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Glossary.

abscission. The dropping off of leaves and flowers, which rapidly increases in the presence of ethylene.

abstract design. Free-form design in which plant material and nonfloral items are used in a nonnaturalistic way; emphasis is placed on color, texture, and form.

abstract Japanese design/style. A style of Japanese design that emphasizes forms and textures, and often uses nonplant materials with flowers; also called freestyle or jiyu-bana, this style was introduced following the end of WWII; these designs express unique individualism instead of depicting traditional nature scenes.

accent. A subordinate element that enhances the primary structure of a composition. Also, to call attention to a particular location in a floral design; used to create emphasis.

accent cluster. A small floral design added to a larger composition or area, particularly in large funeral pieces. accessories. Any material or object, other than plant material, such as candles, bows, novelties, and plush toys, added to enhance the theme of a design. Also may refer to plant materials other than flowers and foliage, such as pinecones, sticks, bamboo, and berries.

achromatic.Without color. Any gradation of white, gray, or black.

acidic. When referring to the pH level of water for cut flowers, the lower the pH level, the more hydrogen ions it contains (acidic). The ideal preservative solution for cut flowers is 3.0 to 4.5; this water has better cohesive qualities and moves more readily into and through stems; microbial growth is limited in solutions that are acidic.

acidifier. To make or become acidic; commercial floral preservatives contain acidifiers for reducing the pH level of water, maximizing water uptake; effective acidifiers in preservatives include citric acid and aluminum sulfate.

actual line. Real lines that lead the eye throughout a composition; curving branches and flower stems are real lines. advanced design. Refers to floral styles that are complex, requiring specialized skills, mechanics, and techniques.

advertising. Paid promotional activities. Supplying information to the public to induce people to buy a product.

advertorial. Captivating printed advertisement designed to look and read like a magazine article. air-drying. A simple method of drying fresh flowers and other plant material. Hanging upside down, drying upright, or standing in water and allowing moisture in the plant to dissipate.

air embolism. The blockage by air emboli or bubbles that inhibits the uptake of water and nutrients.

aisleabra. Candelabra that are attached to the ends of church pews or chairs on the main aisle for wedding ceremonies.

aisle runner. A white carpet running the length of the center aisle in a church for wedding ceremonies. alkaline. Having a pH greater than 7. The alkalinity of water indicates the water's capacity for pH change with the addition of preservatives and other chemicals.

allied florists' association. A group of growers, wholesalers, and retailers in an area, contributing a percentage of their gross income for the advertising and promotion of flowers.

all-sided design. A floral arrangement designed to be viewed from all sides.

altar decorations. General term for floral arrangements that are placed on and around the raised platform area (altar) of the church; these designs are often large and symmetrical and help to visually frame the bride and groom during the ceremony. See also candelabra.

alternate complement. A four-color scheme combining a triad and the direct complement of one of the colors.

aluminum sulfate. A white crystalline substance that is high in salts used to purify and acidify water for cut flowers.

American Academy of Floriculture (AAF). A division of the Society of American Florists dedicated to service in the floral industry and excellence in leadership.

American Floral Marketing Council (AFMC). A branch of the Society of American Florists that promotes and advertises the sale of flowers, plants, and floral products throughout the year for nonoccasion days.

American Institute of Floral Designers (AIFD). The premier organization of floral designers established to enact and maintain standards of excellence in the field.

American style. A general description for floral arrangements having a combination of line and mass. analogous color scheme. A color scheme utilizing several adjacent colors on the color wheel, such as yellow, yellow-orange, and orange.

Analysis of Beauty, The. Title of a work published in 1753. William Hogarth theorized that all beauty was based on the serpentine S-line. anatomy. In botany, the area that deals with the internal structures of organisms.

anchor pin. Round, plastic holder with four upright prongs. When glued inside the bottom of a container, the prongs hold floral foam in place. anchor tape.Waterproof tape used primarily to hold floral foam in place.

androecium. The collective name for all the stamens in a flower.

angling. Technique used to give one-sided designs a fuller, more balanced look by exaggerating the stem positioning of flowers in a design; tallest background stems are directed to the back while lowest foreground stems are tilted downward in front of the container.

anther. The pollen-bearing portion of a stamen. In some flowers, such as lilies, the anthers should generally be removed prior to arrangement and delivery because the pollen of the anthers stains clothing.

antitranspirant. A liquid spray or dip that protects the surface of a flower or foliage and minimizes water loss or transpiration.

arm bouquet. A tied cluster of flowers carried across the forearm for weddings or as a presentation bouquet.

Art Deco. A term derived from the 1925 Paris exhibition Les Expositions des Arts Decoratifs; known during the 1920s and 1930s as modernistic. General term describing architecture, furniture, decorative arts, and floral arrangements having strong, streamlined geometric forms, lines, and patterns including zigzags, pyramids, and sunburst motifs. Floral designs feature geometrically bold containers and form flowers and foliage. Thearrangements are formal linear or high style in appearance.

Art Nouveau. A modern stylistic movement based on the flowing lines of nature that flourished principally in Europe and the United States around 1890-1910. These floral arrangements are often characterized by lavish cascading asymmetrical waterfall-style designs. asymmetrical balance. Having unequal visual weight on either side of an imaginary center vertical axis. Often referred to as optical (connected with the sense of sight) or occult (hidden and concealed) balance.

asymmetrical design. A floral arrangement having unequal visual weight on either side of an imaginary center vertical axis; appears more natural and is often associated with informal occasions and settings.

attar. The fragrant oil in flowers stored in the epidermal cells of petals or petal substitutes. auction. A centralized facility, common in Holland, where numerous growers bring their floral products to sell through open-market bidding by distributors, exporters, wholesalers, and retailers.

axil. The upper angle formed between a leaf and a stem.

balance. A design principle; the placement of flowers, foliage, and other objects in strategic locations to create physical and visual stability.

banding. A design technique in which a group of stems is tied or bound together in one or more places using raffia, ribbon, or vines for decorative purposes.

banking pin. Straight silver pins, 1 to 2 inches long. Commonly used to pleat ribbon or pin flowers on hard foam. The term comes from the early use of such pins for wrapping currency.

Baroque period. A powerful and imaginative art and design direction during the 17th and 18th centuries in Europe characterized by elaborate and massive decorative elements and curved rather than straight lines. A reaction against the severe classic style. Floral arrangements typical of the Baroque period are tightly massed and overflowing, displaying a rhythmic asymmetrical balance.

basing. The application of materials over a design's base or foundation to camouflage floral foam and other mechanics. A variety of techniques may be used for basing arrangements, such as clustering and layering; this technique provides a foundation that adds color and texture to a composition.

basket bouquet. A specialty hand-held bouquet constructed in a basket.

bas-relief. Sculpture in which figures are carved in a flat surface so that they project slightly from the background. beauty clip. Plastic U-shaped gripping device used to fasten chicken wire to the edge and around the perimeter of a container.

bent neck. A condition found on cut roses, gerbera, and other flowers when water no longer enters the stem, causing the stem beneath the flower to become weak, resulting in nodding flowers with limp stems that bend over.

Bible bouquet. A specialty bouquet carried by some brides; a Bible or prayer book accented with flowers and ribbon.

Biedermeier design. A design style influenced by a period in German and Austrian history. This style utilizes compact concentric circular or spiral patterns in a rounded bouquet.

binding. The process of tying similar materials together in bunches.

binding point. The point or area where all stems come together or intersect, as in a hand-tied bouquet.

biocide. Also called germicide. A general term for a chemical substance that can kill living organisms, especially harmful microorganisms that grow in vase water. An ingredient in floral preservative that inhibits the growth of microorganisms.

blade. The broad, flattened part of a leaf. blockage. The clogging of water-carrying vessels in flower stems with air, sugars, salts, or bacteria that inhibits water uptake. Usually occurs at the base of the stem.

blueing. Purplish or bluish coloring that develops on flowers as a result of senescence or cold damage. bosom bottles. Popular during the Victorian era, small containers made to hold flowers worn in the decolletage.

bostryx. A cymose inflorescence with successive branches on one side only, normally coiled like a spring.

botanical design. A design style that symbolizes the natural life processes or life cycle of a plant; often features bulb flowers.

botanical name. The two-part Latin name given to plants and flowers, consisting of the genus and species name. These names are used and known worldwide. Often called the Latin name, scientific name, or universal name. See genus, Latin name, and species.

botanicals. Everlasting flowers patterned after real flowers and foliage to be botanically correct and realistic in color, shape, texture, pattern, and size.

botrytis. Botrytis cinerea is a gray mold or fungus present in the air that may form on flowers causing irreversible damage. It is encouraged by high humidity and high temperature.

bough pot. A vase for branches or cut flowers. Often refers to the large containers used to hold flowers set in the fireplace during summer months.

boutonniere. A single flower or cluster of flowers worn on a man's lapel.

bract. A modified, usually reduced, leaflike structure that subtends a flower or inflorescence in its axil. broad-leaf foliage. Large or wide leaf, such as the leaves of salal, ivy, and camellia.

broker. An individual who handles functions between growers and wholesalers, including the location of sourcing and coordination of delivery from all over the world.

bud cut. Flowers harvested in the bud stage, prior to the petals opening. Many flowers are harvested when the flower is tight in the bud form, such as roses and iris, allowing for a longer vase life.

bud-opening solution. A chemical solution containing sugar and a germicide to speed the opening of bud-cut flowers before they are sold; used in conjunction with warm temperature and high light intensity.

bud stage. Refers to the stage at which some flowers are harvested, at an immature stage when the blossom is tight and unopened; generally single or solitary flowers, they could continue to open to their full potential. Examples include roses, peonies, daffodils, iris, and tulips.

bud vase design. A floral design, usually consisting of one or several flowers, foliage, and fillers, made in a small vertical container vase.

buffering capacity. The water's ability to resist change with the addition of chemicals, particularly citric acid. Highly buffered water resists changes in pH while poorly buffered water is responsive to change.

bulb. A specialized underground plant organ. A general term for flowers that are produced from bulbs, such as tulips, daffodils, and hyacinths.

bunching. Packing flowers in groups of 10, 12, or 25 stems; or grouping by weight or the number of blossoms that prepares flowers for shipping.

bundling. The wrapping or tying together of materials.

Byzantine. Referring to Byzantium, an ancient city, and the Byzantine Empire in southeast Europe and southwest Asia (A.D. 395-1453). Byzantine floral designs reflect the decorative style of the mosaics. Symmetrical, stylized tree compositions were introduced during this time, as evidenced through mosaics.

cage holder. A stem-anchoring device with numerous openings in the surface, generally surrounding wettable floral foam, that provides a method for supporting cut flower stems.

calyx. Collective term for all the sepals of a flower.

candelabra. A fixture designed to support one or several candles for lighting; often decorated with flowers and ribbon bows.

canopy. An arch or covering used at weddings, often decorated with flowers and used at the altar, the rear of the center aisle, and the reception.

carbohydrate. An organic compound--includes sugars, starch, glycogen, and cellulose. Food that is produced by the plant during growth and serves the plant as a source of energy to keep it alive. Carbohydrates are the primary ingredients in floral preservatives.

care and handling. The procedures that involve attention and techniques directed toward increasing the longevity of fresh flowers and foliage. When proper care and handling is carried out at each level of distribution, vase life is increased for the final consumer.

care tags. Paper or plastic tags attached to floral arrangements and plants that provide appropriate information (name of flower or plant, care, etc.) for enhancing quality and increasing longevity.

carpel. One of the flower's female reproductive organs, comprised of an ovary and a stigma and containing one or more ovules.

cascade bouquet. A hand-held wedding bouquet style in which the flowers hang down (cascade) below the main portion of the design.

cash and carry. Merchandise paid for with cash and then taken by the customer. No or little added service, such as design and delivery, is given.

casket blanket. A blanket of flowers constructed on heavy fabric, such as burlap, and displayed by draping over the casket like a blanket.

casket inset. A small arrangement of flowers designed to be placed in the opened lid of a casket.

casket scarf. A design of flowers, often attached to fabric, that drapes over a part of the casket (from side-to-side or end-to-end).

casket spray. A floral arrangement that is placed on top of the casket during a funeral service.

catkin. A pendulous, spikelike inflorescence of simple, usually unisexual flowers; found only in woody plants; also called ament.

ceramics. Decorative or functional items and containers fashioned from clay and fired (baked in a kiln); includes earthenware or pottery, stoneware, and porcelain.

chain of life. A marketing and educational program sponsored by the Society of American Florists, specifically focused on proper care and handling at every level (link) in the channel of distribution (chain), ensuring maximum longevity and increased quality for the final consumer.

chaplet. A wreath or garland for the head, customarily made from flowers and foliage. Introduced in ancient times.

chemical solutions. See conditioning.

chenille stem. A tufted, velvety, wired stem, generally sold in 12-inch long pieces; available in a variety of colors and thicknesses; may be shaped and used as an accessory in designs.

chicken wire. A pliable fencing wire used in floral arrangement as an aid for holding flowers or helping heavy, thick-stemmed flowers stay in position while in the floral foam.

chilling injury. Plant disorder caused by low, but abovefreezing, temperatures. Tropical flowers often experience chilling injury when exposed to temperatures below 47-50[degrees]F. Flowers fail to open properly, lesions appear on flowers and bracts, and stems and bracts may blacken.

Chinese style. A respected floral art form featuring unstructured, naturalistic designs using seasonal plant material. Arrangements are symbolic and generally include the use of a dominant vertical element and also the use of a more delicate horizontal element.

chlorophyll. The green pigment of plant cells necessary for photosynthesis.

chroma. A measure of the intensity or purity of a hue, also called saturation. The relative brilliance or dullness of a color.

chuppah. A canopy under which a Jewish couple is married. circular design. Includes various rounded styles--both symmetrical as well as asymmetrical, and one-sided and all-sided; some are more mass designs, such as oval, fan, and topiary ball, while others are curvilinear such as crescent and Hogarth.

circular form. A spherelike appearance. All materials radiate out from a central area within the container.

citric acid. A natural chemical in citrus fruits. An ingredient of most floral preservatives, a compound used to lower the pH (acidity) of water for cut flowers. Used to create a hydrating solution for flowers.

classic Japanese design/style. An early Japanese style of design, focusing on nature and symbolism; also called formal, this style includes rikka and shoka or seika.

classic design/style. A timeless design, generally formal and balanced, restrained and simple; also called traditional, these designs are generally mass and full that continue in popularity and fashion; includes circular, oval, triangular, and fan-shaped designs; contemporary applications include mille fleurs, Biedermeier, phoenix, and waterfall designs.

clearinghouse. The head or central office of a floral wire service where transactions between florists are processed and accounts are balanced.

cleats. Crosswise strengtheners built into fiberboard boxes for shipping cut flowers.

clustering. A technique of gathering like materials together so closely that the quantity and shape cannot be determined; individual materials lose identity and function as one unit, emphasizing color and texture.

clutch bouquet. A simple or casual gathering of flowers tied with ribbon, raffia, or string for a natural, gardenpicked appearance.

clutch wiring. A wiring method used to secure clusters of tiny flower stems and fillers; also called wrap-around wiring.

collarette. A thin cardboard support placed behind gardenia flowers to protect the fragile petals.

collaring. A method of pre-greening an arrangement, especially on round, circular designs by inserting foliage in the floral foam near the container rim all the way around, before inserting flowers; helps set up the circular shape.

colonial. A term loosely used in referring to the two-hundredyear period that includes the settlement of the early colonies in America through the Federal period (about 1607-1835); also called Colonial Williamsburg. Colonial style bouquets are typically rounded and massed, often combining fresh and dried flowers.

colonial bouquet. A hand-held bouquet style that is constructed in a circular shape. color. The visual interpretation of light waves from the visible spectrum.

color wheel. The standard color wheel or circle has twelve colors, including primary, secondary, and tertiary colors; a simple and useful tool for the designer. commentator. A person who reports, analyzes, and evaluates floral designs, floral industry products, and news at design shows and other industry events.

commercial account. A business account, such as with a hotel, computer company, or bank. common name. The name by which a flower or foliage is generally known rather than by its botanical, scientific name.

complementary color scheme. The use of any two hues located opposite each other on the color wheel.

complete flower. In botany, a flower having four whorls of floral parts--sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels.

composition. A grouping or organization of different elements to achieve a unified whole.

compote. A raised, stemmed container.

compound. Consisting of several parts; a leaf with several leaflets, or an inflorescence with more than one group of flowers.

conditioning. The process of preparing flowers for shipping, storage, or arrangement. It usually involves treatment of flowers in a conditioning solution such as preservative water, silver thiosulfate solution, hydrating solution, or pulsing/sugar solution.

cone design. Typical to the Byzantine period style; a threedimensional vertical isosceles triangle design that generally requires a foam base for mass flower insertion.

conifer. A cone-bearing tree, generally characterized by needlelike foliage.

consumption. Use and enjoyment of flowers, floral products, and floral services by the final consumer. contemporary design/style. Those arrangements that are currently in fashion, popular, and representative of leading trends in creativity. A generic term for whatever is the current trend or on the leading edge in floral design.

continuation. Also referred to as transition, a method of achieving unity in design by planning a gradual change from one element to another, causing continuous eye movement.

contrasting color scheme. Based on unrelated colors from distant parts of the color wheel; visually exciting with great variety; examples include complementary, split complementary, and triadic.

cool colors. Blues, greens, and some purples, and colors containing these hues; associated with water and ice; generally restful, peaceful, and soothing. Cool colors are receding and fade into the background.

co-op. The association of several growers, drivers, and so on who offer merchandise or services under one roof or in a joint effort.

corner piece. A small arrangement of flowers designed to be displayed on the outside corner at the head of the casket.

cornucopia. A basket or other container shaped like a horn or cone overflowing with fruit and vegetables, flowers, foliage, and grain. Introduced during the Greek period, the cornucopia is known as the symbol for abundance. Also referred to as a horn of plenty. Floral arrangements are often made in cornucopia containers during the autumn, particularly for Thanksgiving.

corolla. All the petals of a flower; normally conspicuously colored.

corsage. A grouping of flowers, ribbon, and other accessories worn by a woman.

corymb. A rounded or flat-topped inflorescence of racemose type in which the lower (outer) flower stalks (pedicels) are longer than the upper (inner) ones so that all the flowers are at about the same level.

crescent bouquet. A hand-held cascading bouquet in the shape of a distinctive C-shape or quarter moon shape. crescent design. An asymmetrical floral arrangement in the shape of the letter C; often used in pairs to accent something placed between them.

crescent form. The organization of floral materials in a Cshape or quarter moon shape. C-shape design. See crescent form.

cultivar. A variety of plant found only under cultivation. curved line. A swerving line; suggesting a natural, sweeping motion; adds interest and gentleness to floral designs.

custom design/service. Floral arrangements and service designed and provided specifically for the customer. customer base. Individuals and commercial accounts who patronize or buy on a regular basis and not just for holidays.

customer bonding. Development of a close friendship between patronizers and the flower shop.

cyme. An inflorescence in which each terminal growing point produces flowers.

cytokinins. Class of plant growth substances that promote cell division, among other effects; added to some floral preservatives.

decolletage. (day-call-eh-TAZH) The neckline or top of a dress cut low to bare the neck and shoulders.

delftware. Glazed earthenware, also called delft, usually blue and white in color. It originated in Delft, a city in west Netherlands. A delftware brick is a rectangular box with a perforated top or grill for flowers. Originally produced in the late 1500s it again flourished into the mid1700s. Delft of the early 1600s imitated Chinese porcelain.

delivery area. Space in a flower shop, usually at the rear of the store, where outgoing orders are prepared for delivery (extra packaging, care tags, and cards may be added, water levels, and addresses are checked); designs are loaded into the vehicle for delivery from this area of the shop.

delivery cooperative (co-op). A joint effort by several floral shops to deliver flowers to several areas.

depth. The distance from the front to the back of a design and the viewer's awareness of this distance. Depth may be emphasized through various techniques.

desiccant. A substance that absorbs moisture, such as sand, alum, cornmeal, and silica gel, used in drying flowers.

design. A planned organization of elements to suit a specific purpose.

diagonal line. A slanted line giving the feeling of mobility or instability, creating dynamic movement or tension.

dichasium. A simple cyme; an inflorescense having a central older flower and a pair of lateral branches bearing younger flowers. directional facing.Turning or directing flower heads certain ways in order to increase interest and visual movement within a design.

direct mail. Advertising and promotional materials sent by mail to customers.

disc flower. Tubular flowers that compose the central part of a head flower in most Asteraceae, such as chrysanthemums, gerberas, and the like, contrasted with rayshaped flowers on the margins of the head flower.

discordant color scheme. Using four colors that are widely separated on the color wheel. Care in color proportion and hue intensity and value must be taken when using unrelated hues. Examples of discordant schemes include double complement, alternate complement, and tetrad.

dish garden. A container with soil in which several different plants grow together; often decorated with accessories or cut flowers in water tubes inserted into the soil.

display. To visibly show merchandise to the public. display cooler. A cooler in the sales area of a floral shop that displays flowers and arrangements for sale.

distribution channel. Route by which floral products move from grower to final consumer. Traditionally the channel of distribution involves the grower, auction, broker, wholesaler, retailer, and final consumer.

dixon pin. Two wooden picks attached on opposite ends of a flexible metal strip; used as a mechanical aid in floral work, particularly large sympathy designs.

domestic market. Products that are produced and consumed within the same country. For example, carnations grown in Colorado that are sold and shipped to buyers within the United States and consumed within the United States are a domestic product grown for a domestic market.

double complement. A discordant color scheme using two pairs of complementary colors.

double-end easel spray. A funeral design placed on an easel that is symmetrical and radiating and has flowers not only in the upper portion of the design, but in the lower portion as well.

dry-pack. Storage or shipping of flowers out of solution (in a dry manner). Proper humidity and temperature conditions are essential for the success of dry-pack storage and shipping.

dry prone. Flowers and foliage that dry out easily and are subject to wilting, shedding of leaves, needles, and florets. These flowers and foliage must be taken care of first and conditioned quickly on arrival at the wholesaler or retailer.

Dutch-Flemish style. A style of floral arranging copied from the paintings of the Dutch and Flemish artists of the

17th and 18th centuries. Typical floral arrangements are massed and overflowing with the use of many varieties and colors of flowers (including tulips) facing in all directions. For authenticity in recreating this style of design, many accessories are generally placed around a lavish floral bouquet, including fruits, bird nests, and shells.

dynamic line. An active line of continuous movement that counters a design's shape, such as a diagonal line contrasted with horizontal and vertical lines within a rectangular format.

Early American style. Floral arrangements made in the Early American style are simple and charming, using native plant materials, such as wildflowers, weeds, and grains. Representative of the Early American Period (1620-1720), containers are generally simple utility jugs, pitchers, and other kitchenware made from pottery, copper, and pewter.

earthenware. Containers, tableware, and other items made of coarse, brown or red clay. After firing, earthenware is porous and nondurable unless treated with a glazed finish. Generally, earthenware is coarse-textured and heavy.

easel. A three-legged stand constructed of heavy wire or wood used to support and display wreaths, other set pieces, and floral sprays, generally at funeral services.

easel spray. A floral arrangement placed on an easel.

eclecticism. In floral arranging, refers to borrowing and mixing styles from various sources and periods and combining them into one style of design with an eye to compatibility.

Egyptian period. Approximately 2800-28 B.C., the floral style was simplistic, repetitious, and highly stylized. Flowers and fruits were placed in carefully alternating patterns. Chaplets, wreaths, garlands, and flower collars were also popular.

emblem tribute. Also called organizational tribute, a funeral design or set piece ordered by members of a club, business, religion, or school to which the deceased belonged.

emphasis. A design principle synonymous with focal point. The creation of visual importance or accent in a design; the center of interest.

empty chair design. An emotionally expressive funeral set piece, also called the "vacant chair" made entirely out of flowers attached to a wire frame or to a real chair; this generally life-sized designed gained popularity in the early 1900s; it is still used today in isolated areas; the empty chair represents a missing individual and undying hope, as well as the loss of an authoritative person.

English-Georgian period. Also called Georgian, refers to the period in England during the reigns of George I, II, and III (1714-1790). Floral styles during this period included simple hand-held bouquets that were carried for fragrance. Floral arrangements were symmetrical and ranged from small to large with great varieties of fragrant flowers. A variety of containers was used, including Wedgwood, metal, and glass.

epaulet corsage. See over-the-shoulder corsage.

epergne (eh-PURN). An ornamental stand with several separate dishes or trays used as a table centerpiece for holding fruit and flowers; popular during the Victorian era.

ephemeral. Flowers lasting a very short time, such as cut gardenia blossoms.

equilateral triangle. A design form having the shape of a triangle with all three sides of equal length.

EthylBloc. The trade name for 1-methylcyclopropene (1MCP) which is a gas in its natural form. EthylBloc is a powder that, when mixed with water, releases a nontoxic gas that blocks the detrimental effects of ethylene. Because 1-MCP is a gas, treatment needs to be carried out inside a sealed space (such as in a sealed truck or storage cooler). See ethylene.

ethylene. A natural plant hormone (C2H4) that is responsible for a range of problems, including abscission of flowers and leaves, leaf yellowing, and flower distortion. It is a colorless, odorless gas that hastens senescence of flowers. Called the "aging hormone," it is emitted by ripening fruit, aging flowers and foliage, equipment used around flowers, such as heaters and forklifts (exhaust from internal combustion engines), and cigarette smoke.

European style. A loose term generally referring to full, massed bouquets that use a great variety of flowers and colors, in contrast to the oriental style. everlasting flowers. Dried or artificial flowers as contrasted with fresh flowers.

ewer. A large water pitcher with a wide mouth, often used for holding flowers. exotics. A general term referring to tropical, unusual, and form flowers and foliage.

experimental design. A general term for new, contemporary styles of arrangement, often bizarre in nature.

exporter. One who carries or sends cut flowers, foliage, and floral products to another country or other countries to sell.

faience. Glazed earthenware named for Faenze, Italy, where it was originally manufactured.

fan bouquet. A hand-held grouping of flowers, placed on a lace, decorative fan.

fan design. See radiating design.

fan-shape. A radiating, half-circle design.

feathering. The separation of a flower, especially a carnation, into several small florets for use in a corsage or bridal bouquet.

Federal period. The political, social, and decorative formation era in America following the Revolutionary War (1790-1825). Floral arrangements during this period were styled after ancient classic designs as well as elaborate European massed, symmetrical bouquets.

filament. The anther-bearing stalk of a stamen.

filler. A type of flower, foliage, or accessory used to fill in spaces in an arrangement, add interest, and complete a design.

filler flower. Generally has a complex branched system of stems and tiny florets; used to fill in empty spaces, add accent, and complete a design; examples include baby's breath, statice, aster, and waxflower.

filler foliage. Greenery used to fill in and complete a design; examples include plumosa, tree fern, sprengeri, and ivy.

filling florist. A florist who receives a flowers-by-wire order and fills it by designing and delivering the flowers to the specified recipient.

final consumer. The last person to receive flowers through the channels of distribution.

flags. Loops of ribbon with tails.

flat spray. A showy gathering of flowers and foliage, tied with a ribbon and used to decorate graves. In regions where flat sprays (also called bunches) are popular, many are grouped together to form a larger wall spray.

floral art. A creative form of expression using flowers and, but not always, a container, foliage, and accessories, while incorporating the principles of harmony and unity; a floral artist is one who displays expertise or great proficiency, and unusual perception in creating beautiful, stunning, extraordinary, and often bizarre floral designs.

floral clay. A waterproof, sticky material used in floral arranging for fastening stem-anchoring devices, such as needlepoint holders and hard foam, to containers.

floral designer. A person who designs or makes original floral arrangements; a talented, creative, and skilled florist.

floral foam. A highly porous material used to absorb water, support stems, and hold flowers, foliage, and accessories in place in a design.

floral holiday. A day that is associated with the giving and receiving of flowers, such as Valentine's Day and Mother's Day, or a day that is associated with using flowers for decorating, such as Christmas and Memorial Day.

floral industry. The particular branch of the business that includes the production, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of flowers and floral products.

floral pomander. A sphere or ball of fragrant flowers that hangs from ribbon.

floral preservative. A chemical mixture of sugar, biocide, and citric acid, added to water to extend the life of cut flowers.

floral rosary. A floral replica of the prayer beads used by Catholics; rosebuds are inserted into a special rosary string available from most floral supply houses; the floral rosary is generally a funeral inset design and is draped inside the open casket lid.

floral tape. A paraffin-coated paper that may be stretched over stems to securely bind them together when creating corsages, boutonnieres, hand-held bouquets, and everlasting designs.

floret. One of the small flowers that make up the total inflorescence.

floriculture. The cultivation and production of floral crops, especially those that are harvested and sold. Florist Information Committee (FIC). A branch of the Society of American Florists that functions to alleviate any negative press about the floral industry and its products and instead provides positive information to the public.

flower. The reproductive structure of angiosperms; see complete flower.

flower merchandiser. A retailer specializing in loose cut flowers sold by the stem or bunch who generally does not provide design or delivery services.

flowers-by-wire. See wire order.

foam forms. Hard or wettable foam forms precut by the manufacturers in popular shapes, such as crosses, hearts, open hearts, and wreaths.

focal area. A part of a design that is emphasized by contrasted materials, the area of focus; generally in the base of a design where all materials meet.

focal point. The center of attraction, usually within the focal area; often highlighted with a distinctive flower or accessory item.

football mum corsage. A traditional corsage worn at the high school or college homecoming football game, dance, and other associated events; generally designed with one or several standard incurve chrysanthemums and a variety of accessories, such as tiny footballs and megaphones, long ribbon streamers in the school colors, and the school's initials or insignia.

foreign market. Products that are produced in one country and sold to another for consumption. For example, carnations grown in Colombia that are sold and shipped to buyers within the United States and consumed within the United States are a foreign product grown for a foreign market.

form. A design term synonymous with shape or outline.

formal. A general term for the classical, symmetrical, or elaborate.

formal linear design. A high-style design emphasizing shape, form, and line, generally with asymmetrical balance. Minimal materials are used, emphasizing individual flowers, stem angles, colors, and textures.

form flower. Denotes an unusual or distinctively shaped flower; attracts attention and provides emphasis; examples include bird of paradise, anthurium, and orchids. See exotics.

form foliage. Greenery with an interesting shape that draws attention; often the leaves will possess unusual textures, colors, or patterns as well; generally used with form flowers; examples include caladium, croton leaves, monstera, papyrus, and cyperus.

foundation. The base of a design from which elements rise.

foundation colors. The primary colors--red, yellow, and blue--from which all other hues on the color wheel are created.

fragrance. The quality of being fragrant or sweet-smelling; an often overlooked element of floral design. When scented flowers are used in a bouquet, their fragrance adds another pleasurable dimension to our enjoyment.

framework. The basic or beginning structure of a floral arrangement, established with stems of flowers and foliage. The framework creates the pattern of a design.

framing. A design technique in which the perimeter of the design fully or partially encloses an area and focuses attention to its contents.

free-form design. A design that is not confined to any geometric shape and generally emphasizes line and texture.

freelance floral designer. A knowledgeable and experienced person who designs floral arrangements for individual buyers.

freeze-drying. A method of drying plant materials. Moisture is removed from the cell structure of flowers by mechanical means; flowers retain shape, suppleness, texture, and usually color.

French period. Also known as the Grand Era, 17th and 18th centuries in France during the reign of Louis XIV. This style was influenced by the Dutch Flemish style, with emphasis on classic form, refinement, and elegance, rather than overdone flamboyance. Highly ornamental vases were used to hold tall fan-shaped, rounded, and triangular bouquets. Often termed French Rococo, this style was extravagant, using symmetry, shells, rocks, and all manner of elaborate decoration.

frond. The leaf of a fern; also, large, divided leaf.

full-couch. A casket with an undivided full lid (contrasted with a half-couch).

full-service flower shop. A floral shop that provides every floral product and service needed by customers, including delivery and wire service.

fully open bud stage. Refers to the state at which some flowers are harvested, at a mature stage before beginning to shed pollen. If cut too early, these flowers do not continue to open to their full potential. Examples include zinnia, sunflower, marigold, and calendula.

funeral basket. An arrangement made in a container of wicker, plastic, papier-mache, or metal, usually with a handle. It is displayed on the floor or a stand at funeral services.

garland. A wreath, woven chain, or festoon of flowers, leaves, or other materials worn on the head or used as decoration.

gates ajar design. An emotionally expressive funeral set piece that gained popularity in the early 1900s; the arch and gates, left slightly open, represent a recent departure of the spirit into heaven; this set piece remained popular for many decades resulting in a variety of adaptations, such as "the Golden Way" gates ajar design which had a pathway in the foreground leading up to the gates of heaven.

gauge. Standard scale of measurement used to determine the thickness of wire; the lower the number, the thicker the wire; common floral wire gauges range from heavy #16 to delicate #30.

genus, pl. genera. The taxonomic group between family and species that includes one or more species that have certain characteristics in common. See botanical name, Latin name, and species.

geometric design. A floral arrangement characterized by straight lines, triangles, circles, or similar regular forms.

Georgian period. See English-Georgian period.

geotropism. Bending and curving upward against the force of gravity, exhibited by gladiolus and snapdragons.

germicide. Any antiseptic used to destroy germs; see biocide.

glamellia. A wired and taped flower constructed from gladiolus petals and formed to resemble a camellia flower; used in corsages and bridal bouquets.

glamour leaves. Accessories of artificial foliage, made from fabric, net, lace, and so on, used in corsages.

glycerin. A solution used for preserving foliage and some flowers. When properly absorbed in plant stems, it keeps the plant material soft and pliable.

going-away corsage. A floral remembrance worn by a bride as she leaves with her husband for the honeymoon; sometimes a removable part of the bridal bouquet.

golden anniversary. The 50th anniversary. Floral arrangements for this special occasion are often made in gold containers, incorporate gold and yellow flowers, and often have a gold number 50 insignia accessory.

golden mean. A Greek rule of proportion referring to the division of a line somewhere between one-half and onethird its length that is the most pleasing to the eye.

golden rectangle. A Greek standard for proportion; a rectangle or oblong with its sides in a ratio of 2:3.

golden section. A Greek rule of proportion based on the

golden rectangle. It involves the division of a line or form in such a way that the ratio of the smaller portion to the larger is the same as that of the larger portion to the whole. For example, 2:3 is about the same ratio as 3:5, 5:8, 8:13, and so forth. This rule may be applied to the ratio of the container to the flowers, and of the flowers to the entire arrangement.

gradation. A design technique of placing flowers or foliage in a sequence, from largest to smallest, darkest to lightest, and so on.

grading. Evaluating crop quality utilizing a standardized system of measurements of crop quality. For example, roses are graded according to the length of stem and overall quality.

Grand Era. See French period. Greek period. Floral styles of this time (600-146 B.C.) were garlands and wreaths. Flowers were scattered on the ground during festivals. Fragrance and symbolism was of utmost importance.

Greek revival. The final phase (1825-1845) of the neoclassic style in America; floral designs were generally large and symmetrical; containers reflected the classic styles of the Greek and Roman periods.

greening pin. U-shaped pins similar to hairpins; commonly used to secure moss to foam. Also called philly pins and fern pins.

green tape. See floral tape. grid. Framework of plastic, tape, or wire used at the top of a vase to keep flowers in position without the use of floral foam.

groomsmen. The men who attend the groom at the wedding.

grouping. A design technique characterized by placing like materials in sections or groups with negative space between various groups and some space left between flowers within groups.

grower. The initial level of distribution of cut flowers and foliage and potted plants. Foreign growers sell floral products directly to brokers and wholesalers or take their products to an auction, while domestic growers most often sell to wholesalers. Proper care and handling, or the chain of life, begins at the grower level.

growth regulator treatment. The special hormonecontaining solutions frequently used by growers to prevent and inhibit problems, such as leaf yellowing on alstroemerias and lilies.

gynoecium. The collective term for the female parts of a flower, the pistil or pistils. half-couch. A casket in which the lid is divided in half. The head of the casket is open for viewing, while the foot of the casket is closed.

half open bud stage. Refers to the stage at which some flowers are harvested, when some of the florets are open and some are still in the bud stage; generally refers to spikelike flowers and other inflorescence types. Examples include gladiolus, delphinium, snapdragons, agapanthus, and lilies.

hamper. A tall container made of wooden slats or corrugated cardboard used to ship tall flowers, especially those that are geotropic, such as gladiolus.

hand-tied bouquet. A bouquet that is made in one hand while the other hand places flowers and foliage in a spiral pattern within the bouquet. It is generally tied with ribbon, string, or raffia.

hardening. The conditioning process that allows flowers to become hard or turgid from water uptake.

hardgoods. Nonperishable staples or inventory items.

harmony. A pleasing relationship among the parts and elements of a design.

harvesting. The cutting of flowers and foliage.

head flower. A dense inflorescence of small, crowded, often stalkless flowers; a capitulum.

head table. A separate table (often at the head or front of the room) where the bridal party sits at a lunch or dinner; this table is the central element in the room; flower arrangements used on this table are generally more elaborate than those for the guest tables, however, they must be kept low, so the bridal party may be seen.

heika (HAY-kah). Vase flowers. General term for naturalistic Japanese arrangements in tall vases.

herbaceous stem. A general term referring to any nonwoody plant. Also referred to as soft stem. high style. Characterized by bold forms and lines. See also art deco and formal linear design.

Hogarth curve. A design shape or prominent line in a design in the shape of the letter S. Named after William Hogarth who theorized that all beauty was based on a serpentine S-line.

Hogarth design. A curvlinear floral arrangement in the shape of the letter S; the serpentine line displays beauty and grace. See Hogarth curve.

holding solution. Preservative solution used in storing cut flowers.

hook-wiring. A method of wiring flat-topped flowers, such as chrysanthemums using a U-shaped wire with a hook inserted down into the center of a flower and into the stem.

horizontal design. A floral arrangement that has a strong long and low line emphasis, parallel with the tabletop; often used as a centerpiece and can be symmetrical or asymmetrical and one-sided, or all-sided.

horizontal line. A flat line, parallel to the tabletop or floor. Horizontal lines provide stability and restfulness.

horn of plenty. See cornucopia.

horticulture. The science and art of producing and using ornamental plants, fruit, and vegetables.

HQC. 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate. An anti-microbial agent or biocide that kills bacteria and other organisms.

hue. The property that gives a color its name, such as red, blue, yellow, or green.

hyacinth stake. A slender, wooden stick used to provide additional support to flowers.

hybrid. The offspring of two parents that differ in one or more heritable characteristics. The offspring of two different varieties or of two different species.

humidity. Refers to the amount or degree of moisture in the air. See also relative humidity.

hydrating solution. A citric acid solution that encourages rapid uptake of water and helps flowers recover from dry shipping, dry storage, and water stress.

ikebana (ee-keh-BAH-nah). Literal translation: living flowers. General term applied to all Japanese flower arrangements.

Ikenobo (ee-kee-NO-bah). Literal translation: hut by the pond. Supposedly referring to the priests' place of retreat in the temple grounds, it is the original term applied to flower arrangements, later used to denote a school. The

Ikenobo school, the oldest school of flower arranging in Japan, had its beginnings in the 6th century. implied line. An imaginary line created by a series of repetitious elements.

importer. One who brings in cut flowers, and foliage, and floral products from another country or countries for purposes of sale.

inflorescence. Any arrangement of more than one flower on a stem, for example, corymb, cyme, and panicle. informal. Casual and relaxed; often asymmetrical and natural.

in lieu of flowers. An addition in death notices asking people not to send flowers to a funeral.

insertion wiring. Method of wiring fresh flowers whereby wire is inserted up through the base of the stem all the way to the top to provide support; often used for gerberas and other hollow- or fleshy-stemmed flowers.

intensity. See chroma. intermediate colors. See tertiary colors.

interpretive design. A floral composition that expresses the designer's feelings and ideas. inventory. Merchandise and stock on hand. A listing of the stock within the store.

isolation. Separation of a flower or group of flowers from the rest of the arrangement. A method of creating an area of emphasis or a focal point.

isosceles triangle. A triangle form that has two equal sides and one side different in length. Usually a tall, symmetrical triangular floral arrangement.

Japanese design/style. General term for a linear floral design characterized by three main lines or sections.

jiyu-bana (jee-yoo-BAH-nah). A freestyle Japanese floral arrangement.

juxtapose. To place side-by-side or close together. kenzan (KEHN-zahn). A needlepoint holder used in low bowls.

kubari (koo-BAH-ree). A forked twig used as a flower fastener in a taller container used for classical Japanese designs.

lacing. A natural method of crossing stems to form a grid to hold flowers in position within a vase. A technique for making hand-tied bouquets.

landscape design. A floral arrangement that depicts a large area of nature. Flowers, branches, and foliage may represent parts of a natural landscape or groomed garden.

latex. A milky and usually whitish fluid that is produced in the cells of various plants. Bleeding latex of cut flower stems must be cared for properly.

Latin name. The scientific or univeral name of a plant; although plants are generally derived from Latin words, they may also be derived from Greek or personal names, as well as from other languages (whatever their origin, all names are treated as Latin). Plants were first given scientific names in the 16th and 17th centuries when

Latin was a common language. Today, the Latin name is a universal name and forms a method of communication between nations and at all levels of the floral industry. See botanical name, genus, and species.

layering. The process of compactly overlapping like materials (usually leaves, such as galax) so that no or little space is left between them. This process produces a scalelike appearance.

leaflet. One of the parts of a compound leaf.

lei. A wreath, garland, or ornamental headdress or necklace made of leaves and flowers. le style 25. See Art Deco.

liknon. An ancient basket in Greek and Roman times used for holding flowers.

limited-service flower shop. A flower shop characterized by little or no added service and products; for example, a floral department in a grocery store.

line. A continuous pathway for the eye to follow. line/linear design. A general term for a floral arrangement characterized by strong vertical, horizontal, diagonal, or curving lines with negative space between for emphasis; contrasts with mass design; contemporary or advanced styles include western line, parallel systems, new convention, and formal linear designs.

line flower. A spike or spikelike inflorescence with an elongated stem, such as gladiolus, liatris, larkspur, and foxtail lily; adds height, width, and depth; easily sets the framework, shape, and size of an arrangement.

line foliage. Tall and long foliage having a linear shape; often used in conjunction with line flowers to set the framework of a design; adds height and width; examples include Scotch broom, gorse, myrtle, New Zealand flax, and pandanus.

L-shape design. See right triangle.

management. The act, art, or manner of managing, or handling, controlling, directing employees, designs, inventory, money, and various business affairs.

marketing. All business activity involved in the moving of goods from the grower or producer to the final consumer, including selling, advertising, packaging, and so on.

markup. A system for determining the sale price of an item based on the cost of merchandise.

mass design. A general term for a full, overabundant floral arrangement. This design contrasts with line design.

mass flower. A rounded flower at the top of a stem. Used for adding mass or fullness to a design; adds bulk and weight; examples include carnations, roses, chrysanthemums, and tulips.

mass foliage. Adds weight, bulk, and fullness to a design; efficient in covering up the floral foam and other mechanics of a design; examples include leatherleaf, salal, and pittosporum.

mass merchandiser. One who promotes, advertises, and organizes the sale of flowers in large quantities, such as grocery stores for their floral departments.

mechanical aid. Any material used in a container or in the designing of an arrangement to ease and expedite construction.

mechanical balance. See balance.

mechanics. The method of construction of a floral design; the technical aspect.

merchandise. Material offered for sale.

metabolism. The sum of all chemical processes occurring within a living cell or organism.

Middle Ages. The period of European history between ancient and modern times (A.D. 476-1450). Also known as the Medieval period and Dark Ages. Little is known of floral art during this time. However, fragrant flowers were highly favored for strewing on the ground, freshening the air, and for making wreaths and garlands.

mille fleurs design. Literal translation: thousand flowers. General term for a mass floral bouquet with many colors and flowers juxtaposed in an arrangement.

mirroring. Repetition of the like materials at varying heights and depths. See shadowing.

modernistic design. A contemporary floral arrangement expressing current trends and ideas.

monochasium. A type of inflorescence in which there is a single terminal flower, and below this a single branch bearing one or more younger flowers; variations of coiled and zigzag patterns include helicoid, cincinnus, bostryx, and scorpioid.

monochromatic color scheme. Uses one hue from the color wheel and may include its tints, tones, and shades.

moribana (moh-ree-BAH-nah). Literal translation: piled-up flowers. General term applied to naturalistic Japanese arrangements in shallow or low, flat containers.

muff bouquet. A specialty bouquet in which a small floral arrangement is pinned to a muff for winter weddings.

nageire (nah-GAY-reh). Literal translation: thrown in. A loose, naturalistic style of Japanese arrangement of Ikenobo. General term for arrangements in tall vases or baskets.

naturalistic design. A design style that emphasizes the beauty of flowers and plant materials without manipulation.

naturalistic Japanese design/style. A style of Japanese design that is more natural and casual when compared with other Japanese styles; also called informal, this style includes nageire and moribana.

needlepoint holder. See pin holder.

negative space. Empty areas between flowers or materials.

neoclassic style. Revival simulating the ancient classical designs of Greece and Rome; influence by the French style of design; floral designs are generally symmetical, tall, and large, often pyramidal or fan-shaped; noted for using formal, elegant, and ornate containers. See also Federal period and Greek revival.

netting. See tulle.

networking. The exchanging of information with others in an informal way to further business.

neutral colors. Colors that are not located on the color wheel but that influence those that are. Generally black, white, and gray. Other neutral colors include tan and ivory.

new convention design. A design style characterized by only vertical and horizontal placements of materials, all of which are at a 90-degree angle to one another.

new wave design. A style of design in which materials are used in a nonrealistic way. Materials are painted, folded, and manipulated, while lines cross and zigzag throughout the design.

node. The part of a stem, such as on a carnation, where one or more leaves are attached.

nomenclature. The system of naming plants and flowers.

nosegay. A tight grouping of flowers, herbs, and foliage in a hand-held bouquet. Also called a tuzzy-muzzy, or tussie-mussie, and posie bouquet.

novelties. Unusual articles that are chiefly decorative and often used with flowers to suggest a floral holiday, season, or theme.

novelty design. A unique, one-of-a-kind floral arrangement designed for a certain situation or a special occasion; made with short-stemmed or broken flowers; popular examples include ice cream sodas, cakes, kittens, dogs, and caterpillars; accessories can be glued onto flowers to add detail.

object line/stem. Designation applied to earth line in the Ohara school.

Ohara. Twentieth century school of Japanese flower arrangements. Originator of the moribana style; interprets the moribana and nageire styles.

olfactory. Relating to the sense of smell.

one-sided design. A floral arrangement designed to be viewed from one side only.

open balance. A type of balance often employed in some contemporary design styles. A relaxed and unstructured balance; a feeling of stability resulting from no formal rules of construction.

open house. Promotion to get the general public to visit the floral shop to see the displays, usually prior to a major floral holiday.

open order. An order for a floral arrangement in which the designer decides both the contents, style, and price.

orchid grass. Shredded waxed paper used in packaging corsages, boutonnieres, and other small designs.

order-taker. A passive salesperson who simply writes up the orders for the customers without any salesmanship involved.

organizational tribute. A special easel set piece patterned after an organization's insignia or emblem; a funeral tribute given by members of the club, school, business, or religion to which the deceased belonged.

oriental style. A loose term referring to line designs including both the Chinese and Japanese styles, as well as designs that resemble these styles. The oriental style uses few materials and emphasizes simplicity, form, line, and texture.

ovary. An enlarged basal portion of a carpel or of a gynoecium composed of fused carpels. The ovary becomes the fruit.

overhead. Expenses and the general cost of running a business.

overlapping. A method of enhancing depth by varying the placement and positioning of flowers and foliage; placing one element on top of or in front of another.

over-the-shoulder corsage. An elegant corsage made to be worn on top of the shoulder and cascade down both front and back; also called an epaulet corsage.

ovule. The structure that becomes a seed after fertilization.

packaging. Wrapping or boxing flowers, plants, and floral products for sale and delivery.

packing. The large-scale, commercial processing and packaging of flowers and floral products in boxes for shipping.

paddle wire. Continuous wire wrapped around a small length of wood.

pall. A fabric piece placed on a casket. A floral design placed on a casket.

panicle. A branched raceme with each branch bearing a further raceme of flowers. More loosely applies to any complex, branched inflorescence.

pan-melt glue. Small pillows or pellets of glue that are melted down in an electric pan and used to secure mechanical aids and other items in designs.

parallelism. Placing two or more stems, lines, or other items in the same direction (usually in a vertical format) where the lines never meet.

parallel systems design. A style of design in which two or more (usually vertical) groupings are placed in a container and negative space surrounds the groups. Each group generally uses like materials.

parasol bouquet. A specialty bouquet in which flower clusters adorn an open or closed parasol (decorative, lacy umbrella).

pave (pah-VAY) design/technique. A style of design or a technique in which materials are placed closely together in a cobblestone effect. The term is borrowed from the jewelry-making technique in which gems are placed closely together with little or no metal showing between them.

pedicel. The stalk of a single flower in an inflorescence.

peduncle. The stalk of an inflorescence or of a solitary flower.

perianth. The petals and sepals combined.

period style. A term used to designate a single item or a complete arrangement style prevalent in a specific country at a particular time in history.

perishable. Subject to decay; short-lived.

perishables. Generally refers to the fresh cut flowers, foliage, berry branches, and so forth, that are subject to deterioration and spoilage; in contrast to hardgoods.

petal. A flower part, usually conspicuously colored. One of the units of the corolla.

petiole. The stalk of a leaf.

pH level. A symbol denoting the relative concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. pH values run from 0 to 14, and the lower the value, the more acidic a solution. For example, pH 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and more than 7 is alkaline.

phloem. Food-conducting tissue.

phoenix design. A style of design in which tall materials burst out from the center of a rounded design. Named for the ancient mythological Egyptian bird.

photosynthesis. The conversion of light energy to chemical energy. The production of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide in the presence of chlorophyll by using light energy.

phototropism. Turning or bending in response to light. Many cut flowers curve toward a light source.

physical balance. See balance.

physiology. The study of the activities and processes of living organisms.

phytohormone. Natural hormones or growth regulators produced by living plants that help delay or speed the aging process.

pierce wiring. A method of wiring flowers using a straight wire; the usual method for adding a wire to roses and carnations.

pigment. In plants, the substance that absorbs light, expressing colors.

pillow design. An emotionally expressive set piece that gained popularity in the early 1900s and in some areas is still commonly displayed at viewings and funerals; it is symbolic of peace, comfort, and eternal rest, as well as family, love, and home; flowers, ribbon, and fabric may be attached to a pillow form or frame in a variety of ways.

pillowing. A clustering technique used at the base of a design in which pillows or rolling hills and valleys are formed by the groups of flowers.

pin holder. A holder made of steel needles used to hold flowers and other plant materials in place in a low container.

pistil. Central organ of flowers typically consisting of ovary, style, and stigma. A pistil may consist of one or more fused carpels.

plugging. A general term referring to impeded uptake of stems caused by bacteria, salts, air, and the like.

pollen. A collective term for pollen grains.

poly foil. Colored aluminum foil used to wrap potted plants.

pomander bouquet. A specialty bouquet that is spherical or ball-shaped, often highly fragrant, and hangs from a ribbon, cord, or rope; sometimes made for brides, bridesmaids, and flower girls; may be used as a hanging decoration; sometimes called a flower ball or kissing ball.

positive space. Area occupied by flowers, foliage, and other materials.

postharvest physiology. The study of the activities and processes of harvested or cut flowers and foliage.

postharvest technology. The science or study of the plant processes, practical and helpful methods, and explanations regarding the care and handling of flowers and foliage during the period following harvest; new information regarding cut flowers and foliage dealing with extending the length and quality of vase life.

posy holder. A hand-bouquet holder made from various materials. Manufactured to hold tied nosegays, making them less cumbersome and longer lasting.

prayer book bouquet. See Bible bouquet.

precooling. The practice of cooling flowers after boxing by forcing refrigerated air through holes in the walls of the box.

pregreen. To fill containers with wet floral foam and greenery before flowers are added. Containers are often pregreened in mass quantities prior to floral holidays.

presentation bouquet. See arm bouquet.

preservative solution. A mixture of floral preservative with water for increasing the life of cut flowers.

preserved flowers. Real flowers that have been dried and preserved by one of a number of drying methods.

pressing. A method of drying flowers and foliage resulting in flat forms.

pretreatment. Special treatments used prior to using floral preservative in the care and handling process, for example, silver thiosulfate treatment for ethylene-sensitive flowers; also known as supplements, special treatments, specific-action chemicals, and conditioners.

primary colors. Red, yellow, and blue. These three colors are equidistant on the color wheel.

processing. The methods of care and handling, specifically, recutting and conditioning flowers and foliage.

processional. The ceremonial preceding of the wedding party up the aisle prior to the wedding ceremony.

producer. One who produces or grows cut flowers and foliage for sale.

Professional Floral Commentators International (PFCI). A division of the Society of American Florists established to promote communication and understanding within all segments of the floral industry.

promotion. All advertising, publicity, and personal selling activities leading to public recognition.

proportion. A principle of design; the comparative size relationship between the parts of a floral arrangement to each other and the parts to the whole; flowers, foliage, container, and the surrounding space all relate to proportion.

prospects. Potential customers or flower buyers.

proximity. Near in space.

psychic line. A line that is felt between two elements, created by placing flowers and materials in a way that directs the eye.

pubescent. Covered in soft, short hairs. Coarse in texture adding interest to designs.

publicity. Free promotional activities resulting in public notice.

public relations. The act of promoting goodwill between a business or person and the public.

pulsing. A postharvest technique used to load flowers with sugar and other chemicals prior to shipment.

queen's bouquet. See arm bouquet.

raceme. An inflorescence consisting of a main axis bearing single flowers alternately or spirally on stalks (pedicels) of approximately equal length.

radial balance. A type of balance or feeling of stability created by all elements radiated or circling out from a common central point like the spokes of a wheel or the rays of the sun.

radiating design. Also called fan-shaped arrangement; these designs are one-sided and similar in shape to a half circle with radiating lines converging from a central location.

radiating line. Lines or stems that converge from a central location to form a focal point; a method of achieving increased visual eye flow or rhythm.

raffia. Fiber from the palm tree Raphia ruffia, used as string.

ratio markup. A method of calculating the selling price based on the wholesale cost of items; simply by doubling, tripling, quadrupling, and so forth, the wholesale price, by which the retail selling price may easily be determined; often a guessing game for florists whereby many items such as labor, profit, and operational expenses are not covered.

ray flower. Flattened, colored ray-shaped flowers on the margins of most Asteraceae flowers, such as in sunflowers, gerbera, and chrysanthemums; often incorrectly called petals.

receiving area. Space in the rear work area of a shop where flowers and other merchandise arrive and where flowers are processed.

receiving line. The line in which the bridal party members and parents stand to receive guests' congratulations and greetings after the ceremony or at the reception.

receptacle. That part of the axis of a flower stalk that bears the floral organs.

recessional. The ceremonial proceeding of the wedding party down the aisle after the wedding ceremony.

recut. The process of removing the lower one-half to one inch of stem with a sharp blade, shears, or underwater cutter.

regional holiday. A holiday that is celebrated and associated with the use (decorating, giving, or receiving) of flowers in one area, while in another area the same holiday is not associated with the use of flowers; examples include Memorial Day and St. Patrick's Day. See floral holiday.

rehydration. A process in which cut flowers and foliage (especially those that have been dry-packed and recently shipped) are immediately recut and placed in a chemical solution containing deionized water, citric acid, a germicide, and wetting agents so they will hydrate quickly.

related color scheme. Based on a common hue that acts as a unifying element; the colors forming a related scheme may be variations of only one hue or may be variations of several adjacent hues on the color wheel; visually harmonious but may be boring; examples include monocrhomatic and analogous.

relative humidity. The amount of water vapor actually present in the air at a given temperature as compared to the maximum amount the air could hold at that certain temperature. Warm air has the capacity to hold more moisture than cold air.

Renaissance. A period in Europe after the Middle Ages. Beginning in Italy in the 14th century, it was marked by a humanistic and classical period in which an unprecedented flourishing of the arts occurred. Floral arrangements characteristic of the Renaissance period were massed in tight symmetrical shapes. Colorful flowers were often combined with fruits and vegetables. Many types of containers were used including urns, jugs, and bowls. Also well known was a single stem of white lily (Madonna lily) in a simple container. Flowers were symbolic with religious themes.

repetition. A method of obtaining rhythm by repeating similar elements throughout a design.

respiration. An intracellular process in which food is oxidized with the release of energy, the complete breakdown of sugar or other organic compounds to carbon dioxide and water. Respiration continues in live harvested products.

retailer. In the channels of distribution, the level between wholesaler and final consumer; the traditional flower shop or one who sells flowers to consumers.

rhythm. A visual flow or movement characterized by the repetition of elements or features; when repeated, color, line, form, spacing, and other elements assist the eye in moving easily throughout a design. See repetition.

right triangle. A form of arrangement; an asymmetrical triangle with the vertical line being perpendicular to the horizontal line, forming a 90-degree angle.

rikka (REE-kah). Literal translation: standing flowers. One of the oldest forms of Japanese flower arrangement, introduced about 1470. A large, complex form of arrangement with a kaleidoscopic view of a landscape, often used to adorn temple altars.

Roman period. During this time (28 B.C. to A.D. 325), flowers were used to make garlands and wreaths. The use of plant material was more elaborate than in the previous Greek and Egyptian periods. Fragrance and bright colors were important for flowers.

Romantic era. Name for the Victorian era in America, from about 1845 to 1900.

rose strippers. Handheld tool used for removing thorns and lower leaves from flowers, especially roses; also called dethorners.

round mound. Also called roundy-moundies, referring to circular, rounded mass bouquets. A common everyday design.

saddle. A container available in different styles and sizes, made to fit the curvature of a casket lid to hold the foundation of the casket spray design.

salesmanship. The art of selling.

sanitation. Cleanliness. The practice of keeping flower handling facilities, tools, buckets, and equipment clean.

satin acetate. Waterproof utility ribbon, available in a wide assortment of colors and widths.

satin forms. Premade satin shapes ready for floral accents to be added. Available in a variety of popular forms, such as pillows, hearts, and crosses.

saturation. See chroma.

scale. Another word for size. The ratio or proportion of an arrangement to the surrounding area in which it will be placed.

scalene triangle. An asymmetrical triangle in which all three sides and angles are unequal. These designs usually have a prominent vertical line, a wide angle, and a downward, diagonal line that is opposite to the height of the arrangement.

scapose. A solitary flower on a leafless peduncle or scape, such as a cut tulip or daffodil, or other inflorescence that does not have ordinary green, leafy foliage on the stem; cut gerbera, agapanthus, and anthurium are examples.

scientific name. See botanical name, genus, Latin name and species.

script. Gold lettering that is attached to a ribbon; often used for funeral designs to denote the sender's relationship to the deceased, such as "Loving Grandmother" or "Beloved Father."

sealer. An antitranspirant for fresh flowers (keeps flowers fresher longer) or a finishing spray or dip for dried flowers (keeps flowers intact).

seasonal availability. A general term referring to the peak supply times for flowers and foliage due to the plant's natural growth and flowering cycles.

seasonal flowers. Flowers that are unique to, or particularly abundant during, one season or another, such as tulips, zinnias, or poinsettias. Acacia, flowering branches, and holly with red berries are also referred to as seasonal because their availability is limited to the plants' natural growth and flowering cycles since they only grow outdoors.

secondary colors. Orange, violet, and green. Formed by mixing two primary colors together.

secondary line/stem. Term used to designate man line in the Ohara school.

seika (SAY-kah). Name given by some schools to the classical forms of Japanese arrangement. (Same as shoka in the Ikenobo school.)

sending florist. A florist who takes an order and transmits it to another florist in another city.

senescence. The aging process resulting in wilting and death of a cut flower, foliage, or plant.

sepal. A floral leaf or individual segment of the calyx of a flower; usually green. The outermost flower structure that usually encloses the other flower parts in the bud.

sequencing. A design technique in which flowers and materials are placed in a gradual or progressive change through the gradation of color, the transition of size, and so on.

sessile. Attached directly to the stem; referring to a leaf lacking a petiole or to a flower lacking a pedicel.

set piece. A funeral design that has a certain shape, usually made on a foam form, decorated with flowers, and placed on an easel. Examples include hearts, crosses, and organizational emblems.

shade. Any hue to which black has been added. A darkcolored hue.

shadowing. A design technique in which like materials are placed in pairs, one directly beneath or behind the other, to form the appearance of a shadow. Increases the feeling of depth.

shattering. The falling off of florets, leaves, or petals, especially with chrysanthemums, suffering from mechanical damage.

sheaf. A cluster of cut flowers, wheat, foliage, and the like, tied together at one end with a ribbon bow, raffia, or other tying material.

sheltered design. A design style or technique in which the floral arrangement is "protected" and contained within the container, or branches and other materials are placed over the arrangement, giving a feeling of protection and recluse.

sheltering. See sheltered design.

shin (sheen). Applied by most schools to the main branch, commonly called heaven, in a Japanese flower arrangement. Also used to designate the formal arrangement of several classical methods.

shipper. A firm that specializes in the assembly of flowers, packing in boxes, and shipping them to other buyers.

shipping. The process of transporting floral products from one point to another point, especially in the distribution channels; the speed and condition in which flowers and foliage are transported affect their quality and longevity.

shoka (SHO-kah). The latest of orthodox styles of classical arrangements. The three-branch asymmetrical, classical form of flower arrangement as practiced by the Ikenobo school. It replaced rikka in popularity in the late 18th century.

silica gel. A drying compound (desiccant) for use in drying flowers.

silk flowers. A general term for artificial or man-made flowers and foliage; made with realistic-looking fabrics and formed into natural shapes, and often colors, textures, and sizes. See also everlasting flowers and botanicals.

silver anniversary. The 25th anniversary; floral arrangements for this special occasion are often made in a silver-colored container with silver ribbon and a number 25 insignia accessory.

silver conditioning. See silver thiosulfate.

silver thiosulfate (STS). A silver compound readily taken up into the flower. Conditioning of ethylene-sensitive crops with this solution helps protect them against the effects of ethylene during handling and shipping, and increases vase life. Because of environmental concerns about silver contamination and proper disposal, its use is no longer legal in the United States. See EthylBloc.

skeleton flowers/foliage. The primary flowers or foliage used in setting up the framework of a design, establishing the pattern or outline of the design.

sleepiness. An ethylene-induced disorder in flowers, characterized by an inward bending, closing, or wilting of the petals. Flowers appear wilted and limp.

sleeving. A process in which flower bunches are packaged in protective waxed or unwaxed paper or polyethylene coverings to protect and separate flower heads, prevent tangling, and to identify the grower, shipper, and flower and variety name.

Society of American Florists (SAF). A national trade organization representing the needs and interests of the entire floral industry.

soe (SO-eh). Literal translation: harmonizer. Applied to secondary branch, commonly called man, in most methods of Japanese flower arrangement. The supporting branch in rikka arrangements.

Sogetsu (so-GHET-soo). Modern school of Japanese flower arrangement founded in 1926.

solitary flower. A single flower on an upright stalk; also called a terminal or axillary flower.

space. An element of design. The three-dimensional area in and around a design.

spacing. A design technique in which flowers or other materials are placed closely together to create an area of emphasis, in contrast to materials that have more negative space between them.

spadix. A spike of flowers on a swollen, fleshy axis, usually surrounded by a colorful bract, as with an anthurium.

spathe. A large bract subtended and often surrounding a spadix inflorescence, such as with a calla lily.

specialized designer. A floral designer skilled and efficient who focuses on one or several types of designs, such as casket sprays, bridal bouquets, high-style party designs, or custom silk arrangements.

specialty bouquet. A novelty bridal bouquet that is unusual or out of the ordinary, such as a muff or prayer book bouquet.

specialty flower shop. A flower shop that targets particular floral needs, such as weddings, high style designs, or everlasting designs.

species. A kind of organism. Species are designated by binominal names written in italics. See botanical name, genus and Latin name.

spike. An inflorescence in which the main axis is elongated and the flowers are sessile.

split complementary color scheme. A color scheme using one hue together with the two colors that are adjacent to the direct complement.

spool wire. Continuous wire wound on a spool, commonly used to bind large materials, create garlands, and secure foliage wreaths. See also paddle wire.

S-shape design. See Hogarth curve and Hogarth design.

stacking. The placing of one material on top of another.

stalk. Generally refers to a stem or peduncle.

stamen. The plant's male reproductive organ. The part of the flower producing the pollen, composed usually of anther and filament. Collectively, the stamens make up the androecium.

standard divisional pricing. A method of calculating the selling price of a floral design based on the wholesale cost of items, being a percentage of the selling price; the standard percentages and formula may vary according to a shop's financial records and the item being sold.

state florists' association. A trade association representing the needs and interests of floral industry members within a state.

static line. Lines in a composition that are parallel to the main lines of the design. For example, in a design that has predominate vertical and horizontal lines, or a rectangular format, repeating lines of vertical and horizontal display lack of visual energy and are termed static and unmoving.

stephanotis stem. A manufactured wired and taped stem that is fitted with a cotton end; the cotton end is soaked prior to fitting it into a stephanotis floret.

stigma. The region of a carpel serving as a receptive surface for pollen grains and on which they germinate.

stipule. A leafy appendage, often paired and usually at the base of the leaf stalk.

stitch wiring. A method of wiring broad leaf foliages.

stoma, pl. stomata. The pores that occur in large numbers in the epidermis of plants (stems and leaves) and through which gaseous exchanges take place.

storage cooler. An enclosed refrigeration unit in which the bulk of the flowers and foliage are stored.

strip-center flower shop. A retail floral facility that is one of several adjoining businesses that comprise a small shopping complex, usually near residential areas.

STS. See silver thiosulfate.

style. Slender column of tissue which arises from the top of the ovary and through which the pollen tube grows. Also, a recognizable form of design or school of thought; the end result.

stylized vertical design. A general term referring to a vertical, linear, high-style design.

subject line/stem. Designation of the heaven line in the Ohara school.

succulent. Plants with fleshy, water-storing stems and leaves.

symmetrical balance. Equal in visual weight on both sides of a central vertical axis.

symmetrical design. A floral arrangement that has equal visual weight on both sides of a central vertical axis; an arrangement in which the two sides are a mirror image of each other; often used for formal settings, such as in churches and funeral homes. See symmetrical balance.

table skirt decoration. Floral clusters or small floral accents with ribbon bows that are pinned to the skirt of the tablecloth.

tactile. Referring to the sense of touch.

tai (tie). Literal translation: material substance. Term applied by most teachers to earth line in classical forms and some naturalistic arrangements. The tertiary branch of the asymmetrical shoka style.

tailoring. Refers to trimming materials (especially leaves) to give them a sculptured, fitted, or abstract appearance.

technique. The application of design methods. A means to an end.

tension. The quality in a design created by opposing elements that offer resistance in visual flow or eye movement. For example, using discordant colors or crossing stems creates visual tension.

tepal. A perianth segment that is not clearly distinguishable as being either a sepal or petal, such as with the sepals and petals of tulips and lilies.

terracing. The placement of like materials on top of each other, but divided by space in between, giving a stair-step appearance.

terra cotta. A hard, brownish-red, usually unglazed earthenware used for containers and sculpture.

tertiary colors. Third or intermediate colors created by mixing a primary with an adjacent secondary color, named for the parent colors, such as blue-green and red-orange.

tetrad color scheme. A four-color scheme in which the four colors are equidistant from one another on the color wheel.

texture. An element of design that refers to the surface qualities or characteristics, both seen and felt, of flowers, foliage, containers, and so on.

theme. An overall feeling, style, or message that a floral design suggests, such as a floral design with a "baby girl" theme. All parts are harmonized to create the intended theme.

tint. Any color to which white has been added creating light colors and pastel hues.

tinting. A process in which cut flowers are artifically colored; flowers may be colored internally through the stem or externally by dipping or spray painting.

tipping. A general term for spray painting the edges of flower petals.

tokonoma (toh-koh-NOH-mah). Ornamental alcove in a Japanese room used to exhibit art objects and flower arrangements.

tone. Any color to which gray has been added; tones often have a gray, dusty, dull, or frosty appearance.

topiary. An evergreen tree or shrub that has been trimmed or trained to an unnatural shape. A floral design to create this appearance, such as a topiary ball or cone.

toss bouquet. A small bouquet made for the bride to throw or toss to the unmarried females after the wedding or at the reception.

total dissolved solids (TDS).Water salinity or a measure of total soluble elements in the water. A water quality characteristic, usually given in parts per million (ppm).

trade association. An organization or group that is set up by individuals, merchants, or business firms for the unified promotion and sale of flowers and floral products.

trade publication. Printed materials, such as journals, magazines, newsletters, and the like offering information of interest to all segments of the floral industry on a weekly, monthly, bimonthly, or quarterly basis.

traditional design/style. See classical style.

transition. A method of achieving visual rhythm. See gradation and sequencing.

transpiration. The loss of water vapor by plant parts. Most transpiration occurs through stomata.

transporter. The individual or method of shipping floral products between each level of distribution.

triadic color scheme. A color scheme using three colors that are equidistant from one another on the color wheel. The combination of red, yellow, and blue is a triadic scheme.

triangular design. A popular floral arrangement style, generally one-sided and displaying three distinct sides; may be both symmetrical and asymmetrical in form; examples include equilateral, isosceles, scalene, and right triangles.

tropism. A response (curving and bending) to an external stimulus in which the direction of the movement is usually determined by the direction from which the most intense stimulus comes. See geotropism and phototropism.

tufting. A design technique of loosely clustering or bunching materials closely together at the base of a design to emphasize color and texture. See clustering and pillowing.

tulle. A type of decorative netting used as an accessory in corsage and wedding designs.

turgid. Full of water, swollen, distended; referring to a cell that is firm due to water uptake.

tussie-mussie. A small hand-held fragrant bouquet sometimes spelled tuzzy-muzzy. The word tuzzy refers to the old English word for a knot of flowers. Originally flower cluster stems were tied together. Later, holders were manufactured for ease of carrying and displaying these tight little bouquets. During the Victorian era, flowers were symbolic and tussie-mussies conveyed sentimental messages to loved ones.

umbel. An umbrella-shaped inflorescence with all the stalks (pedicels) arising from the top of the main stem.

underwater cutter. Apparatus specially designed to cut flower stems under water, helping them to hydrate rapidly and last a longer time.

unity. A principle of design; the relationship of individual elements or parts to each other which produces a unified whole. The effect created by the cohesive placement and use of materials in which the whole is greater than its parts.

urn. A vase of classical shape with a base, often wide-mouthed, with two handles.

value. Measurement of the amount of light reflected from a colored object; refers to the lightness or darkness of a color.

vase life. The useful life of a cut flower after harvest, especially the lasting time and quality for the final consumer.

vegetative design. A naturalistic design style in which flowers and plant materials are placed as they would grow in nature. Materials used are found in nature together with emphasis placed on seasonal compatibility.

venation. The arrangement of veins in a leaf.

vertical design. A floral arrangement that is taller than it is wide; often used where display space is limited; examples include bud vase designs and stylized vertical designs.

vertical line. A line that has a 90-degree angle from the horizon, emphasizing strength.

vestibule. The area in a church between the outer door and the interior part or chapel of the building.

Victorian era. The period named for Queen Victoria, who reigned in England from 1837 to 1901. Floral arrangements are characterized as being massive, overdone, and flamboyant. Containers were highly decorative and gaudy.

vignette. Refers to displaying or grouping similar types of merchandise for maximum visual appeal.

visual balance. See balance.

visual merchandising. Efforts to attract customers to the shop and create interest in the flowers and merchandise so customers will want to buy.

void. A connecting space within a design.

wall pockets. Wall containers of various shapes for flowers.

wall spray. A composite spray made from the grouping of flat sprays and placed against the wall at funeral services.

warm colors. Colors (hues) composed of yellow, orange, and red hues. Associated with warm things like the sun and heat. Also referred to as advancing colors.

waterfall design. A design style that has many cascading layers forming a pendulous and flowing appearance.

water quality. The characteristics of water that influence its reactivity with chemicals, particularly floral preservative, and its effect on cut flowers and foliage.

water tubes. Small plastic or glass receptacles for holding water to keep flowers fresh; available in pointed or rounded forms with plastic or rubber lids that keep the water in and permit the insertion of a flower stem.

wedding consultant. A knowledgeable and experienced designer who specializes in planning wedding flowers for the bride.

Wedgwood. A fine ceramic ware popular during the English-Georgian period, named after the English potter Josiah Wedgwood. It depicted ancient Greek and Roman designs and was manufactured with special holes and openings for stems, specifically to hold flowers.

western line design. A triangular, L-shaped design with a focal point near the base from which all stems radiate. A prominent vertical line with an opposite downward sweeping line, with open space between the lines.

wetting agent. A chemical added to some floral preservatives to make water "wetter," helping to hydrate flowers quickly.

wholesaler florist/wholesaler. The traditional middleman in the channel of distribution who buys flowers and floral products from growers and brokers and sells them to retailers. Key functions are to break bulk quantities and sell smaller lots or bunches to retailers.

wilt sensitive. Flowers and foliage that are particularly sensitive or prone to water loss and wilt easily.

window display. The front window area of the floral shop that is intended to captivate the attention of people who are walking or driving by; the window area must display a powerful message or showcase merchandise so as to entice people to come into the shop.

wire. Metal that is very thin and long, like thread, with a circular cross-section; used to support fresh flower stems, replace stems (for corsage-making), bind materials, and so on; sold most commonly in 18-inch-long pieces and is available in silver and green. See also paddle wire, spool wire, and chicken wire; assigned a gauge number according to its diameter or thickness. See also gauge.

wire order/service. Also called "flowers-by-wire" referring to the transfer of floral design orders from one shop for delivery by another shop; originally in the early days of the floral industry, flower orders were transmitted by wire or telegraph; today customer orders are taken by one florist and sent to another by telephone, computer, or Fax.

wooden pick. A wooden stick with one end tapered to a point and having a pliable wire attached to the other end; used to secure items into a floral design or to lengthen stems.

woody stem. A tough or hard stem as opposed to a herbaceous stem; examples include heather, leptospermum, and flowering branches.

working capital. The part of a company's capital readily convertible into cash and available for paying bills, wages, and so on. The money needed to run a business.

worldwide market. The supplying, selling, and buying of floral products throughout the world due to the improvements and advancements in worldwide communication, transportation, and production.

wrap-around wiring. See clutch wiring.

wrapping. A design technique in which fabric, ribbon, raffia, or other materials are used to cover, coil, or twine a single stem or group of materials to achieve a decorative effect.

wreath bouquet. A specialty bouquet made in the form of a wreath carried by brides and bridal attendants.

wristlet. A device added to corsages for wearing on the wrist.

xylem. A complex vascular tissue through which most of the water and minerals of a plant are conducted.

zoning. A technique of restricting the numbers and types of materials used in certain larger areas.
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Publication:Delmar's Handbook of Flowers, Foliage, and Creative Design
Article Type:Glossary
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2000
Words:14848
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