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Glossary.

aging the slow subtle completion of fermentation usually in large wooden barrels or glass-lined vats

alcohol naturally occurring and easily synthesized compound that induces intoxication when consumed

allocentric psychological term referring to someone who enjoys varied and unfamiliar activities

all-suite hotels hotels that only rent suites

ambiance a hotel's or restaurant's atmosphere and setting, or overall impression and mood created

amenities features that add material comfort, convenience, or smoothness to social interactions

amenity spa spa within a resort

assistant housekeepers supervise the day-to-day work of room attendants in larger hotels, also called floor supervisors

assisted-living service that bridges retirement home and full-service nursing home

back of the house the support areas behind the scenes in a hotel or motel, including housekeeping, laundry, engineering, and foodservice ; individuals who operate behind the scenes to make a guest's stay pleasant and safe

base fee arrangement determined by the gross operating revenue that ensures a management company a profit

basic motives psychological motives that influence everyone; they include thirst, hunger, sex, fear, and avoidance of pain

bed-and-breakfast private home with a family in residence, offering one to five guest rooms; B & B

bell captain greets guests, trains and supervises all bellhops, door attendants, and valet parking crew

bellhops individuals who usher arriving guests to their rooms and carry their luggage

break-even point point at which costs equal revenue brewpub microbreweries that operate in tandem with a bar or restaurant

call brand alcohol product called for by name by a customer

cannibalize eat away at the market share of existing products

career objective describes the kind of job you hope to get

carrying capacity the maximum number of people who can use a destination without causing the environment to deteriorate and the quality of the visitor's experience to decrease

casinos public places where individuals can gamble

catastrophe plans developed by the security staff to ensure staff and guest safety and to minimize direct and indirect costs from disaster by reviewing insurance policies, analyzing physical facilities, and evaluating possible disaster scenarios

centralized reservation system system that allows guests to call one number to reserve a room at any of the branch's locations

charter operator tour wholesaler who assembles a package tour and sells it to the public or to tour operators

chateau castle, manor house, or palace

chef the top level of authority in the kitchen

chef d'etage captain of waiters who has the most direct contact with diners

chef de rang front waiter who sees to the service needs of guests as they dine

chef de partie line chef or station chef

chef de salle head waiter who is responsible for the service provided in the dining room

chief engineer supervises the engineering department, also called the plant manager

chief of security heads the security department

club association of persons with common objectives, usually jointly supported and meeting periodically

coaching inns developed after stagecoach routes were established in the 1600s, these inns fed and lodged travelers overnight and exchanged tired horses for rested ones

collective bargaining to establish conditions and wages acceptable to both union members and management

commercial foodservice operations which compete for customers in the open market

communication the process of sending and receiving messages

computerized reservation system (CRS) a complex computer database that provides information about many travel options

concept elements in a foodservice operation that contribute to its function as a complete and organized system serving the guests' needs and expectations

concierge answers questions, solves problems, and performs the services of a private secretary for the hotel's guests

congress term often used outside the United States for convention

contraction recession phase in a business cycle

contribution margin key indicator in menu engineering, determined by subtracting food cost from selling price as a measure of profitability

controller head accountant who manages the accounting department and all financial dealings of the hotel

convention generic term referring to any size of business or professional meeting held in one specific location; a group of delegates or members who assemble to accomplish a specific goal

convention and visitors bureau (CVBs) organizations responsible for promoting tourism at the regional and local level ; a not-for-profit umbrella organization that represents a city or urban area in soliciting and servicing all types of travelers to that city or area, whether for business, pleasure, or both

cook-chill technology used in large institutional foodservice operations to increase efficiency and to maintain food quality

corporate travel manager handles all aspects of travel arrangements for corporation employees

credit manager responsible for validating and authorizing guest credits and collecting overdue accounts

cruise tour by ship

cuisine food cooked and served in styles from around the world

danger zone temperature range between 40[degrees] and 140[degrees] Fahrenheit at which bacteria flourishes on food

database organized collection of information, such as names, addresses, prices, and dates

debt service interest on loans

demi-chef de rang back waiter or busperson who clears all appropriate service from the table between courses

demographics statistical study of the characteristics of human populations

demonstration effect local people adopting practices from tourists

destination location where travelers choose to visit and spend time

destination image modification process whereby tourist's overall travel experience can be examined

destination marketing organizations (DMOs) organizations in charge of developing and implementing tourism programs for individual states

dinner theater place where patrons can eat dinner and enjoy a live production without having to leave their seats or spend a small fortune

direct spending money that goes directly from the traveler into the economy

distilled drinks made from a fermented product which is then put through a process that recovers and adds additional alcohol, also called liquor or spirits

distilleries companies that make distilled alcoholic beverages

diversity awareness training programs providing education to hotel management and staff in ways to provide access, inclusion, and opportunity for all people, regardless of age, sex, race, or disability

draft beer that is not pasteurized

dram shop legislation includes laws and procedures that govern the legal operation of establishments that sell measured alcoholic beverages

dry refers to wine lacking sweetness

econometrics application of statistical methods to analyze economic data and problems to predict trends in the economy

economics the science relating to the production, distribution, and use of goods and services

ecotourism balance between tourism development and preservation of natural and cultural heritages ; new segment of the industry in which travelers learn about or advance the environment and its causes

elastic demand changes with economic conditions

electronic cash register records the volume of drinks sold, the price per unit, the time of service, the particular type of drink, and the name of the server

electronic liquor dispenser (ELD) a device which dispenses an exact measure of liquor into a glass

electronic voice mail allows a caller to leave a message keyed to a guest room phone

employee assistance programs (EAPs) services offered to employees for the management of personal problems

entremetier vegetable chef

entrepreneur individual who creates, organizes, manages, and assumes the risk of an enterprise or business

equity club a not-for-profit club typically owned and organized by its members for their own enjoyment

ethyl alcohol beverage alcohol, identified scientifically as [C.sub.2][H.sub.6]O

excursionists people who travel to a site or destination and return home the same day

executive assistant manager manages the functions that deal directly with room rental

executive housekeeper heads the housekeeping department

expansion a phase of growth in a business cycle, during which time there is an increase or upswing in economic activity

exposition event held mainly for informational exchanges among trade people ; large exhibition in which the presentation is the main attraction as well as being a source of revenue for an exhibitor

extended-care centers health-care facilities that offer intensive, round-the-clock nursing care under a physician's direction and may include the services of registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, aides, and orderlies

familiarization trips free or reduced-price trip given to travel agents, travel writers, or other middlemen to promote destinations; also called a fam trip

fermentation chemical process in which yeast acts on sugar or sugar-containing substances such as grain or fruit to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide

fermented beverage formed by yeast acting on sugar-containing substances

floor supervisor supervises day-to-day work of room attendants at larger motels, also called assistant housekeepers

forecasting process of estimating future events in the foodservice industry

franchise agreements contracts in which the franchisor grants the franchisee right to use the franchisor's name and proven method of doing business

franchisee buyer ; individual business operator

franchisor brand owner

free pouring dispensing of liquor where the bartender estimates the amount of liquor needed for a drink

frequent flyer promotional program whereby traveler earns free trips based on miles flown

frequent guest promotional program whereby traveler earns free or upgraded lodging

front-desk manager handles all functions of the front office and often supervises a team of workers

front of the house comprises all areas the guests will contact, including the lobby, corridors, elevators, guest rooms, restaurants and bars, meeting rooms, and restrooms ; employees who staff these areas

functional image impression of a destination associated with specific activities and attractions

gaming wagering of money or other valuables on the outcome of a game or other event

garde manger pantry chef who prepares all cold appetizers, desserts, and salads

Gestalt evaluation holistic evaluation of a service encounter, as in "everything went right"

glass ceiling invisible barriers preventing women and minorities promotion to top management positions

green card Permanent Resident or Alien Register Receipt Card visa given to immigrants and refugees who enter the country legally

grievance complaint filed by an employee against the employer

grillardin grill cook

gross domestic product (GDP) total value of goods and services produced within a country, minus the net payments on foreign investments

gross operating profit revenues minus operating costs before taxes

gross operating revenue total payments received for goods and services

hand measured pouring the dispensing of liquor using a jigger or shot glass

hops the dried, conical fruit of a special vine that imparts to beer its special bitterness

hospitality and tourism network group of separate and competitive closely interrelated industries

hospitality industry wide range of businesses, each of which is dedicated to the service of people away from home; businesses that emphasize personnel's responsibility to be hospitable hosts and managers of services offered

hotelier keeper, owner, or manager of a hospitality property

human resources manager manages the hotel's employee benefits program and monitors compliance with laws that relate to equal opportunity in hiring and promotion

illegal aliens individuals who move to another country illegally, without permission to enter as immigrants or refugees, also called undocumented workers

immigrants those who move from their country of origin to live and work in another country

inbound operators agencies that specialize in providing tour packages to international travelers visiting the United States

incentive-fee arrangement requiring that the management company take some risk in the hotel's operation

incentive travel marketing and management tool currently used to motivate people by offering travel rewards for achieving a specific goal

index of leading indicators data including new manufacturer orders and average weekly claims for unemployment that analysts follow closely to see where an economy is headed

indirect spending respending of tourist dollars within an economy

informational interview interview which allows a person to gather specific information about a job, company, or industry

infrastructure underlying economic foundation including transportation and communication systems, power facilities, and other public services

infusion immersion of heat-sensitive ingredients such as fruits into a hot alcohol base

intermediate-care centers health-care facilities that offer assistance to persons incapable of living independently and provide only basic nursing care combined with social and lodging services

job coach used to train and supervise a mentally or physically challenged worker

kitchen brigade system of kitchen organization in which the staff is divided into specialized departments, all contributing collectively to the preparation of a meal

labor-intensive relying on a large workforce to meet the needs of guests

laundry manager supervises laundry room attendants

laundry room attendants individuals who wash, dry, iron, and fold laundry

leakage money that flows out of the economy to purchase outside resources

leisure freedom resulting from the cessation of activities, especially free from work or duties

lifecare communities long-term health-care facilities that cater to both dependent and independent older adults

liquor an alcoholic beverage made by distillation

maceration immersion of heat-sensitive ingredients such as fruits into a cold base alcohol

maitre d'hotel dining room manager who oversees the entire operation of the dining room

malt germinated barley

malting process in which grain is germinated to produce an enzyme that can convert starch into fermentable sugar

management contracts owner maintains financial responsibility for a property and the management company is responsible for operating the property with the owner's money

market price levels general classification system of lodging facilities whose definitions depend on the city or that particular geographic region

market segments smaller, identifiable groups which can be defined using any set of characteristics, such as those found in geographic, demographic, or psychographic information ; subgroups of customers who share a specific set of needs and expectations

marketing related group of business activities with the purpose of satisfying the demands for goods and services; process of planning a hotel's concept (type of facility, services offered, location), rates to charge, how to reach potential customers, all in a way that satisfies individual and organizational objectives

meeting gathering of people for a common purpose

meeting planner coordinates every detail of meetings and conventions

menu engineering tool in menu planning that uses the menu as a whole, not individual items that make up the menu, as a measure of profitability

menu mix indicator in menu engineering, a detailed record of customer preference from the menu selection

microbreweries small, local breweries

midcentrics psychological term referring to those personalities that fall between the allocentric (adventuresome) and psychocentric (nonadventuresome)

middlemen business firms that distribute products from the producers to the clients

mise en place state of overall preparedness; having all the necessary ingredients and cooking utensils at hand and ready to use at the moment work on a dish begins

multiplier effect respending which expands the economy

must a mixture of grape pulp, skins, seeds, and stems

national tourism organizations (NTOs) organizations national governments use to promote their countries

necessary leakage cost of promoting the destination abroad

networking process of meeting with and gathering information from an ever-expanding channel of acquaintances

occupancy rate percentage derived by dividing the total number of rooms occupied during a given time period (night, week, year) by total number of rooms available for occupancy during that time period

on-site foodservice operations which serve people who are members of particular societal institutions, such as hospitals, colleges, schools, nursing homes, the military, and industry; formerly known as institutional foodservice

opportunity cost opportunities lost by excluding the development of one industry in order to develop a different industry

ordinaries public houses in Colonial America

overbooking lodging practice of booking 10 to 15 percent more reservations than available to combat the loss of revenue

parador Spanish state-run hotel

patissier pastry chef who is also responsible for breads and rolls

paymaster heads a large payroll division within a hotel

peak uppermost point in a business cycle

plant manager supervises the engineering department, also called the chief engineer

point of sale (POS) computerized system that allows bars to set drink prices according to the specific ingredients served

poissionier fish station chef

positioning process of establishing a distinctive place in the market (and in the minds of potential guests)

preopening expenses expenses incurred during the development process of a hotel, including advertising, office equipment, and payroll for the preopening team

price-value relationship cost in relation to the value received

professional development process of becoming involved with trade-related activities, including meetings, seminars, and committees

profit-sharing lease agreement between two or more parties to share expenses and profits

proof figure representing liquor's alcohol content

property management system (PMS) computerized system of storing information about reservations, room availability and room rate; integration of all the systems utilized by a lodging property--reservations, front desk, housekeeping, food and beverage control, and accounting

proprietary club owned by an individual or company, and operates for profit

psychocentric psychological term referring to a self-inhibited, nonadventurous person

psychographic research attempts to classify people's internal motives and behavior

push/pull theory explains combination of push (internal) and pull (external) forces in human motivation

quid pro quo situation in which a supervisor demands sexual favors in exchange for tangible job benefits, like a promotion or raise

receiver in the communication process, the audience the message is aimed at

recreation refreshment of strength and spirits after work, a means of diversion

recreation management professional handling of the physical facilities where recreation and leisure activities occur

refugees individuals escaping persecution from their home country, because of their ethnic group or race, religion, belief, or group membership

reservations manager oversees reservation functions

resident manager supervises front office operations and reservations, as well as housekeeping

resident-care centers health-care facilities that provide regular nursing care and some social services to primarily mentally challenged individuals (of any age) in a residential environment

resort place providing recreation and entertainment, especially to vacationers

resort spas single-purpose spas, devoid of outside temptations and distractions

resume short, written account of a job applicant's work experience, education, and other qualifications

retail travel agent retailer in travel services who receives income directly from suppliers and other intermediaries in the form of commissions

rethermalized thawed and heated

room attendants perform the daily room cleaning at a hotel

room clerk individual at the front desk who greets and registers hotel guests

room rack cards posted at small hotels showing the status of all guest rooms

room service manager heads the room service department

room service operators take reservation orders over the telephone

saucier saute cook

screening interview interview used to eliminate applicants from consideration when too many people apply for a job

secondary motives learned motives that include achievement, power motivation, and other specialized motives

securitization process of issuing bonds to finance or refinance a loan

sender in the communication process, the person delivering the message

servers transport the food from the kitchen to the guest room

service encounter period of time in which a customer directly interacts with either personnel or the physical facilities and other visible elements of a hospitality business

sexual harassment occurs whenever any unwanted sexually oriented behavior changes an employee's working conditions and/or creates a hostile or abusive work environment

sexually offensive or hostile work environment situation in which the employee might be subjected to sexual comments, pictures, or actions which are deemed offensive, even though they may not threaten the person's job or possibilities for promotion

social membership a partial membership that enables the member to use specific aspects of a club, but not others

socioeconomic relating to both sociology and economics

solera system of blending sherries or ports from a mixture of several vintages to ensure consistency

sommelier an expert in wine selection and service

sous chef next in command to the chef

spa any fitness or health-related resort

spa cuisine emphasizes the preparation of low-calorie, low-fat entrees that feature an abundance of fresh fruits and vegetables and complex carbohydrates

spirits another name for distilled drinks

split half bottle of wine

spreadsheet computerized version of an accountant's ledger book that not only records numeric information, but performs calculations with that information as well

standard purchase specifications food standards established by a restaurant; also called "specs"

stipend allowance provided for child care

suites combined living space with kitchen facilities, or a bedroom section with an attached parlor

symbolic image the relationship between one's self concept and the destination's image

tannins substances drawn from the grapeskins and the wooden barrels used for aging, which contribute an astringency to wine

taverns establishments that serve some food but specialize in alcoholic beverages

technology all the ways people use discoveries and inventions to satisfy needs; generally refers to industrial technology

theme park based on a particular setting or artistic interpretation and operate with hundreds or thousands of acres of parkland and hundreds or thousands of employees running the operation

total yearly expenses record of all costs for the year

tour operators agencies that sell tour packages to groups of tourists; usually include escort or guide with the tour

tour package composite of related services offered at a single price

tour wholesaler company or an individual who designs and packages tours

tourism travel for recreation or the promotion and arrangement of such travel

tourism industry industry concerned with attractions and events that draw people to an area

tourism offices organizations in charge of developing and implementing tourism programs for individual states, also referred to as destination marketing organizations

tourists people who take trips of 100 miles or more and who stay at least one night away from home

trade show event held for informational exchanges among trade people, also called an exposition

trading blocs associations, usually between or among governments, that encourage, regulate, and/or restrict elements of trade

travel intermediaries travel middlemen or business firms that distribute travel products

trends prevailing tendencies or general movements

trough lowermost point in a business cycle

turnover rate calculated by dividing the number of workers replaced in any given time period by the average number of employees needed to run the business

undocumented workers individuals who move from another country illegally, without permission to enter as either immigrants or refugees, also called illegal aliens

varietal the type of grape from which wines are made and for which they are named

vintage year in which a wine's grapes were harvested

wake-up call computer placed call to a guest's room to wake him or her at a set time

walk-ins people who do not have reservations

well brand a lesser-quality product used to prepare drink orders at a bar

word processors computerized replacement for typewriters as the writing tool of choice

workers councils labor unions and worker's associations in Europe

wort in beer-making, the remaining liquid after the mash is strained and filtered

yield management practice of analyzing past reservation patterns, room rates, cancellations, and no-shows in an attempt to maximize profits and occupancy rates and to set the most competitive room rates
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Article Details
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Author:Chon, Kye-Sung, "Kaye"; Sparrowe, Raymond T.
Publication:Welcome to Hospitality, An Introduction, 2nd ed.
Article Type:Glossary
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2000
Words:3699
Previous Article:Appendix C Hospitality periodicals.
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