal forms, metal bars, food grade rubber mats, or silicone molds.

certificate of analysis (COA)

Fact sheet detailing information about a particular batch of flour.

chemical leavening agents

Substances that aerate and leaven batter as a result of the gases produced from their reaction with water, acid, and/or heat.

chevron cut

Series of angled, parallel cuts that run along the top and bottom edges of the loaf. The chevron cut is typically used for short, elongated shapes like batards. It encourages a round cross-section in the baked loaf.

chiffon method

Two-step mixing process: First, a slurry of wet and dry ingredients is created. Then, egg whites are whipped and folded into the base. Liquid oil in this type of cake makes a very tender crumb.

chiffon pie

Classic American dessert composed of a blind-baked crust, mousse-like filling, and sometimes a whipped cream topping.

chocolate confections

Confections made from chocolate or that are covered in chocolate.

chocolate glaze

Thin, shiny chocolate coating made from a thinned ganache.

chocolate liquor

Product of the whole cocoa bean after it has gone through the initial production process. Chocolate liquor can be turned into cocoa powder and cocoa butter, can be sold as unsweetened chocolate, or can be further processed into dark or milk chocolate products.

chocolate mousse

Mousse preparation that includes chocolate, whipped cream, usually egg foam, and sometimes gelatin. If the cocoa content of the mixture is high enough to set the mousse, gelatin is not necessary.

chocolate panning

Process in which nutmeats or other confectionary centers are coated in chocolate.


One who works professionally with chocolate.

churned desserts

Mixture that is stirred or churned during freezing in order to break up the size of the ice crystals as they form. Churned frozen desserts are generally produced using an ice cream machine. Ice cream and sorbet are two examples of churned desserts.

classic cut

Scoring technique used for baguettes and batards. To make a classic cut, the baker holds the blade as flat as possible, or at least with a 45 degree angle to the surface, and creates a horizontal incision.

coating chocolate

Convenience product designed for use without tempering. It is made with cocoa butter equivalents and consequently has inferior taste and texture qualities.

cocoa butter

Natural hard fat found in the cocoa bean; cocoa butter is a triglyceride composed of three fatty acids connected to a glycerol molecule. It is roughly 54 percent of the chocolate liquor.

cocoa butter equivalent (CBE)

Fats that mimic the crystallization properties of cocoa butter.

cocoa mass

See chocolate liquor.

cocoa paste

See chocolate liquor.

cocoa powder

Powder milled from the cocoa cake left over after the cocoa

butter has been pressed out of the chocolate liquor.

common meringue

Meringue made with sugar and egg whites that is often characterized by having less sugar than egg whites. Commonly used as a leavening agent in cake mixing applications. A common meringue may be referred to as a French Meringue.

complete metamorphosis

Life cycle of an insect.


Process to further refine chocolate to reach the desired 15 to 25 micron particle size and to improve flavor, viscosity, and flow properties.

confectionary fondant

Type of fondant in which the initial sugar syrup is cooked to a higher temperature; the resulting firm texture enables the pastry chef to thin the fondant to add flavorings.


Term describing a vast array of products that can be broken into three categories: chocolate, flour, and sugar.


Level of hardness or softness of the dough system.

cooked fruit juice method

Method used to enhance thickening for fillings made with delicate fruits and berries. Fruit juice is cooked with sugar, starch, and optional spices until thick. The mixture is then mixed with the fruit. When it is cool, the filling is deposited into the pie shell and baked.

cooked fruit method

Method in which fresh fruit, along with sugar and starch, is precooked prior to baking in the pie shell. This method is best for firmer fruits such as apples or pears.

cooked-stirred custard

Custard that is cooked over heat. Constant stirring is necessary to prevent scorching. Two examples of this style of custard are pastry cream and creme Anglaise.

cookie spread

Amount of outward expansion that occurs during the baking of cookie dough.


In reference to the cooling bread, this is one of the last steps of the baking process.


First leaf or pair of leaves created by the embryo of a seed plant.


Clear fruit sauce that contains no pulp.


High-quality chocolate that contains only cocoa butter as fat.

creaming method

Mixing method in which fat and sugar are blended together to the desired stage. Next, eggs are added, followed by alternating additions of dry and wet ingredients (if any).

cream pie

Unbaked pie that is composed of a blind-baked crust and a cooked-stirred custard filling. Examples include chocolate cream, banana cream, and coconut cream pies.

creme Anglaise

Cooked-stirred custard that can be employed in a number of applications, including dessert sauces, bases for ice cream,

buttercream, or mousse.

creme Anglaise-style buttercream Icing that combines creme Anglaise, Italian meringue, and butter.

creme brulee

Rich and creamy baked custard with a thin layer of crisp and caramelized sugar coating the creamy filling.

creme caramel

Custard formulated to be slightly firmer than creme brulee because it is turned out of its mold before serving. The trademark characteristic of this dessert is the caramel that covers the dessert after it is turned out of the mold.

creme Chantilly

Sweetened, vanilla-flavored whipped cream that can be used as garnish or an icing.

creme Chiboust

Rich, light cream that is a component of the classic French dessert St. Honore. Pastry cream is combined with French or Italian meringue at a ratio of 4:1. Gelatin is added to increase stability.

creme St. Honore

See creme Chiboust.


Type of cacao prized for its mild, yet deep chocolate flavor and low acidity levels. It is the rarest and most expensive of the three types of cacao.

cross contamination

Transfer of bacteria from one food, typically raw, to other foods. It is one of the major causes of food poisoning.

crumb coat

See masking.

crystalline confections

Style of confections defined by the formation of sugar crystals during the cooking process. Examples include fondant, fudge, pralines, dragees and liqueur pralines.


Process that occurs when a crystalline substance such as salt or sugar precipitates from the liquid in which it was dissolved.


Collection of wild yeast and Lactobacillus bacteria living in a mixture of flour and water. These microorganisms need three things to thrive and reproduce: food, which is provided by simple sugars in the flour or from enzymatic activity; water added to the flour; and oxygen incorporated during mixing.

custard base

Mixture containing whole eggs, egg yolks, or both; cream, milk, or both; and additional ingredients like sugar and flavorings. As it cooks, proteins in the eggs thicken the liquid.

custard pie

Baked pie in which the liquid filling is set by eggs. Examples include pumpkin and pecan pies, and quiche.

custard-style (French custard) ice cream

Type of ice cream that utilizes egg yolks or whole eggs in the preparation of the ice cream base.

cut-out cookie

Cookie that is cut from rolled-out dough. Sugar cookies and gingerbread cookies are examples.


danger zone

Most hospitable temperature range for disease-causing microorganisms. For those capable of causing foodborne illness, this range is 41[degrees]F (5[degrees]C) to 140[degrees]F (60[degrees]C).

dark chocolate

Chocolate made from chocolate liquor with the addition of cocoa butter and sugar.


Central vertical paddle that churns, or spins, inside the freezing tank of an ice cream maker.

departure time

Time from the first addition of water until the top of a farinograph curve leaves the 500 FU line. Longer time indicates stronger flour as the mixing time can be longer without degradation of the gluten structure.

desired dough temperature (DDT)

Ideal temperature to create an environment favorable for fermentation of most dough; in most cases, this range is 74[degrees]F (23[degrees]C) to 77[degrees]F (25[degrees]C).


The dough portion of laminated Viennoiserie.

dextrose equivalent (DE)

Value assigned to a substance that indicates its sweetening power relative to dextrose. Dextrose has a DE of 100.

diplomat cream

Smooth and light cream prepared from pastry cream, whipped cream, and gelatin.


Process in which the bulk of the dough is divided into small pieces according to the desired final weight of the bread, accounting for the weight loss that will occur during baking.


Ingredients that can be added to sugar solutions to help prevent crystallization. Common doctors include glucose, inverted sugar, and acids such as tartaric acid.

double-acting baking powder

Chemical leavener that contains both low- and high-temperature reacting leavening acids.

double fold

See book fold.

dough conditioners

Optional ingredients that can be added to dough in order to improve the processing characteristics of the dough and the final product characteristics. Dough conditioners can be natural, chemical, or microbial.

dough development

Formation of the structure of the dough.

dough development time

Time in minutes between the first addition of water to the dough and the development of dough's maximum consistency.

dough rheology

Physical properties of the dough.


Category of crystalline confections made from slow-roasted nuts that have gone through two distinct processes: candying and coating.

dropped cookie

Cookie named for the portioning and releasing action of the dough. The thick batter is generally portioned using a scoop or cookie depositor.

Dutched cocoa powder

Baking cocoa made from cacao beans that have been treated with an alkaline solution. The resulting powder is darker, milder, and less acidic than nonalkalized or natural cocoa powder.


egg foam

Whipped whole eggs, egg yolks, or egg whites that create a lightened foam, or collection of air bubbles held together by denatured protein molecules.


Refers to the dough's ability to return to its initial position after stretching.


Chemical or natural substance that is soluble at low concentrations in both water and fat. Emulsifiers' main function in a dough system is to better link water and the lipids naturally contained in the flour; as a result, the dough has a stronger texture and is better able to withstand mechanical mixing.


Combination of two or more liquids that are naturally repellent into a smooth mixture. One substance is dispersed in the other. Emulsions are usually water-in-oil or oil-in-water blends.


Main component of wheat that contains starch and protein.


Flour enrichment is used to increase the nutritional value of white flour. Since the 1930s, the natural vitamins and minerals taken out during the milling process have been replaced with vitamins such as thiamin, niacin and riboflavin, and minerals like iron. As of January 1998, folic acid has also been included.

enrobed chocolates

Chocolate confections that are produced by covering or dipping solid fillings in melted chocolate.


Composed cake of a size sufficient to serve a small group.


Protein that catalyzes a chemical reaction of degradation.


Organic compounds that are formed by the reaction between an alcohol and an acid. In baking, esters are aromatic components important to the flavor of the final product.


Stretching property of dough.


falling number

Number that represents the enzyme activity of the flour.


Device that characterizes the quality of the flour by measuring the mixing properties of its dough to determine absorption capacity, development time, and structure stability.

fat-based cakes

Moist, dense, rich, cakes that are high in fat and sugar. Techniques used to make these cakes include the creaming method, the high-ratio method, and the liquid shortening method.

fat bloom

Migration of cocoa butter to the surface of chocolate. Fat bloom appears as a cloudy white dust over chocolate. Improper tempering, warm storage conditions, or abrupt temperature changes can cause fat bloom.

Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA)

Act of Congress passed in 1938 that gave the Food and Drug Administration the authority to govern the safety and accurate labeling of drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, and the nation's food supply (meat and poultry excluded).


Periodic mixing of a portion of a culture with flour and water to keep the flora alive and active. Maintenance of a culture requires that the vital conditions (food, water, and air) are constantly refreshed.


Breakdown of compound molecules in organic substances under the effect of yeast or bacteria (ferments).


Proteolytic enzyme in figs.


Fine decorative piping.


In reference to cake assembly: elements such as buttercream, ganache, or curd spread between layers of cake.

final proof

Fermentation period that takes place between dough shaping and the beginning of the bake. Throughout this process, the gas produced by the yeast will accumulate and create internal pressure on the gluten structure.

first fermentation

Process in which dough is allowed to ferment as a large mass. This creates conditions that are optimal for the development of all of the benefits fermentation brings to the dough. Also called bulk fermentation or floor time.

first- in, first-out (FIFO)

Stock rotation methodology that ensures that foods are used in a timely manner, well before their "use by" date.


Type of pie dough characterized by a light and flaky texture.

flat icing

Also known as water icing, flat icing is a quick preparation made from powdered sugar and a liquid such as milk, lemon juice, or water.

floor time

See first fermentation.

flour confections

Category of pastry characterized by the use of flour as a primary ingredient for the creation of confections. Examples include but are not limited to cookies, cakes, quick breads, etc.


Dispersion of gas throughout a continuous solid phase (which may be liquid).

foam-based cakes

Light cakes that are based on a foam of whipped whole eggs, egg yolks, egg whites, or a combination. Examples include chiffon, sponge and angel food cakes.


Smooth, white icing that is prepared from a sugar syrup that has been cooled and agitated to crystallize the sugar.

food allergen

Product or ingredient that contains proteins that can potentially cause severe, occasionally fatal, reactions in a person who is allergic to that food.

food-stored insects

Insects that live in stored food.


Type of cacao that is used to produce 80 percent of the world's chocolate.

form V crystallization

Level of crystallization confectioners and chocolate manufacturers require to ensure a shelf stable product that is resistant to fat bloom. Form V is characterized by the "dense compacting" of the fat crystals into an organized structure.


Professional bread bakers of the 12th century. Fornarii performed the task of baking the townspeoples' dough in communal ovens.


Cream similar to almond cream, but lighter in texture and flavor. Like almond cream, frangipane can be used in the preparation of cakes, tarts, and Viennoiserie.

freezer burn

Degradation of quality that occurs when a frozen food dries out during storage.

freezing point

Temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid.

French buttercream

Based on a pate a bombe. This egg yolk-based egg foam adds richness and color to the buttercream.

French meringue

An egg foam created with a minimum ratio of one part egg whites to one part sugar.


Small treats that are served with coffee or tea or after a dessert course.

frozen dough process

Dough that is mixed, minimally fermented, shaped, and then frozen. When the dough is required for baking, it is defrosted and then proofed as usual. Special considerations required for this process include mixing, fermentation, the type of yeast, dough conditioner selection, the freezing process, and the defrosting process.

frozen inserts

Components of specialty cakes that are soft and fragile at room temperature. Examples are mousse, cremeux, and creme brulee. Freezing before assembly allows these elements to be handled and inserted easily.

frozen mousse

Frozen combination of a Swiss or Italian meringue, whipped cream, and a flavoring base.

frozen parfait

Frozen mixture of pate a bombe or Italian or Swiss meringue, with flavoring and whipped cream folded in. In the United States, parfait also refers to a dessert of ice cream layered with fruit and whipped cream.

frozen souffle

Similar to frozen mousse; its distinction is its appearance, which is made to resemble that of a hot souffle.

fruit glaze

Pourable yet viscous icing made with ingredients such as fruit puree, glucose, water, and gelatin.

fruit mousse

Mousse preparation that includes fruit puree, whipped cream, egg foam (optional), and gelatin.

fruit pie

Pie in which the filling is made from fresh, frozen, canned, or dried fruit.

fruit sauces

Sauces that contain some pulp of the fruit.


Confection based on the formulation of fondant (fine sugar crystals surrounded by a supersaturated sugar solution) with additional ingredients, such as dairy products, fat, nuts, and chocolate.



Rustic, freeform pie that may be sweet or savory. Galette may also refer to any flat, round, rustic tart such as galette de rois, which is made with puff pastry. Furthermore, in Brittany, a local specialty is referred to as galette; it is a buckwheat-based crepe batter cooked and filled with savory items.


Creamy mixture made when a liquid, usually cream, is poured over chocolate and an emulsion is formed.


Substance made from fruit juice, sugar solution, and a gelling agent like gelatin, agar, or pectin.


Sprouting phase of the plant life cycle.


Blend of chocolate and hazelnut.


One of the two proteins that combine to form gluten. Gliadin affects the extensibility of the dough.


Group of carbohydrates including sugars, starches, and cellulose that are present naturally in flour.


Enzymes that break down the dextrin chains generated by amylases into glucose sugar, which is easier for yeast to process (thus improving yeast activity during fermentation).

Glucoamylases are sometimes used to partially replace other sugars in the formula, creating a final product that is a bit leaner but retains a sweet flavor.

glucose oxidase

Enzyme that converts glucose into gluconic acid, which acts as an oxidizer and increases gluten strength.


Three-dimensional matrix that occurs when water and flour are combined and developed.

gluten coagulation

Coagulation of gluten begins at 165[degrees]F (74[degrees]C).

gluten development

Development of the gluten structure of the dough.


One of two primary proteins in wheat. Glutenin has some effect on the elasticity of dough.

Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs)

Guidelines that provide a system of processes, procedures, and documentation that ensure the bread or pastry produced has the identity, strength, composition, quality, and purity it is represented to possess.

granita (granite)

Frozen dessert that can be made from a wide assortment of flavorings; granita is frequently served as an intermezzo or light dessert.


Shelled, roasted cacao beans (nibs) are finely ground into a liquid mass called chocolate liquor.


Cutting tool made up of a series of wires; the guitar is used to evenly cut a variety of confectionary items including pates de fruits, ganache, pralines, and cake.


hard candies

Noncrystalline confections made from a saturated sugar syrup that is cooked to a specific temperature and then cooled.

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) Program in which the original purpose was to produce defect- and hazard-free food for astronauts to consume during space flights. Today, HACCP programs are seen as essential elements of food safety in bakery and food service operations throughout the world.


Texture and flavor damage in frozen desserts caused by fluctuating temperatures. The melting and refreezing causes water in the mixture to migrate and form larger ice crystals.

heavy pack

Sugar density in the syrup of canned fruit. Heavy pack is sweeter than light pack.


One of the two types of lactic bacteria, heterofermentative bacteria convert the sugars in dough into lactic acid, acetic acid, and carbon dioxide, all of which affect dough characteristics and bread flavor.

high-ratio cakes

Cakes characterized by their high ratio of sugar and liquid ingredients to flour. These cakes use specialty shortenings that have added emulsifiers to help emulsify the larger quantity of liquid ingredients and fat.

high-temperature short-time (HTST)

Pasteurization process in which a mixture must be heated to 185[degrees]F (85[degrees]C) for two to three minutes.


One of the two types of lactic bacteria, homofermentative bacteria convert the sugars in dough into lactic acid, which affects dough characteristics and bread flavor.


Substances that promote moisture retention.


Process that converts starch to glucose (dextrose) by the application of heat and an acid or enzymes. Hydrolysis can be described as full or partial.


Ability to attract and retain moisture.


Difference between the point at which a liquid is fluid and the point at which it is set. For example, agar does not melt until 185[degrees]F (85[degrees]C) to 194[degrees]F (90[degrees]C), and agar solutions set at approximately 90[degrees]F (32[degrees]C) to 105[degrees]F (40[degrees]C).



Final step in layer cake assembly. A thick, even layer of an icing component is applied to the cake sides and top.

icebox cookie

Cookie in which dough is formed into cylinders or blocks that are refrigerated, sliced, and baked, or frozen until needed. Intricate geometric or marbled designs may be created from multiple flavors of dough.


Refers to a broad range of formulas that are used to fill, cover, or decorate cakes, pastries, or cookies. Types of icing include buttercreams, glazes, fondant, ganache, flat icing, and royal icing.

improved mix

Compromise between the short mix and the intensive mix. Improved mix allows the baker to achieve the efficiencies of intensive mixing, while retaining most of the product quality obtained with a short mix method. With this technique, ingredients are incorporated in first speed and dough is mixed to half development in second speed.


Ingredients that add flavor and texture components to items such as cookies or frozen desserts. They do not have a structural function, and are usually added near the end of the mixing process. Examples of inclusions are chocolate chips, rolled oats, nuts, candies, and dried fruits.

individually quick frozen (IC2F)

Freezing process that ensures a high retention of flavor and color in fruit. Pieces are frozen individually rather than in one block so that they can be easily portioned.


Method of adding flavor to water or oil-based liquids. Ingredients such as zest, herbs, or spices are allowed to steep in warm liquid until the desired strength is reached but are strained out to prevent overly strong or bitter flavors.

integrated pest management

Series of pest management evaluations, monitoring, prevention, and controls.

intensive mix

Mixing technique in which ingredients are incorporated in first speed, and the dough is then fully developed in second speed.

intermediate proof

See rest.

inverted puff pastry

Type of puff pastry produced by enclosing the dough layer (detrempe) within the butter (beurrage).


Manufactured sugar substitute derived from sucrose. Isomalt is frequently used in sugar sculpture because it is more resistant to crystallization and less hygroscopic than sugar.

Italian buttercream

Light buttercream based on Italian meringue. Softened butter is added to the meringue and whipped in to incorporation.

Italian meringue

Cooked meringue that is made using egg whites and cooked sugar syrup. The sugar syrup is carefully poured into the whipping whites and the mixture is whipped until it is just slightly warm or cool.

Italian puff pastry

Version of puff pastry characterized by a dough that contains eggs and white wine.


jelly confections

Popular sugar confections (including pates de fruits and Turkish Delight) containing a supersaturated sugar solution, flavorings, and binding agents.


laminated dough Dough that has had fat enclosed in it and has undergone a series of folds to create a light and flaky final product.


Process by which layers of dough and butter are created in order to make flaky pastries such as croissants and Danish.

lattice crust

Decorative top crust for a pie or tart. The lattice appearance is formed by an open weave of dough strips.

layer cakes

Cakes composed of alternating layers of filling and cake.

leavening acids

Acidic substances added for the purpose of reacting with sodium bicarbonate and producing carbon dioxide.

letter fold

See single fold.


Mature sourdough culture used to ferment the dough.

light pack

Sugar density in the syrup of canned fruit. Light pack is less sweet than heavy pack.

liqueur cordials

Crystalline confections filled with a liqueur-flavored, supersaturated sugar solution. When this syrup is deposited into a starch mold, a fine crystalline shell is formed.

liquid shortening

Liquid (partially hydrogenated) shortenings with added emulsifiers are used mostly by cake makers who rely on shortenings for their fat bases. These shortenings disperse quickly and easily throughout the batter but require special attention to mixing time and rate.

low-temperature long-time (LTLT)

Pasteurization process in which a mixture must be heated to a minimum temperature of 149[degrees]F (65[degrees]C) for 30 minutes.


Maillard reaction

Reaction of residual sugars, amino acids, and heat that contributes to a desirable browned appearance and roasted flavor.


Also known as corn, this starchy grain is native to North America. While certain varieties are grown and consumed as a vegetable, others whose kernels are small and hard are ground into meal or flour.


Aerated sugar confections made with a saturated sugar syrup, gelatin and egg whites (optional).


Confection made from almond paste with the addition of sugar, a cooked sugar syrup, and sometimes glucose and/or alcohol.


Applying a thin coat of icing to the sides and top of a cake prior to icing. Its purpose is to secure any crumbs and prevent them from appearing in the icing layer.

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)

Information designed to provide workers and emergency personnel with the proper procedures for handling or working with a particular substance.


Process wherein flour is allowed to age for two to three weeks after milling. The natural oxidation process improves protein quality and the baking performance of the flour.


Type of pie dough characterized by a compact yet tender texture.

medium peak

Peak that forms when a whipped medium (egg whites, whipped cream), has enough stability to form a peak, but the top of the peak bends.

medium rapid set pectin

One of the three most common types of pectin used in pastry, medium rapid set pectin is most often used in confiture and jams.


Egg foam created by beating air into egg whites. Sugar helps to stabilize the foam and it may be cooked or uncooked.


Organisms such as yeast or bacteria that are too small to see with the naked eye.


Small, delicate sweets presented with after-dinner coffee service. Items may include chocolates, caramels, dipped fruits and nuts, mints, small cookies, or pastries.

milk chocolate

Chocolate made from chocolate liquor, sugar, milk solids, vanilla, and lecithin. In the United States, milk chocolate must contain a minimum of 10 percent cocoa and 12 percent milk solids.

milk solids nonfat (MSNF)

Components of skim or nonfat milk powder (which have had their water and fat components removed) including proteins, lactose, and minerals.

mille feuille

Dessert utilizing puff pastry. Literally translated as "thousand layers," a reference to the many layers created in the dough during the lamination process.


Grain harvested from a group of cereal grasses grown for human and animal consumption. It is an important element of the diet in many African and Asian countries.

mise en place

French term meaning "put in place" used to describe the preparation of all necessary ingredients and equipment for cooking.


In reference to yeasted dough mixing: The step of the baking process during which the baker combines all of the ingredients together to make the dough. Mixing may also refer to the process of combining ingredients for assorted pastry doughs or batters.

mixing tolerance index (MTI)

Difference in FU between the top of a farinograph curve at the peak and the top of the curve measured five minutes after the peak is reached. The higher the MTI is, the weaker the flour will be.

modeling chocolate

Combination of couverture chocolate and inverted sugar, such as corn syrup, glucose, or simple syrup. Modeling chocolate can be used to cover a cake or to create textured decorative elements like ribbons, bows, flowers, and leaves.

modified creaming method

Basic creaming method process, followed by the folding in of a common meringue.

molded chocolates

Chocolate confections prepared in a mold.

molded cookie

Cookie dough is deposited into dye plates and then extracted for baking. The most common type of molded cookie is shortbread, produced from molds made of metal.


French term meaning "foam" or "froth." This light, elegant preparation consists of a flavored base into which egg foam and/or whipped cream has been folded, giving it its airy texture.


neutralizing value (NV)

Measurement of available acidity coming from leavening acids. The NV is utilized to determine the amount of leavening acid or acids needed to provide a neutral pH when combined with baking soda; this value represents the number of parts of baking soda that can be neutralized by 100 parts of the leavening acid.

noncrystalline confections

Confections in which crystallization must be avoided, such as caramels, hard candies, and toffees. The characteristics of noncrystalline confections range from hard and brittle to soft and chewy.

nonlaminated dough

Enriched dough that is not composed of alternating dough and fat layers.


Dense, aerated confection with a texture that ranges from soft and chewy to firm. Nougat relies on the formation of an egg white foam to achieve its characteristics.

Nutrition Labeling Education Act (NLEA)

1990 amendment to the FDCA that mandates nutritional labeling on all commercially produced bakery products.



Grain that is well suited to growing in cold, wet climates. It is especially popular in Scotland, Wales, Germany, and Scandinavia.

oleic acid

Monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable sources. Oleic acid comprises 35 percent of the triglycerides in cocoa butter.

one-stage method

Mixing method wherein all ingredients, once scaled and brought to room temperature (if needed), are mixed until incorporation.

origin chocolate

Chocolate made using beans from one growing region. The result is a uniquely flavored chocolate with flavor that highlights local cocoa varieties and production nuances.

osmotolerant yeast

Strain of yeast that is tolerant of high osmotic pressure conditions, a situation that arises in dough that has a high sugar or acidity content. The yeast is forced to compete with the sugar for moisture, increasing the pressure on the yeast cell wall. Osmotolerant yeast is available in fresh and dried forms.


Crisp, thin, flat or cone-shaped wafer made from batter cooked between hot, patterned iron molds. A predecessor to the modern waffle, these small cakes were popular in the Middle Ages.


Guild of bakers established in France in the Middle Ages who sold small cakes from stalls on the street and at festivals and fairs.

oven kick or oven spring

Quick temperature increase that occurs during the initial four to six minutes of baking time and stimulates yeast and enzyme activity in the dough. A large amount of carbon dioxide is produced and retained by the gluten structure, which develops the volume of the bread.

oven loading

Process in which loaves are placed in the oven for baking. This can be done by hand, using an oven peel or loader, or with an automatic loading system for larger production.


Amount of air that is incorporated during churning. It is expressed as a percentage and calculated as follows: Using the same volume for both the weight of the ice cream and the mix complete the following calculation: (Weight of ice cream x Weight of mix) / (Weight of mix x 100).


Chocolate that has an excess of cocoa butter precrystalized, resulting in a chocolate that is thick and quick to set.


Series of reactions that occur as a result of oxygen being incorporated into the dough during mixing. Gluten bonds that reinforce the structure and tolerance of the dough are formed. Overmixing and too much oxidation will result in a bleached appearance and diminished flavor.


Additives that strengthen the gluten structure by fixing the oxygen incorporated into the dough during mixing.


palmitic acid

One of the most common saturated fatty acids found in animals and plants. Palmitic acid comprises 26 percent of the triglycerides in cocoa butter.


Process of coating nutmeats or other confectionary centers; the three types of panning are soft sugar panning, hard sugar panning, and chocolate panning. Panning may also refer to the action of placing pastries on pans before baking them.


Proteolytic enzyme in papaya.

paper cone

Used for decorative piping with mediums such as royal icing or chocolate. Paper cones are also used to hold melted sugar or chocolate for assembling decorative display pieces made from sugar, pastillage, or chocolate.

par-baked process

Refers to the process wherein the dough is baked until the starch is gelatinized and the protein coagulates. At this point, the structure of the product is solid, and its volume is almost final. Par-baked breads are taken out of the oven when the crust is still a light beige color. The product is cooled, stored in a freezer or vacuum pack and at a future point undergoes a second bake to achieve appropriate product color.

Parisian macaron

Delicate meringue-like cookie made with sugar, egg whites, and ground almonds. Two cookie halves sandwich a sweet filling such as buttercream or ganache.

parts per million (ppm)

System used for measuring small quantities of very reactive ingredients such as dough conditioners. A specific quantity of the required ingredient is diluted in a specific quantity of a neutral carrier (such as flour) to combine a blend. From this blend, the ppm is obtained.

pasta sfogliata

See Italian puff pastry.


Application of heat at a specific temperature for a determined length of time prevents the development of dangerous microbes that are present in such foods as eggs and dairy products.


White, tasteless, decorative dough similar to rolled fondant that dries very hard and is commonly used for making centerpieces or showpieces.

pastillage glue

Mixture of melted gelatin and powdered sugar used for gluing together pastillage for decorative display pieces.

pastry cream

Thick custard made from a mixture of milk, eggs, sugar, and cornstarch, often used to fill cakes, cream puffs, eclairs, napoleons, tarts, and other pastries.

pastry fondant

Type of fondant in which the initial sugar syrup is cooked to a lower temperature; the resulting liquid texture allows it to be used as a glaze.


French for "dough," "paste," or "batter."

pate a bombe

Egg foam made from egg yolks and cooked sugar syrup.

pate a choux

Precooked batter that is sometimes classified as dough. Choux (French for "cabbage") originally referred to the irregular shape it took on as it baked.

pate a foncer

French for "lining pastry." The ingredients are similar to those in pie dough but also include variable quantities of sugar and egg.

pate a sable Breton

Based on pate breton cookies from Brittany, France, this dough is used for tarts or bases for petits fours.

pate Breton

Specialty dough that originated in Brittany, France, baked traditionally as a cookie with a characteristic open crumb, a very sandy texture and a slightly salty taste.

pate brisee

Basic pie or pastry dough made with butter. It can be used for sweet or savory fillings.

pates de fruits

Specialty French confection made from fruit juice or puree, sugar, glucose, yellow pectin, and an acid. Pates de fruits should be slightly firm in texture yet still have tender qualities.

pate sablee

Tender dough that can be used for lining tart molds, or as a base for cake or other pastry.

pate sucree

"Sweet pastry" is the literal translation. This enriched dough is often used for lining tart molds.


Disease-causing microorganisms.


French baking guild established in the 15th century. This trade group was given exclusive rights to make and sell tarts and pies filled with various meats, fish, and cheeses.


Polysaccharide obtained from plant sources (most notably apples and citrus fruits) that produces clean-flavored, tender, yet short-textured jellies.

pectin NH

One of the three most common types of pectin used in pastry, pectin NH is most often used in nappage and glazes because of its thermoreversible properties.

pentosans (hemicelluloses)

Long-chained carbohydrate molecules that are naturally present in flour. Their function in a dough system is to attract and distribute water. The two types of pentosans found in cereals are soluble and insoluble.

personal hygiene

Cleaning practices that fight infection by removing substances that allow bacteria to grow on the human body. Good personal hygiene includes bathing, shampooing, handwashing, wearing clean clothes and mouth cleanliness.


Substances or mixtures of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or repelling any pest. Pests are living organisms that occur where they are not wanted or that cause damage to crops, humans, or other animals.

petits fours

Traditionally used to describe an assortment of miniature biscuits and fancy cakes that accompany afternoon coffee or tea, as well as the confections served at the end of a meal. Light, delicate, and fresh, the essential characteristic of petits fours is that they can be eaten in one or two bites.

petits fours deguises

Also referred to as fruit deguise. Fresh, dried or candied fruits that are coated in chocolate, fondant, cooked sugar, or any combination of the three.

petits fours frais

Tiny, fresh pastries that must be served the day they are made. This group includes filled items, such as eclairs; cream-filled choux pastries that are dipped in fondant, chocolate, or caramel; fruit, curd, or fancy tartlets; and filled cookies and biscuits.

petits fours glaces

Miniature confections that are comprised of thin layers of cake filled with jam or buttercream, topped with a thin layer of marzipan and coated with fondant icing or sometimes chocolate.

petits fours prestige

Tiny versions of contemporary entremets or other desserts.

petits fours sec

Dry, crisp, unfilled biscuits and cookies. This category includes shortbread and sable dough creations like duchesses, sable beurre, Spritz, and speculoos; puff pastry-based palmiers and allumettes glaces; and butter-based tuiles and langue du chats.

Philadelphia-style ice cream

Ice cream made from an uncooked mixture of cream, sugar, and flavorings. It can have a slightly grainy texture because it lacks the emulsifying capabilities of egg yolk.

pieces montees

Centerpieces of artistic design.

pie dough

Unsweetened pastry dough made from flour, fat, and water. Additional basic ingredients can include salt, sugar, and an acidic liquid such as lemon juice.

piped cookie

Cookie that is portioned using a piping bag, cookie press, or depositor, often in decorative shapes. Spritz cookies are an example of piped cookies.

piped sugar

Sugar that is poured into a double- or even triple-thick paper cone and then piped into various designs on a nonstick sheet or a lightly oiled piece of parchment.


At the turn of the 13th century in Paris, pistores gained the exclusive right to be the city's bread makers and bakers.


Firm yet pliable texture. Used to describe characteristics of fat used in laminated dough.

plated desserts

Final course of a meal typically served in a restaurant or hotel. A plated dessert is a composition of elements that contribute supporting or contrasting flavors, textures, and sometimes temperatures. Presentation is often playful or thematic.

polka cut

Series of diagonal cuts that are made first in one direction and then at an opposing angle. The result is a cross-cross pattern that is frequently used for batards and specialty breads and rolls. It produces a loaf that has a flattened top.


Refers to the ability for something to exist in numerous states. In the context of chocolate, cocoa butter is polymorphic as it is able to set in different forms. Form V is the ideal form and is a sign of the chocolate being in temper.


Liquid preferment that consists of equal parts flour and water and is allowed to ferment at room temperature. Hydration is at 100 percent.


Dish made from cereal grains boiled in milk or water.


Early chemical leavener made from the ashes of certain land plants.

pot de creme

Baked custard that is barely set and has a very fine, silky texture. Pot de creme is served in the dish in which it was baked.


Dough or batter that is created from a portion of the total formula's flour, water, yeast (natural or commercial), and sometimes salt. It is prepared prior to mixing the final dough, allowed to ferment for a controlled period of time at a controlled temperature, and added to the final dough.

prefermented dough

Also referred to as old dough. A portion of regular dough (made with white flour, water, yeast, and salt) that has fermented for three to six hours is then incorporated into a final dough mix. This method improves the quality of breads that are allowed only a short fermentation period.

preproof frozen process

Process for dough that allows the end user the ability to remove a yeasted product from the freezer and bake it without thawing and proofing. The degree of proofing can vary; however, 75 percent proofed is the most common. Special baking processes must be used, as these items require a progressive rise in baking temperature.


In this step, cut pieces of dough are formed by hand or by machine using an automatic rounder. This process is done with the desired final shape in mind; for example, loose balls are appropriate for short shapes like batards or boules, while cylinders are used for longer shapes like baguettes. product specification sheet (spec sheet) Sheet provided by the miller per lot of flour which highlights assorted properties and qualities of the flour.

Professor Raymond Calvel

See Calvel, Raymond.


Enzyme responsible for protein degradation. Protease enzymes break down gluten and increase extensibility of the dough.

proteolytic enzymes

Enzymes that break the long, chainlike molecules of gelatin into shorter fragments. This destroys gelatin's ability to hold and set liquids.

puff pastry

Non-yeasted laminated dough. The four main types of puff pastry are blitz, traditional, Italian, and inverted.

pulled sugar

Cooked sugar that is stretched and folded over itself repeatedly into a satin-like consistency that helps add strength to the sugar. Then, it is pulled into very thin, fine, shiny creations that hold their shape as they cool and have a glasslike final quality.


quick breads

Wide range of nonyeasted products such as muffins, scones, biscuits, and coffee cakes. Quick breads are leavened by chemical leavening agents and steam.


reducing agents

Additives that remove oxygen, thereby creating a gluten network that is easier to stretch. Reducing agents are used to decrease mixing time and to improve dough flow and machinability


instrument that measures the concentration of sugar in a liquid.

residual sugars

Sugars that have not been metabolized by yeast and are left over after fermentation.


Time between pre-shaping and shaping during which the gluten in the dough is allowed to relax, thereby making the dough easier to shape. Also called intermediate proof or bench time.

ribbon stage

Refers to an egg foam made from whole eggs and sugar that displays ribbon-like texture when the whisk is lifted.

rock sugar

Combination of cooked sugar syrup and royal icing with enough agitation to cause it to aerate and bubble while setting. It is less resistant to humidity, so it keeps well.

roll-in fat

See beurrage.

roll-in shortening

Fat specifically designed for the lamination process.

royal icing

Classic icing made from powdered sugar and egg whites.

run out

Condition that occurs during cookie baking when the butter-sugar phase melts and flows out of the cookie. This condition is generally caused by uneven mixing.


Cereal grain capable of growing in poor soil and a cool climate. It is especially popular in Nordic countries for bread baking. Rye flour proteins are able to form gluten but fermentation tolerance is improved when mixed with wheat flour.


sanding method

Also called the sabler method (sable is the French term for "sandy"), this technique creates a sandy, tender texture in cookies.

Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPS)

Written, step-by-step cleaning and sanitizing procedures for each scheduled task.


Going beyond cleaning to make a food contact surface free from bacteria or other contamination.


Process in which sugar is cooked and then cooled, stretched and folded over itself repeatedly to achieve a satin-like consistency.

saturated solution

Type of solution achieved when the maximum quantity of sugar is dissolved into water.

sausage cut

Series of parallel cuts that run perpendicular to the length of the loaf. This pattern is often used for batards, specialty breads such as rye, and Viennese baguettes. It encourages a round cross-section in the baked loaf.


incisions made on the surface of the dough prior to baking. Scores control expansion and add a decorative element to bread.


Foreign material such as dust or granular sugar added (often inadvertently) to a sugar solution; such seeds create chain reactions of crystallization in sugar solutions, which may or may not be desirable.


Undesirable phenomenon that occurs when even a tiny bit of water interacts with melting chocolate, turning the chocolate into a thick paste.


Italian word meaning "half frozen"; semifreddo is a frozen dessert composed of a custard base lightened with whipped cream or meringue. It is served frozen, but the incorporated air softens it and makes it seem less cold.

semi-sweet chocolate

Chocolate made up of 50 to 64 percent cocoa content. Semisweet chocolate can be used for coatings, fillings, pastry, and entremets.

separated egg sponge method

Cake mixing process characterized by the separate preparation of a whole egg foam and a common meringue. These are combined and flour is then folded in. This technique is often used for thin sheets of cake.


Forming of the dough into its final shape; this can be achieved by hand or machine.

sheet cookie

Style of cookie representing a diverse range of products usually baked on a sheet pan and then portioned into individual-sized servings. Examples include lemon bars and brownies.

short mix

Gentle mixing method that utilizes first speed only. This method most closely approximates the characteristics of hand mixing. A short mix incorporates the ingredients with very little gluten development. The under-developed gluten structure requires a long fermentation time.

simple sugars

Monosaccharides, the simplest form of carbohydrate. Examples are fructose and glucose.

simple syrup

Sugar syrup made from equal weights of sugar and water.

single-acting baking powder

Substance used in baking that contains only low-temperature reacting leavening salt.

single fold

Single folds can be done by folding the sheeted dough in three sections, similar to a business letter.

sliced cookie

Cookie made from a long piece of dough that is baked and then cut into individual pieces. Biscotti is one example of this style of cookie.

sliding method

Piping technique where the tip of the cone barely touches the surface of the product, allowing the pastry chef more control for fine detailed work.

soft peak

Foam that has a smooth, developed look, yet lacks defined, rigid peaks.

specialty cakes

Cakes with multiple components; texture and preparation techniques may vary substantially. Molds are frequently used to create unique and dramatic presentations.

specific gravity (SG)

Measure found by dividing the weight of a given volume of batter by the weight of the same volume of water. In cake mixing, finding the specific gravity is a method of determining the amount of air in a batter.


Ancient variety of wheat.


Slicing a baked cake horizontally into layers.


Stiff preferment that, like poolish, consists of only flour, water and yeast, and is allowed to ferment at room temperature or at a controlled temperature.

sponge cake

Cake that contains whole eggs warmed and whipped with sugar to the ribbon stage. Sifted dry ingredients are gently folded into the batter.

sponge method

Mixing method used for light, fine-textured cookies. The first step involves development of an egg foam stabilized with sugar. Sifted dry ingredients are then folded into the foam. As the whipped eggs incorporate air, they gain volume, and the foam is transformed into a physical leavening agent.

spun sugar

Sugar decoration often used for plated desserts. To achieve a very silky, angel-hair sugar strand, a whisk whose curved ends have been cut off or the tines of a fork are dipped into hot sugar syrup, the instrument is waved back and forth, and strings of sugar are created.


Characteristic of flour determined by calculating the difference in time between the point at which the top of a farinograph curve intercepts the 500 FU line (arrival time) and the point at which the top of the curve leaves the 500 FU line (departure time). The stability gives some indication of the flour's tolerance during mixing.


Substance used in baking to prevent water migration by increasing the viscosity of the solution.


Common approach to ongoing professional development; the baker or pastry chef completes a short work period to learn techniques and processes at a workplace other than his or her own.


Degradation of the crumb due mostly to the migration of water. Water that surrounds the starch particles in the dough moves to the inside during gelatinization and baking, bursting the starch particle and extending some chains of starch molecules. As the bread cools, these chains retract to their original position, making the crumb denser and causing it to lose softness.

starch gelatinization

Process wherein starch granules burst at 140[degrees]F (60[degrees]C), liberating numerous chains of starch that form a very complex, gelatin-like matrix. The process is complete at 153[degrees]F (67[degrees]C).

starch molds

Molds made from a thick, contained layer of dry starch that has been carefully imprinted with cavities in which fillings can be deposited and left to set.


Portion of the levain that is retained and fed (given flour and water) to continue a sourdough culture.

stearic acid

Saturated fat making up one-third of the fat content in cocoa butter.

stencil cookie

Cookies that are made from a thin, basic batter that is mixed, allowed to rest, spread freeform or into a template, and then baked.

stiff peak

Meringue that has a glossy look and forms spikes when the whisk is lifted.

still frozen desserts

Preparations that are largely composed of the ingredients that go into a classic mousse: whipped foam made of egg whites, egg yolks, or heavy cream is folded into a flavored base.

storage freezer

Freezer in which packaged pieces of frozen dough can be kept from two weeks to six months at temperatures ranging from 0[degrees]F (-18[degrees]C) to -4[degrees]F (-20[degrees]C).

sugar bloom

Occurs when chocolate is stored in high humidity areas and forms condensation on its surface. The sugar attracts the humidity to the surface of the chocolate, making the surface moist and drawing out some of the sugar from the chocolate. Once the water content evaporates, the sugar remains in a crystallized form.

sugar confections

Wide variety of sugar-based products including caramels, cordials, fondants, marzipan candies, pates de fruits, nougat, and marshmallows.

sugar lamp

Heat lamp used to maintain the high temperature of sugar.

sugar solution

Stable mixture of water and dissolved sugar.

sugar syrup

Combination of sugar and water that is brought to a boil and cooked to a certain temperature.

supersaturated solution

Type of solution achieved when sugar is dissolved in water at a higher ratio than is normally possible at a given temperature; requires a saturated sugar solution to be boiled to evaporate part of the water, and then cooled.

sweet chocolate

Chocolate that must contain at least 15 to 50 percent cocoa content. It is uncommon in quality confectionary work.

Swiss buttercream

Icing made with the stable base of Swiss meringue. Once the meringue has been made, the softened butter is added slowly, and the buttercream is whipped to full volume.

Swiss meringue

Meringue characterized by heating the egg whites and sugar before final whipping, a process that involves constant agitation to prevent the egg whites from coagulating.


Process that occurs as pastry cream ages; the starch in the cream begins to break down and water begins to "weep" from the cream.


tant pour tant (TPT)

Mixture containing one part almond flour to one part powdered or granulated sugar.

tartaric acid

Also known as cream of tartar, tartaric acid is a leavening acid; also used in sugar work to prevent crystallization and to increase elasticity in sugar that is being pulled or blown.

tart dough

Dough suited for use with tarts. It will not shrink or fall down the sides of the pan. Pate sucree, pate sable, and even puff pastry are all tart doughs.


Process of melting and precrystallizing a portion of cocoa butter to establish form V crystals. Tempered chocolate has a nice gloss, resistance to bloom, and a good snap.

tenderizing ingredients

Ingredients that soften, enable spread, and prevent the product from becoming crisp and chewy. Tenderizers include granulated, liquid, and invert sugars, natural and manufactured fats, leavening agents, egg yolks, and starches derived from corn or wheat.


French word that refers to the idea that, like wine and coffee, cacao beans derive their individual characteristics from the conditions of the environment in which they are grown and processed. Terroir can be loosely defined as "a sense of place."

test strip

Method to check if chocolate is in temper; a thin strip of chocolate is applied over a piece of parchment paper, and the setting properties are observed.

Theobroma cacao

Tree that produces cacao beans. Theobroma is a Greek composite word meaning "food of gods," an appropriate description for chocolate.

30 baume syrup

Sugar syrup make with 137 parts sugar to 100 parts water. Sometimes used as a simple syrup.

thread method

Piping technique in which the pastry chef applies the piping medium from above the surface of the cake. This can be done from a distance Of 1/2 inch (1 cm).


Confection characterized by a hard and crunchy texture. Toffee is made from the controlled cooking of sugar, a doctor, and dairy.

toughening ingredients

Ingredients that create a viable structure for the dough, thereby reducing spread and producing a firmer shape. The major toughening ingredients include flour, water, cocoa powder, egg whites, whole eggs, and nonfat milk solids.


Person whose job responsibilities include the mixing and proper handling of various dough preparations. Tour refers to the marble or granite table this person usually works on.

traditional method

Basic steps of the baking process used for thousands of years. This process begins with the elaboration and development of the preferment, continues with the final dough mixing, and ends with baking.

traditional puff pastry

Pastry in which butter (beurrage) is enclosed in a dough (detrempe) and is given a series of turns. This produces alternating layers of dough and butter, which, after baking, results in a crisp, flaky texture.


Fat molecule made up of three fatty acids.


Hybrid of the criollo and forastero varieties of cacao. Trinitario combines the benefits of the higher, more consistent yields of the forastero with the more delicate flavor notes of the criollo.


Chocolate confections that are composed of a ganache coated with chocolate. Originally they were named for their resemblance to the wild truffle, but today they can be found in many different shapes and presentations.


Crisp, lacey cookie made from a thin batter based on egg whites, flour, and sugar. Variations may include corn syrup, nuts, seeds, or fruit purees.


Holes that run diagonally along the product. They are the result of overmixing a batter, which also causes a toughening of the crumb.


unbaked pie

Pie shell that is blind-baked and then filled with ingredients that do not require baking. Examples of unbaked pies are lemon meringue and chocolate cream.

unbaked tarts

Blind-baked tart shells are filled with a combination of pastry cream and fresh fruit or any variety of fillings that do not require baking.

uncooked fruit method

Classic method for fruit pie preparation. Fresh or frozen fruit is mixed with sugar and a starch and baked inside an unbaked pie shell.


Chocolate that appears dull and will have visible cocoa butter migration to the surface of the chocolate. It will not set up within two minutes and will never have a shine, or the characteristics of well-tempered chocolate

upside-down assembly

Cake assembly technique best used with silicon molds and some specialty molds such as Buche de Noel and half dome or pyramid molds. In upside-down assembly, the mousse is deposited in the mold, any inserts are added, and the cake base is placed on top of the mousse and made flush with the top of the mold. After the dessert is frozen, it is inverted so the cake base is on the bottom.

US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

Scientific, regulatory, and public health agency that is responsible for ensuring the safety, efficacy, and security of drugs, medical devices, food, and cosmetics.



Yeast-raised products that are sweetened with sugar and enriched with butter and eggs. They may be laminated or nonlaminated.



Most widely cultivated grain for human consumption. The flour produced from wheat is a staple in the world's diet. It is an essential ingredient in most breads, baked goods, pastas, noodles, and pastry items.

whipped cream

Heavy cream that has been whipped to increase its volume and lighten its texture. It is typically used as a component to create other creams.

whipped topping

Nondairy-based whipped cream replacement incorporating stabilizers and emulsifiers to make it very light and easy to work with.

white chocolate

Chocolate made from cocoa butter, milk solids, sugar, and flavoring ingredients. White chocolate is not considered a true chocolate because it contains no cocoa solids.


Process of separating the shell and germ from the cacao bean before grinding.


yellow pectin (apple pectin)

One of the three most common types of pectin used in pastry, yellow pectin is most often used in pates de fruits.
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Author:Suas, Michel
Publication:Advanced Bread and Pastry
Article Type:Glossary
Date:Jan 1, 2009
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