Alternative Fuel: Alternative fuels, for transportation applications, include the following: methanol; denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; fuel mixtures containing 85 percent or more by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with motor gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas (propane); hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials (biofuels such as soy diesel fuel); electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and "... any other fuel the Secretary determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits." The term "alternative fuel" does not include alcohol or other blended portions of primarily petroleum-based fuels used as oxygenates or extenders, i.e., MTBE, ETBE, other ethers, and the 10-percent ethanol portion of gasohol.
Alternative-Fuel Vehicle (AFV): A vehicle designed to operate on an alternative fuel (e.g., compressed natural gas, methane blend, or electricity). The vehicle could be either a dedicated vehicle designed to operate exclusively on alternative fuel or a nondedicated vehicle designed to operate on alternative fuel and/or a traditional fuel.
Anthracite: The highest rank of coal; used primarily for residential and commercial space heating. It is a hard, brittle, and black lustrous coal, often referred to as hard coal, containing a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. The moisture content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than 15 percent. The heat content of anthracite ranges from 22 to 28 million Btu per short ton on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis. The heat content of anthracite coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu per short ton, on the as-received basis (i.e., containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). Note: Since the 1980's, anthracite refuse or mine waste has been used for steam-electric power generation. This fuel typically has a heat content of 15 million Btu per ton or less.
Anthropogenic: Made or generated by a human or caused by human activity. The term is used in the context of global climate change to refer to gaseous emissions that are the result of human activities, as well as other potentially climate-altering activities, such as deforestation.
Asphalt: A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituents obtained by petroleum processing. The definition includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts.
ASTM: The American Society for Testing and Materials.
Aviation Gasoline Blending Components: Naphthas that will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus.
Aviation Gasoline, Finished: A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel specifications are provided in ASTM Specification D 910 and Military Specification MILG-5572. Note: Data on blending components are not counted in data on finished aviation gasoline.
Barrel (Petroleum): A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. Gallons.
Base Gas: The volume of gas needed as a permanent inventory to maintain adequate underground storage reservoir pressures and deliverability rates throughout the withdrawal season. All native gas is included in the base gas volume.
Biodiesel: A fuel typically made from soybean, canola, or other vegetable oils; animal fats; and recycled grease. It can serve as a substitute for petroleum-derived diesel fuel or distillate fuel oil. For U.S. Energy Information Administration reporting, it is a fuel composed of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, designated B100, and meeting the requirements of ASTM (American Society for Testing & Materials) D 6751.
Biofuels: Liquid fuels and blending components produced from biomass (plant) feedstocks, used primarily for transportation. See Biodiesel and Fuel Ethanol.
Biogenic: Produced by biological processes of living organisms. Note: EIA uses the term "biogenic" to refer only to organic nonfossil material of biological origin.
Biomass: Organic non-fossil material of biological origin constituting a renewable energy source. See Biodiesel, Biofuels, Biomass Waste, Fuel Ethanol, and Wood and Wood-Derived Fuels.
Biomass Waste: Organic non-fossil material of biological origin that is a byproduct or a discarded product. "Biomass waste" includes municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural crop byproducts, straw, and other biomass solids, liquids, and gases; but excludes wood and wood-derived fuels (including black liquor), biofuels feedstock, biodiesel, and fuel ethanol. Note: EIA "biomass waste" data also include energy crops grown specifically for energy production, which would not normally constitute waste.
Bituminous Coal: A dense coal, usually black, sometimes dark brown, often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material, used primarily as fuel in steam-electric power generation, with substantial quantities also used for heat and power applications in manufacturing and to make coke. Bituminous coal is the most abundant coal in active U.S. mining regions. Its moisture content usually is less than 20 percent. The heat content of bituminous coal ranges from 21 to 30 million Btu per short ton on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis. The heat content of bituminous coal consumed in the United States averages 24 million Btu per short ton, on the as-received basis (i.e., containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter).
Black Liquor: A byproduct of the paper production process, alkaline spent liquor, that can be used as a source of energy. Alkaline spent liquor is removed from the digesters in the process of chemically pulping wood. After evaporation, the residual "black" liquor is burned as a fuel in a recovery furnace that permits the recovery of certain basic chemicals.
British Thermal Unit (Btu): The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at the temperature at which water has its greatest density (approximately 39 degrees Fahrenheit). See Heat Content.
Btu: See British Thermal Unit.
Btu Conversion Factor: A factor for converting energy data between one unit of measurement and British thermal units (Btu). Btu conversion factors are generally used to convert energy data from physical units of measure (such as barrels, cubic feet, or short tons) into the energy-equivalent measure of Btu. (See http://www.eia.gov/emeu/mer/append_a.html for further information on Btu conversion factors.)
Butane: A normally gaseous straight-chain or branched-chain hydrocarbon (C4H10). It is extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams. It includes isobutane and normal butane and is designated in ASTM Specification D1835 and Gas Processors Association Specifications for commercial butane.
Isobutane: A normally gaseous branched-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of 10.9[degrees] F. It is extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams.
Normal Butane: A normally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of 31.1[degrees] F. It is extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams.
Butylene: An olefinic hydrocarbon (C4H8) recovered from refinery processes.
Capacity Factor: The ratio of the electrical energy produced by a generating unit for a given period of time to the electrical energy that could have been produced at continuous full-power operation during the same period.
Carbon Dioxide (C[O.sub.2]): A colorless, odorless, nonpoisonous gas that is a normal part of Earth's atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a product of fossil-fuel combustion as well as other processes. It is considered a greenhouse gas as it traps heat (infrared energy) radiated by the Earth into the atmosphere and thereby contributes to the potential for global warming. The global warming potential (GWP) of other greenhouse gases is measured in relation to that of carbon dioxide, which by international scientific convention is assigned a value of one (1).
Chained Dollars: A measure used to express real prices. Real prices are those that have been adjusted to remove the effect of changes in the purchasing power of the dollar; they usually reflect buying power relative to a reference year. Prior to 1996, real prices were expressed in constant dollars, a measure based on the weights of goods and services in a single year, usually a recent year. In 1996, the U.S. Department of Commerce introduced the chained-dollar measure. The new measure is based on the average weights of goods and services in successive pairs of years. It is "chained" because the second year in each pair, with its weights, becomes the first year of the next pair. The advantage of using the chained-dollar measure is that it is more closely related to any given period and is therefore subject to less distortion over time.
CIF: See Cost, Insurance, Freight.
City Gate: A point or measuring station at which a distribution gas utility receives gas from a natural gas pipeline company or transmission system.
Climate Change: A term used to refer to all forms of climatic inconsistency, but especially to significant change from one prevailing climatic condition to another. In some cases, "climate change" has been used synonymously with the term "global warming"; scientists, however, tend to use the term in a wider sense inclusive of natural changes in climate, including climatic cooling.
Coal: A readily combustible black or brownish-black rock whose composition, including inherent moisture, consists of more than 50 percent by weight and more than 70 percent by volume of carbonaceous material. It is formed from plant remains that have been compacted, hardened, chemically altered, and metamorphosed by heat and pressure over geologic time. See Anthracite, Bituminous Coal, Lignite, Subbituminous Coal, Waste Coal, and Coal Synfuel.
Coal Coke: See Coke, Coal.
Coal Stocks: Coal quantities that are held in storage for future use and disposition. Note: When coal data are collected for a particular reporting period (month, quarter, or year), coal stocks are commonly measured as of the last day of the period.
Coal Synfuel: Coal-based solid fuel that has been processed by a coal synfuel plant; and coal-based fuels such as briquettes, pellets, or extrusions, which are formed from fresh or recycled coal and binding materials.
Coal Synfuel Plant: A plant engaged in the chemical transformation of coal into coal synfuel.
Coke, Coal: A solid carbonaceous residue derived from low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal from which the volatile constituents are driven off by baking in an oven at temperatures as high as 2,000[degrees] F so that the fixed carbon and residual ash are fused together. Coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace. Coke (coal) has a heating value of 24.8 million Btu per ton.
Coke, Petroleum: A residue high in carbon content and low in hydrogen that is the final product of thermal decomposition in the condensation process in cracking. This product is reported as marketable coke or catalyst coke. The conversion is 5 barrels (42 U.S. gallons each) per short ton. Coke (petroleum) has a heating value of 6.024 million Btu per barrel.
Coking Coal: Bituminous coal suitable for making coke. See Coke, Coal.
Combined-Heat-and-Power (CHP) Plant: A plant designed to produce both heat and electricity from a single heat source. Note: This term is being used in place of the term "cogenerator" that was used by EIA in the past. CHP better describes the facilities because some of the plants included do not produce heat and power in a sequential fashion and, as a result, do not meet the legal definition of cogeneration specified in the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA).
Commercial Sector: An energy-consuming sector that consists of service-providing facilities and equipment of: businesses; Federal, State, and local governments; and other private and public organizations, such as religious, social, or fraternal groups. The commercial sector includes institutional living quarters. It also includes sewage treatment facilities. Common uses of energy associated with this sector include space heating, water heating, air conditioning, lighting, refrigeration, cooking, and running a wide variety of other equipment. Note: This sector includes generators that produce electricity and/or useful thermal output primarily to support the activities of the abovementioned commercial establishments. Various EIA programs differ in sectoral coverage-for more information see http://www.eia.gov/neic/datadefinitions/Guideforwebcom.html. See End-Use Sectors and Energy-Use Sectors.
Completion: The installation of permanent equipment for the production of oil or gas. If a well is equipped to produce only oil or gas from one zone or reservoir, the definition of a well (classified as an oil well or gas well) and the definition of a completion are identical. However, if a well is equipped to produce oil and/or gas separately from more than one reservoir, a well is not synonymous with a completion.
Conventional Gasoline: Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Note: This category excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock.
Conventional Hydroelectric Power: Hydroelectric power generated from flowing water that is not created by hydroelectric pumped storage.
Conversion Factor: A factor for converting data between one unit of measurement and another (such as between short tons and British thermal units, or between barrels and gallons). (See http://www.eia.gov/emeu/me r/append_a.html and http://www.eia.gov/emeu/mer/append_b .html for further information on conversion factors.) See Btu Conversion Factor and Thermal Conversion Factor.
Cost, Insurance, Freight (CIF): A sales transaction in which the seller pays for the transportation and insurance of the goods to the port of destination specified by the buyer.
Crude Oil: A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include: 1) small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but are liquid at atmospheric pressure after being recovered from oil well (casinghead) gas in lease separators and are subsequently commingled with the crude stream without being separately measured. Lease condensate recovered as a liquid from natural gas wells in lease or field separation facilities and later mixed into the crude stream is also included; 2) small amounts of nonhydrocarbons produced with the oil, such as sulfur and various metals; and 3) drip gases, and liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, oil sands, gilsonite, and oil shale.
Liquids produced at natural gas processing plants are excluded. Crude oil is refined to produce a wide array of petroleum products, including heating oils; gasoline, diesel and jet fuels; lubricants; asphalt; ethane, propane, and butane; and many other products used for their energy or chemical content.
Crude Oil F.O.B. Price: The crude oil price actually charged at the oil-producing country's port of loading. Includes deductions for any rebates and discounts or additions of premiums, where applicable. It is the actual price paid with no adjustment for credit terms.
Crude Oil (Including Lease Condensate): A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Included are lease condensate and liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, gilsonite, and oil shale. Drip gases are also included, but topped crude oil (residual oil) and other unfinished oils are excluded. Where identifiable, liquids produced at natural gas processing plants and mixed with crude oil are likewise excluded.
Crude Oil Landed Cost: The price of crude oil at the port of discharge, including charges associated with the purchase, transporting, and insuring of a cargo from the purchase point to the port of discharge. The cost does not include charges incurred at the discharge port (e.g., import tariffs or fees, wharfage charges, and demurrage).
Crude Oil Refinery Input: The total crude oil put into processing units at refineries.
Crude Oil Stocks: Stocks of crude oil and lease condensate held at refineries, in pipelines, at pipeline terminals, and on leases.
Crude Oil Used Directly: Crude oil consumed as fuel by crude oil pipelines and on crude oil leases.
Crude Oil Well: A well completed for the production of crude oil from one or more oil zones or reservoirs. Wells producing both crude oil and natural gas are classified as oil wells.
Cubic Foot (Natural Gas): A unit of volume equal to 1 cubic foot at a pressure base of 14.73 pounds standard per square inch absolute and a temperature base of 60[degrees] F.
Degree-Day Normals: Simple arithmetic averages of monthly or annual degree-days over a long period of time (usually the 30-year period 1961-1990). The averages may be simple degree-day normals or population-weighted degree-day normals.
Degree-Days, Cooling (CDD): A measure of how warm a location is over a period of time relative to a base temperature, most commonly specified as 65 degrees Fahrenheit. The measure is computed for each day by subtracting the base temperature (65 degrees) from the average of the day's high and low temperatures, with negative values set equal to zero. Each day's cooling degree-days are summed to create a cooling degree-day measure for a specified reference period. Cooling degree-days are used in energy analysis as an indicator of air conditioning energy requirements or use.
Degree-Days, Heating (HDD): A measure of how cold a location is over a period of time relative to a base temperature, most commonly specified as 65 degrees Fahrenheit. The measure is computed for each day by subtracting the average of the day's high and low temperatures from the base temperature (65 degrees), with negative values set equal to zero. Each day's heating degree-days are summed to create a heating degree-day measure for a specified reference period. Heating degree-days are used in energy analysis as an indicator of space heating energy requirements or use.
Degree-Days, Population-Weighted: Heating or cooling degree-days weighted by the population of the area in which the degree-days are recorded. To compute State population-weighted degree-days, each State is divided into from one to nine climatically homogeneous divisions, which are assigned weights based on the ratio of the population of the division to the total population of the State. Degree-day readings for each division are multiplied by the corresponding population weight for each division and those products are then summed to arrive at the State population-weighted degree-day figure. To compute national population-weighted degree-days, the Nation is divided into nine Census regions, each comprising from three to eight States, which are assigned weights based on the ratio of the population of the region to the total population of the Nation. Degree-day readings for each region are multiplied by the corresponding population weight for each region and those products are then summed to arrive at the national population-weighted degree-day figure.
Denaturant: Petroleum, typically pentanes plus or conventional motor gasoline, added to fuel ethanol to make it unfit for human consumption. Fuel ethanol is denatured, usually prior to transport from the ethanol production facility, by adding 2 to 5 volume percent denaturant. See Fuel Ethanol and Fuel Ethanol Minus Denaturant.
Design Electrical Rating, Net: The nominal net electrical output of a nuclear unit as specified by the electric utility for the purpose of plant design.
Development Well: A well drilled within the proved area of an oil or gas reservoir to the depth of a stratigraphic horizon known to be productive.
Diesel Fuel: A fuel composed of distillate fuel oils obtained in petroleum refining operation or blends of such distillate fuel oils with residual fuel oil used in motor vehicles. The boiling point and specific gravity are higher for diesel fuels than for gasoline.
Direct Use: Use of electricity that 1) is self-generated, 2) is produced by either the same entity that consumes the power or an affiliate, and 3) is used in direct support of a service or industrial process located within the same facility or group of facilities that house the generating equipment. Direct use is exclusive of station use.
Distillate Fuel Oil: A general classification for one of the petroleum fractions produced in conventional distillation operations. It includes diesel fuels and fuel oils. Products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 diesel fuel are used in on-highway diesel engines, such as those in trucks and automobiles, as well as off-highway engines, such as those in railroad locomotives and agricultural machinery. Products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 fuel oils are used primarily for space heating and electricity generation.
Dry Hole: An exploratory or development well found to be incapable of producing either oil or gas in sufficient quantities to justify completion as an oil or gas well.
Dry Natural Gas Production: See Natural Gas (Dry) Production.
E85: A fuel containing a mixture of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent motor gasoline.
Electric Power Plant: A station containing prime movers, electric generators, and auxiliary equipment for converting mechanical, chemical, and/or fission energy into electric energy.
Electric Power Sector: An energy-consuming sector that consists of electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public-i.e., North American Industry Classification System 22 plants. See also Combined-Heat-and-Power (CHP) Plant, Electricity-Only Plant, Electric Utility, and Independent Power Producer.
Electric Utility: Any entity that generates, transmits, or distributes electricity and recovers the cost of its generation, transmission or distribution assets and operations, either directly or indirectly, through cost-based rates set by a separate regulatory authority (e.g., State Public Service Commission), or is owned by a governmental unit or the consumers that the entity serves. Examples of these entities include: investor-owned entities, public power districts, public utility districts, municipalities, rural electric cooperatives, and State and Federal agencies. Electric utilities may have Federal Energy Regulatory Commission approval for interconnection agreements and wholesale trade tariffs covering either cost-of-service and/or market-based rates under the authority of the Federal Power Act. See Electric Power Sector.
Electrical System Energy Losses: The amount of energy lost during generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity, including plant and unaccounted-for uses.
Electricity: A form of energy characterized by the presence and motion of elementary charged particles generated by friction, induction, or chemical change.
Electricity Generation: The process of producing electric energy, or the amount of electric energy produced by transforming other forms of energy, commonly expressed in kilowatthours (kWh) or megawatthours (Mwh).
Electricity Generation, Gross: The total amount of electric energy produced by generating units and measured at the generating terminal in kilowatthours (kWh) or megawatthours (MWh).
Electricity Generation, Net: The amount of gross electricity generation less station use (the electric energy consumed at the generating station(s) for station service or auxiliaries). Note: Electricity required for pumping at hydroelectric pumped-storage plants is regarded as electricity for station service and is deducted from gross generation.
Electricity-Only Plant: A plant designed to produce electricity only. See also Combined-Heat-and-Power (CHP) Plant.
Electricity Retail Sales: The amount of electricity sold to customers purchasing electricity for their own use and not for resale.
End-Use Sectors: The residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation sectors of the economy.
Energy: The capacity for doing work as measured by the capability of doing work (potential energy) or the conversion of this capability to motion (kinetic energy). Energy has several forms, some of which are easily convertible and can be changed to another form useful for work. Most of the world's convertible energy comes from fossil fuels that are burned to produce heat that is then used as a transfer medium to mechanical or other means in order to accomplish tasks. Electrical energy is usually measured in kilowatthours, while heat energy is usually measured in British thermal units.
Energy Consumption: The use of energy as a source of heat or power or as an input in the manufacturing process.
Energy Service Provider: An energy entity that provides service to a retail or end-use customer.
Energy-Use Sectors: A group of major energy-consuming components of U.S. society developed to measure and analyze energy use. The sectors most commonly referred to in EIA are: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric power.
Ethane: A normally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon ([C.sub.2][H.sub.6] ). It is a colorless, paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of -127.48[degrees] F. It is extracted from natural gas and refinery gas streams.
Ethanol ([C.sub.2][H.sub.5]OH): A clear, colorless, flammable alcohol. Ethanol is typically produced biologically from biomass feedstocks such as agricultural crops and cellulosic residues from agricultural crops or wood. Ethanol can also be produced chemically from ethylene. See Biomass, Fuel Ethanol, and Fuel Ethanol Minus Denaturant.
Ethylene: An olefinic hydrocarbon ([C.sub.2][H.sub.4]) recovered from refinery processes or petrochemical processes.
Exploratory Well: A well drilled to find and produce oil or gas in an area previously considered an unproductive area, to find a new reservoir in a known field (i.e., one previously found to be producing oil or gas in another reservoir), or to extend the limit of a known oil or gas reservoir.
Exports: Shipments of goods from within the 50 States and the District of Columbia to U.S. possessions and territories or to foreign countries.
Extraction Loss: The reduction in volume of natural gas due to the removal of natural gas liquid constituents, such as ethane, propane, and butane, at natural gas processing plants.
Federal Energy Administration (FEA): A predecessor of the U.S. Energy Information Administration.
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC): The Federal agency with jurisdiction over interstate electricity sales, wholesale electric rates, hydroelectric licensing, natural gas pricing, oil pipeline rates, and gas pipeline certification. FERC is an independent regulatory agency within the U.S. Department of Energy and is the successor to the Federal Power Commission.
Federal Power Commission (FPC): The predecessor agency of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The Federal Power Commission was created by an Act of Congress under the Federal Water Power Act on June 10, 1920. It was charged originally with regulating the electric power and natural gas industries. It was abolished on September 30, 1977, when the U.S. Department of Energy was created. Its functions were divided between the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, an independent regulatory agency.
First Purchase Price: The price for domestic crude oil reported by the company that owns the crude oil the first time it is removed from the lease boundary.
Flared Natural Gas: Natural gas burned in flares on the base site or at gas processing plants.
F.O.B. (Free on Board): A sales transaction in which the seller makes the product available for pick up at a specified port or terminal at a specified price and the buyer pays for the subsequent transportation and insurance.
Footage Drilled: Total footage for wells in various categories, as reported for any specified period, includes (1) the deepest total depth (length of well bores) of all wells drilled from the surface, (2) the total of all bypassed footage drilled in connection with reported wells, and (3) all new footage drilled for directional sidetrack wells. Footage reported for directional sidetrack wells does not include footage in the common bore, which is reported as footage for the original well. In the case of old wells drilled deeper, the reported footage is that which was drilled below the total depth of the old well.
Former U.S.S.R.: See Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.).
Fossil Fuel: An energy source formed in the Earth's crust from decayed organic material, such as petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Fossil-Fueled Steam-Electric Power Plant: An electricity generation plant in which the prime mover is a turbine rotated by high-pressure steam produced in a boiler by heat from burning fossil fuels.
Fuel Ethanol: Ethanol intended for fuel use. Fuel ethanol in the United States must be anhydrous (less than 1 percent water). Fuel ethanol is denatured (made unfit for human consumption), usually prior to transport from the ethanol production facility, by adding 2 to 5 volume percent petroleum, typically pentanes plus or conventional motor gasoline. Fuel ethanol is used principally for blending in low concentrations with motor gasoline as an oxygenate or octane enhancer. In high concentrations, it is used to fuel alternative-fuel vehicles specially designed for its use. See Alternative-Fuel Vehicle, Denaturant, E85, Ethanol, Fuel Ethanol Minus Denaturant, and Oxygenates.
Fuel Ethanol Minus Denaturant: An unobserved quantity of anhydrous, biomass-derived, undenatured ethanol for fuel use. The quantity is obtained by subtracting the estimated denaturant volume from fuel ethanol volume. Fuel ethanol minus denaturant is counted as renewable energy, while denaturant is counted as nonrenewable fuel. See Denaturant, Ethanol, Fuel Ethanol, Nonrenewable Fuels, Oxygenates, and Renewable Energy.
Full-Power Operation: Operation of a nuclear generating unit at 100 percent of its design capacity. Full-power operation precedes commercial operation.
Gasohol: A blend of finished motor gasoline containing alcohol (generally ethanol but sometimes methanol) at a concentration between 5.7 percent and 10 percent by volume. See Motor Gasoline, Oxygenated.
Gas Well: A well completed for the production of natural gas from one or more gas zones or reservoirs. (Wells producing both crude oil and natural gas are classified as oil wells.)
Geothermal Energy: Hot water or steam extracted from geothermal reservoirs in the earth's crust and used for geothermal heat pumps, water heating, or electricity generation.
Global Warming: An increase in the near-surface temperature of the Earth. Global warming has occurred in the distant past as the result of natural influences, but the term is today most often used to refer to the warming some scientists predict will occur as a result of increased anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. See Climate Change.
Global Warming Potential (GWP): An index used to compare the relative radiative forcing of different gases without directly calculating the changes in atmospheric concentrations. GWPs are calculated as the ratio of the radiative forcing that would result from the emission of one kilogram of a greenhouse gas to that from the emission of one kilogram of carbon dioxide over a fixed period of time, such as 100 years.
Greenhouse Gases: Those gases, such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride, that are transparent to solar (short-wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus preventing long-wave radiant energy from leaving Earth's atmosphere. The net effect is a trapping of absorbed radiation and a tendency to warm the planet's surface.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP): The total value of goods and services produced by labor and property located in the United States. As long as the labor and property are located in the United States, the supplier (that is, the workers and, for property, the owners) may be either U.S. residents or residents of foreign countries.
GT/IC: Gas turbine and internal combustion plants.
Heat Content: The amount of heat energy available to be released by the transformation or use of a specified physical unit of an energy form (e.g., a ton of coal, a barrel of oil, a kilowatthour of electricity, a cubic foot of natural gas, or a pound of steam). The amount of heat energy is commonly expressed in British thermal units (Btu). Note: Heat content of combustible energy forms can be expressed in terms of either gross heat content (higher or upper heating value) or net heat content (lower heating value), depending upon whether or not the available heat energy includes or excludes the energy used to vaporize water (contained in the original energy form or created during the combustion process). The U.S. Energy Information Administration typically uses gross heat content values.
Heat Rate: A measure of generating station thermal efficiency commonly stated as Btu per kilowatthour. Note: Heat rates can be expressed as either gross or net heat rates, depending whether the electricity output is gross or net generation. Heat rates are typically expressed as net heat rates.
Hydrocarbon: An organic chemical compound of hydrogen and carbon in the gaseous, liquid, or solid phase. The molecular structure of hydrocarbon compounds varies from the simplest (methane, the primary constituent of natural gas) to the very heavy and very complex.
Hydroelectric Power: The production of electricity from the kinetic energy of falling water.
Hydroelectric Power Plant: A plant in which the turbine generators are driven by falling water.
Hydroelectric Pumped Storage: Hydroelectricity that is generated during peak load periods by using water previously pumped into an elevated storage reservoir during off-peak periods when excess generating capacity is available to do so. When additional generating capacity is needed, the water can be released from the reservoir through a conduit to turbine generators located in a power plant at a lower level.
Hydrogen (H): The lightest of all gases, hydrogen occurs chiefly in combination with oxygen in water. It also exists in acids, bases, alcohols, petroleum, and other hydrocarbons.
Imports: Receipts of goods into the 50 States and the District of Columbia from U.S. possessions and territories or from foreign countries.
Independent Power Producer: A corporation, person, agency, authority, or other legal entity or instrumentality that owns or operates facilities for the generation of electricity for use primarily by the public, and that is not an electric utility.
Industrial Sector: An energy-consuming sector that consists of all facilities and equipment used for producing, processing, or assembling goods. The industrial sector encompasses the following types of activity: manufacturing (NAICS codes 31-33); agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting (NAICS code 11); mining, including oil and gas extraction (NAICS code 21); and construction (NAICS code 23). Overall energy use in this sector is largely for process heat and cooling and powering machinery, with lesser amounts used for facility heating, air conditioning, and lighting. Fossil fuels are also used as raw material inputs to manufactured products. Note: This sector includes generators that produce electricity and/or useful thermal output primarily to support the abovementioned industrial activities. Various EIA programs differ in sectoral coverage-for more information see http://www.eia.gov/neic/datadefinitions/Guideforwebind.htm. See End-Use Sectors and Energy-Use Sectors.
Injections (Natural Gas): Natural gas injected into storage reservoirs.
Isobutane: A normally gaseous branch-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of 10.9[degrees] F. It is extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams. See Butane.
Isobutylene: An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from refinery processes or petrochemical processes.
Isopentane: A saturated branched-chain hydrocarbon obtained by fractionation of natural gasoline or isomerization of normal pentane.
Jet Fuel: A refined petroleum product used in jet aircraft engines. It includes kerosene-type jet fuel and naphtha-type jet fuel.
Jet Fuel, Kerosene-Type: A kerosene-based product with a maximum distillation temperature of 400[degrees] F at the 10-percent recovery point and a final maximum boiling point of 572[degrees] F. Fuel specifications are provided in ASTM Specification D 1655 and Military Specifications MIL-T-5624P and MIL-T-83133D (Grades JP-5 and JP-8). It isused primarily for commercial turbojet and turboprop aircraft engines.
Jet Fuel, Naphtha-Type: A fuel in the heavy naphtha boiling range, with an average gravity of 52.8 degrees API, 20 to 90 percent distillation temperatures of 290[degrees] to 470[degrees] F and meeting Military Specification MIL-T-5624L (Grade JP-4). It is used by the military for turbojet and turboprop engines.
Kerosene: A petroleum distillate having a maximum distillation temperature of 401[degrees] F at the 10-percent recovery point, a final boiling point of 572[degrees] F, and a minimum flash point of 100[degrees] F. Included are the two grades designated in ASTM D3699 (No. 1-K and No. 2-K) and all grades of kerosene called range or stove oil. Kerosene is used in space heaters, cook stoves, and water heaters; it is suitable for use as an illuminant when burned in wick lamps.
Kilowatt: A unit of electrical power equal to 1,000 watts.
Kilowatthour (kWh): A measure of electricity defined as a unit of work or energy, measured as 1 kilowatt (1,000 watts) of power expended for 1 hour. One kilowatthour is equivalent to 3,412 Btu. See Watthour.
Landed Costs: The dollar-per-barrel price of crude oil at the port of discharge. Included are the charges associated with the purchase, transporting, and insuring of a cargo from the purchase point to the port of discharge. Not included are charges incurred at the discharge port (e.g., import tariffs or fees, wharfage charges, and demurrage charges).
Lease and Plant Fuel: Natural gas used in well, field, and lease operations (such as gas used in drilling operations, heaters, dehydrators, and field compressors) and used as fuel in natural gas processing plants.
Lease Condensate: A mixture consisting primarily of pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons, which is recovered as a liquid from natural gas in lease or field separation facilities. Note: This category excludes natural gas liquids, such as butane and propane, which are recovered at natural gas processing plants or facilities.
Lignite: The lowest rank of coal, often referred to as brown coal, used almost exclusively as fuel for steam-electric power generation. It is brownish-black and has a high inherent moisture content, sometimes as high as 45 percent. The heat content of lignite ranges from 9 to 17 million Btu per short ton on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis. The heat content of lignite consumed in the United States averages 13 million Btu per short ton, on the as-received basis (i.e., containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter).
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG): Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260[degrees] F at atmospheric pressure.
Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG): Ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, normal butane, butylene, and isobutane produced at refineries or natural gas processing plants, including plants that fractionate new natural gas plant liquids.
Low-Power Testing: The period of time between a nuclear generating unit's initial fuel loading date and the issuance of its operating (full-power) license. The maximum level of operation during that period is 5 percent of the unit's design thermal rating.
Lubricants: Substances used to reduce friction between bearing surfaces or as process materials either incorporated into other materials used as processing aids in the manufacturing of other products or as carriers of other materials. Petroleum lubricants may be produced either from distillates or residues. Other substances may be added to impart or improve certain required properties. Excluded are byproducts of lubricating oil refining, such as aromatic extracts derived from solvent extraction or tars derived from deasphalting. Included are all grades of lubricating oils from spindle oil to cylinder oil and those used in greases. Lubricant categories are paraffinic and naphthenic.
Marketed Production (Natural Gas): Gross withdrawals less gas used for repressuring, quantities vented and flared, and nonhydrocarbon gases removed in treating or processing operations. Includes all quantities of gas used in field and processing operations.
Methane: A colorless, flammable, odorless, hydrocarbon gas (C[H.sub.4]) that is the principal constituent of natural gas. It is also an important source of hydrogen in various industrial processes.
Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE): An ether, [(C[H.sub.3]).sub.3]COC[H.sub.3], intended for motor gasoline blending. See Oxygenates.
Methanol: A light, volatile alcohol (C[H.sub.3]OH) eligible for motor gasoline blending. See Oxygenates.
Miscellaneous Petroleum Products: All finished petroleum products not classified elsewhere-for example, petrolatum, lube refining byproducts (aromatic extracts and tars), absorption oils, ram-jet fuel, petroleum rocket fuels, synthetic natural gas feedstocks, and specialty oils.
Motor Gasoline Blending: Mechanical mixing of motor gasoline blending components and oxygenates as required, to produce finished motor gasoline. Finished motor gasoline may be further mixed with other motor gasoline blending components or oxygenates, resulting in increased volumes of finished motor gasoline and/or changes in the formulation of finished motor gasoline (e.g., conventional motor gasoline mixed with MTBE to produce oxygenated motor gasoline).
Motor Gasoline Blending Components: Naphtha (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. These components include reformulated gasoline blendstock (RBOB) but exclude oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Note: oxygenates are reported as individual components and are included in the total for other hydrocarbons, hydrogens, and oxygenates.
Motor Gasoline, Finished: A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in spark-ignition. Motor gasoline, as defined in ASTM Specification D-4814 or Federal Specification VV-G-1690C, is characterized as having a boiling range of 122[degrees]F to 158[degrees]F at the 10-percent recovery point to 365[degrees]F to 374[degrees]F at the 90-percent recovery point. "Motor gasoline" includes conventional gasoline, all types of oxygenated gasoline including gasohol, and reformulated gasoline, but excludes aviation gasoline. Note: Volumetric data on blending components, as well as oxygenates, are not counted in data on finished motor gasoline until the blending components are blended into the gasoline.
Motor Gasoline Grades: The classification of gasoline by octane ratings. Each type of gasoline (conventional, oxygenated, and reformulated) is classified by three grades: regular, midgrade, and premium. Note: Gasoline sales are reported by grade in accordance with their classification at the time of sale. In general, automotive octane requirements are lower at high altitudes. Therefore, in some areas of the United States, such as the Rocky Mountain States, the octane ratings for the gasoline grades may be 2 or more octane points lower.
Regular Gasoline: Gasoline having an antiknock index, i.e., octane rating, greater than or equal to 85 and less than 88. Note: Octane requirements may vary by altitude. See Motor Gasoline Grades.
Midgrade Gasoline: Gasoline having an antiknock index, i.e., octane rating, greater than or equal to 88 and less than or equal to 90. Note: Octane requirements may vary by altitude. See Motor Gasoline Grades.
Premium Gasoline: Gasoline having an antiknock index, i.e., octane rating, greater than 90. Note: Octane requirements may vary by altitude. See Motor Gasoline Grades.
Motor Gasoline, Oxygenated: Finished motor gasoline, other than reformulated gasoline, having an oxygen content of 2.7 percent or higher by weight and required by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to be sold in areas designated by EPA as carbon monoxide (CO) nonattainment areas. Note: Oxygenated gasoline excludes oxygenated fuels program reformulated gasoline (OPRG) and reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB). Data on gasohol that has at least 2.7 percent oxygen, by weight, and is intended for sale inside CO nonattainment areas are included in data on oxygenated gasoline. Other data on gasohol are included in data on conventional gasoline.
Motor Gasoline, Reformulated: Finished motor gasoline formulated for use in motor vehicles, the composition and properties of which meet the requirements of the reformulated gasoline regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under Section 211(k) of the Clean Air Act. Note: This category includes oxygenated fuels program reformulated gasoline (OPRG) but excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB).
Motor Gasoline Retail Prices: Motor gasoline prices calculated each month by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) in conjunction with the construction of the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Those prices are collected in 85 urban areas selected to represent all urban consumers-about 80 percent of the total U.S. population. The service stations are selected initially, and on a replacement basis, in such a way that they represent the purchasing habits of the CPI population. Service stations in the current sample include those providing all types of service (i.e., full-, mini-, and self-service.
Motor Gasoline (Total): For stock level data, a sum including finished motor gasoline stocks plus stocks of motor gasoline blending components but excluding stocks of oxygenates.
MTBE: See Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether.
NAICS (North American Industry Classification System): A coding system developed jointly by the United States, Canada, and Mexico to classify businesses and industries according to the type of economic activity in which they are engaged. NAICS replaces the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes. For additional information on NAICS, go to http://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/.
Naphtha: A generic term applied to a petroleum fraction with an approximate boiling range between 122 and 400[degrees] F.
Natural Gas: A gaseous mixture of hydrocarbon compounds, primarily methane, used as a fuel for electricity generation and in a variety of ways in buildings, and as raw material input and fuel for industrial processes.
Natural Gas, Dry: Natural gas which remains after: 1) the liquefiable hydrocarbon portion has been removed from the gas stream (i.e., gas after lease, field, and/or plant separation); and 2) any volumes of nonhydrocarbon gases have been removed where they occur in sufficient quantity to render the gas unmarketable. Note: Dry natural gas is also known as consumer-grade natural gas. The parameters for measurement are cubic feet at 60 degrees Fahrenheit and 14.73 pounds per square inch absolute.
Natural Gas (Dry) Production: The process of producing consumer-grade natural gas. Natural gas withdrawn from reservoirs is reduced by volumes used at the production (lease) site and by processing losses. Volumes used at the production site include 1) the volume returned to reservoirs in cycling, repressuring of oil reservoirs, and conservation operations; and 2) gas vented and flared. Processing losses include 1) nonhydrocarbon gases (e.g., water vapor, carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen sulfide, and nitrogen) removed from the gas stream; and 2) gas converted to liquid form, such as lease condensate and plant liquids. Volumes of dry gas withdrawn from gas storage reservoirs are not considered part of production. Dry natural gas production equals marketed production less extraction loss.
Natural Gas Marketed Production: Gross withdrawals of natural gas from production reservoirs, less gas used for reservoir repressuring; nonhydrocarbon gases removed in treating and processing operations; and quantities vented and flared.
Natural Gas Plant Liquids (NGPL): Natural gas liquids recovered from natural gas in processing plants and, in some situations, from natural gas field facilities, as well as those extracted by fractionators. Natural gas plant liquids are defined according to the published specifications of the Gas Processors Association and the American Society for Testing and Material as follows: ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, pentanes plus, and other products from natural gas processing plants (i.e., products meeting the standards for finished petroleum products produced at natural gas processing plants, such as finished motor gasoline, finished aviation gasoline, special naphthas, kerosene, distillate fuel oil, and miscellaneous products).
Natural Gas Wellhead Price: The wellhead price of natural gas is calculated by dividing the total reported value at the wellhead by the total quantity produced as reported by the appropriate agencies of individual producing States and the U.S. Minerals Management Service. The price includes all costs prior to shipment from the lease, including gathering and compression costs, in addition to State production, severance, and similar charges.
Natural Gasoline: A mixture of hydrocarbons (mostly pentanes and heavier) extracted from natural gas that meets vapor pressure, end-point, and other specifications for natural gasoline set by the Gas Processors Association. Includes isopentane, which is a saturated branch-chain hydrocarbon obtained by fractionation of natural gasoline or isomerization of normal pentane.
Net Summer Capacity: The maximum output, commonly expressed in kilowatts (kW) or megawatts (MW), that generating equipment can supply to system load, as demonstrated by a multi-hour test, at the time of summer peak demand (period of June 1 through September 30). This output reflects a reduction in capacity due to electricity use for station service or auxiliaries.
Neutral Zone: A 6,200 square-mile area shared equally between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia under a 1992 agreement. The Neutral Zone contains an estimated 5 billion barrels of oil and 8 trillion cubic feet of natural gas.
Nominal Dollars: A measure used to express nominal price.
Nominal Price: The price paid for a product or service at the time of the transaction. Nominal prices are those that have not been adjusted to remove the effect of changes in the purchasing power of the dollar; they reflect buying power in the year in which the transaction occurred.
Non-Biomass Waste: Material of non-biological origin that is a byproduct or a discarded product. "Non-biomass waste" includes municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, such as plastics, and tire-derived fuels.
Nonhydrocarbon Gases: Typical nonhydrocarbon gases that may be present in reservoir natural gas are carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen sulfide, and nitrogen.
Nonrenewable Fuels: Fuels that cannot be easily made or "renewed," such as crude oil, natural gas, and coal.
Nuclear Electric Power (Nuclear Power): Electricity generated by the use of the thermal energy released from the fission of nuclear fuel in a reactor.
Nuclear Electric Power Plant: A single-unit or multiunit facility in which heat produced in one or more reactors by the fissioning of nuclear fuel is used to drive one or more steam turbines.
Nuclear Reactor: An apparatus in which a nuclear fission chain reaction can be initiated, controlled, and sustained at a specific rate. A reactor includes fuel (fissionable material), moderating material to control the rate of fission, a heavy-walled pressure vessel to house reactor components, shielding to protect personnel, a system to conduct heat away from the reactor, and instrumentation for monitoring and controlling the reactor's systems.
OECD: See Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
Offshore: That geographic area that lies seaward of the coastline. In general, the coastline is the line of ordinary low water along with that portion of the coast that is in direct contact with the open sea or the line marking the seaward limit of inland water.
Oil: See Crude Oil.
OPEC: See Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries.
Operable Unit (Nuclear): In the United States, a nuclear generating unit that has completed low-power testing and been issued a full-power operating license by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, or equivalent permission to operate.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD): Members are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and United States and its territories (Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands).
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC): An intergovernmental organization whose stated objective is to "coordinate and unify the petroleum policies of member countries." It was created at the Baghdad Conference on September 10-14, 1960. Current members (with years of membership) include Algeria (1969-present), Angola (2007-present), Ecuador (1973-1992 and 2007-present), Iran (1960-present), Iraq (1960-present), Kuwait (1960-present), Libya (1962-present), Nigeria (1971-present), Qatar (1961-present), Saudi Arabia (1960-present), United Arab Emirates (1967-present), and Venezuela (1960-present). Countries no longer members of OPEC include Gabon (1975-1994) and Indonesia (1962-2008).
Oxygenates: Substances which, when added to gasoline, increase the amount of oxygen in that gasoline blend. Ethanol, Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and methanol are common oxygenates.
PAD Districts: Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts. Geographic aggregations of the 50 States and the District of Columbia into five districts for the Petroleum Administration for Defense in 1950. The districts were originally instituted for economic and geographic reasons as Petroleum Administration for War (PAW) Districts, which were established in 1942.
Pentanes Plus: A mixture of hydrocarbons, mostly pentanes and heavier, extracted from natural gas. Includes isopentane, natural gasoline, and plant condensate.
Petrochemical Feedstocks: Chemical feedstocks derived from petroleum principally for the manufacture of chemicals, synthetic rubber, and a variety of plastics.
Petroleum: A broadly defined class of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures. Included are crude oil, lease condensate, unfinished oils, refined products obtained from the processing of crude oil, and natural gas plant liquids. Note: Volumes of finished petroleum products include nonhydrocarbon compounds, such as additives and detergents, after they have been blended into the products.
Petroleum Coke: See Coke, Petroleum.
Petroleum Consumption: See Products Supplied (Petroleum).
Petroleum Imports: Imports of petroleum into the 50 States and the District of Columbia from foreign countries and from Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and other U.S. territories and possessions. Included are imports for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve and withdrawals from bonded warehouses for onshore consumption, offshore bunker use, and military use. Excluded are receipts of foreign petroleum into bonded warehouses and into U.S. territories and U.S. Foreign Trade Zones.
Petroleum Products: Products obtained from the processing of crude oil (including lease condensate), natural gas, and other hydrocarbon compounds. Petroleum products include unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type jet fuel, kerosene, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petrochemical feedstocks, special naphthas, lubricants, waxes, petroleum coke, asphalt, road oil, still gas, and miscellaneous products.
Petroleum Stocks, Primary: For individual products, quantities that are held at refineries, in pipelines, and at bulk terminals that have a capacity of 50,000 barrels or more, or that are in transit thereto. Stocks held by product retailers and resellers, as well as tertiary stocks held at the point of consumption, are excluded. Stocks of individual products held at gas processing plants are excluded from individual product estimates but are included in other oils estimates and total.
Photovoltaic Energy: Direct-current electricity generated from sunlight through solid-state semiconductor devices that have no moving parts.
Pipeline Fuel: Gas consumed in the operation of pipelines, primarily in compressors.
Plant Condensate: One of the natural gas liquids, mostly pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons, recovered and separated as liquid at gas inlet separators or scrubbers in processing plants.
Primary Energy: Energy in the form that it is first accounted for in a statistical energy balance, before any transformation to secondary or tertiary forms of energy. For example, coal can be converted to synthetic gas, which can be converted to electricity; in this example, coal is primary energy, synthetic gas is secondary energy, and electricity is tertiary energy. See Primary Energy Production and Primary Energy Consumption.
Primary Energy Consumption: Consumption of primary energy. (Energy sources that are produced from other energy sources--e.g., coal coke from coal--are included in primary energy consumption only if their energy content has not already been included as part of the original energy source. Thus, U.S. primary energy consumption does include net imports of coal coke, but not the coal coke produced from domestic coal.) The U.S. Energy Information Administration includes the following in U.S. primary energy consumption: coal consumption; coal coke net imports; petroleum consumption (petroleum products supplied, including natural gas plant liquids and crude oil burned as fuel); dry natural gas--excluding supplemental gaseous fuels--consumption; nuclear electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the nuclear plants heat rate); conventional hydroelectricity net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil-fueled plants heat rate); geothermal electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the geothermal plants heat rate), and geothermal heat pump energy and geothermal direct use energy; solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil-fueled plants heat rate), and solar thermal direct use energy; wind electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil-fueled plants heat rate); wood and wood-derived fuels consumption; biomass waste consumption; fuel ethanol and biodiesel consumption; losses and co-products from the production of fuel ethanol and biodiesel; and electricity net imports (converted to Btu using the electricity heat content of 3,412 Btu per kilowatthour). See Total Energy Consumption.
Primary Energy Production: Production of primary energy. The U.S. Energy Information Administration includes the following in U.S. primary energy production: coal production, waste coal supplied, and coal refuse recovery; crude oil and lease condensate production; natural gas plant liquids production; dry natural gas--excluding supplemental gaseous fuels--production; nuclear electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the nuclear plants heat rate); conventional hydroelectricity net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil-fueled plants heat rate); geothermal electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the geothermal plants heat rate), and geothermal heat pump energy and geothermal direct use energy; solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil-fueled plants heat rate), and solar thermal direct use energy; wind electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil-fueled plants heat rate); wood and wood-derived fuels consumption; biomass waste consumption; and biofuels feedstock.
Prime Mover: The engine, turbine, water wheel, or similar machine that drives an electric generator; or, for reporting purposes, a device that converts energy to electricity directly.
Products Supplied (Petroleum): Approximately represents consumption of petroleum products because it measures the disappearance of these products from primary sources, i.e., refineries, natural gas-processing plants, blending plants, pipelines, and bulk terminals. In general, product supplied of each product in any given period is computed as follows: field production, plus refinery production, plus imports, plus unaccounted-for crude oil (plus net receipts when calculated on a PAD District basis) minus stock change, minus crude oil losses, minus refinery inputs, and minus exports.
Propane: A normally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon ([C.sub.3][H.sub.8]). It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of -43.67[degrees] F. It is extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams. It includes all products designated in ASTM Specification D1835 and Gas Processors Association Specifications for commercial propane and HD-5 propane.
Propylene: An olefinic hydrocarbon (C3H6) recovered from refinery or petrochemical processes.
Real Dollars: These are dollars that have been adjusted for inflation. See Real Price.
Real Price: A price that has been adjusted to remove the effect of changes in the purchasing power of the dollar. Real prices, which are expressed in constant dollars, usually reflect buying power relative to a base year.
Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil: The cost of crude oil to the refiner, including transportation and fees. The composite cost is the weighted average of domestic and imported crude oil costs.
Refinery and Blender Net Inputs: Raw materials, unfinished oils, and blending components processed at refineries, or blended at refineries or petroleum storage terminals to produce finished petroleum products. Included are gross inputs of crude oil, natural gas plant liquids, other hydrocarbon raw materials, hydrogen, oxygenates (excluding fuel ethanol), and renewable fuels (including fuel ethanol). Also included are net inputs of unfinished oils, motor gasoline blending components, and aviation gasoline blending components. Net inputs are calculated as gross inputs minus gross production. Negative net inputs indicate gross inputs are less than gross production. Examples of negative net inputs include reformulated gasoline blend-stock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) produced at refineries for shipment to blending terminals, and unfinished oils produced and added to inventory in advance of scheduled maintenance of a refinery crude oil distillation unit.
Refinery and Blender Net Production: Liquefied refinery gases, and finished petroleum products produced at a refinery or petroleum storage terminal blending facility. Net production equals gross production minus gross inputs. Negative net production indicates gross production is less than gross inputs for a finished petroleum product. Examples of negative net production include reclassification of one finished product to another finished product, or reclassification of a finished product to unfinished oils or blending components.
Refinery (Petroleum): An installation that manufactures finished petroleum products from crude oil, unfinished oils, natural gas liquids, other hydrocarbons, and alcohol.
Refuse Mine: A surface site where coal is recovered from previously mined coal. It may also be known as a silt bank, culm bank, refuse bank, slurry dam, or dredge operation.
Refuse Recovery: The recapture of coal from a refuse mine or the coal recaptured by that process. The resulting product has been cleaned to reduce the concentration of noncombustible materials.
Renewable Energy: Energy obtained from sources that are essentially inexhaustible (unlike, for example, the fossil fuels, of which there is a finite supply). Renewable sources of energy include conventional hydrolectric power, biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind.
Repressuring: The injection of a pressurized fluid (such as air, gas, or water) into oil and gas reservoir formations to effect greater ultimate recovery.
Residential Sector: An energy-consuming sector that consists of living quarters for private households. Common uses of energy associated with this sector include space heating, water heating, air conditioning, lighting, refrigeration, cooking, and running a variety of other appliances. The residential sector excludes institutional living quarters. Note: Various EIA programs differ in sectoral coverage for more information see http://www.eia.gov/neic/datadefinitions/Guideforwebres.html. See End-Use Sectors and Energy-Use Sectors.
Residual Fuel Oil: The heavier oils that remain after the distillate fuel oils and lighter hydrocarbons are distilled away in refinery operations and that conform to ASTM Specifications D396 and 975. Included are No. 5, a residual fuel oil of medium viscosity; Navy Special, for use in steam-powered vessels in government service and in shore power plants; and No. 6, which includes Bunker C fuel oil and is used for commercial and industrial heating, for electricity generation, and to power ships. Imports of residual fuel oil include imported crude oil burned as fuel.
Road Oil: Any heavy petroleum oil, including residual asphaltic oil used as a dust palliative and surface treatment on roads and highways. It is generally produced in six grades, from 0, the most liquid, to 5, the most viscous.
Rotary Rig: A machine used for drilling wells that employs a rotating tube attached to a bit for boring holes through rock.
Short Ton (Coal): A unit of weight equal to 2,000 pounds.
SIC (Standard Industrial Classification): A set of codes developed by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget which categorizes industries into groups with similar economic activities. Replaced by NAICS (North American Industry Classification System).
Solar Energy: See Solar Thermal Energy and Photovoltaic Energy.
Solar Thermal Energy: The radiant energy of the sun that can be converted into other forms of energy, such as heat or electricity.
Special Naphthas: All finished products within the naphtha boiling ranges that are used as paint thinner, cleaners or solvents. Those products are refined to a specified flash point. Special naphthas include all commercial hexane and cleaning solvents conforming to ASTM Specifications D1836 and D484, respectively. Naphthas to be blended or marketed as motor gasoline or aviation gasoline, or that are to be used as petrochemical and synthetic natural gas (SNG) feedstocks, are excluded.
Station Use: Energy that is used to operate an electric power plant. It includes energy consumed for plant lighting, power, and auxiliary facilities, regardless of whether the energy is produced at the plant or comes from another source.
Steam Coal: All nonmetallurgical coal.
Steam-Electric Power Plant: A plant in which the prime mover is a steam turbine. The steam used to drive the turbine is produced in a boiler where fossil fuels are burned.
Still Gas (Refinery Gas): Any form or mixture of gas produced in refineries by distillation, cracking, reforming, and other processes. The principal constituents are methane, ethane, ethylene, normal butane, butylene, propane, and propylene. It is used primarily as refinery fuel and, petrochemical feedstock.
Stocks: See Coal Stocks, Crude Oil Stocks, or Petroleum Stocks, Primary.
Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR): Petroleum stocks maintained by the Federal Government for use during periods of major supply interruption.
Subbituminous Coal: A coal whose properties range from those of lignite to those of bituminous coal and used primarily as fuel for steam-electric power generation. It may be dull, dark brown to black, soft and crumbly, at the lower end of the range, to bright, jet black, hard, and relatively strong, at the upper end. Subbituminous coal contains 20 to 30 percent inherent moisture by weight. The heat content of subbituminous coal ranges from 17 to 24 million Btu per short ton on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis. The heat content of subbituminous coal consumed in the United States averages 17 to 18 million Btu per ton, on the as-received basis (i.e., containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter).
Supplemental Gaseous Fuels: Synthetic natural gas, propane-air, coke oven gas, refinery gas, biomass gas, air injected for Btu stabilization, and manufactured gas commingled and distributed with natural gas.
Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG): (Also referred to as substitute natural gas) A manufactured product, chemically similar in most respects to natural gas, resulting from the conversion or reforming of hydrocarbons that may easily be substituted for or interchanged with pipeline-quality natural gas.
Thermal Conversion Factor: A factor for converting data between physical units of measure (such as barrels, cubic feet, or short tons) and thermal units of measure (such as British thermal units, calories, or joules); or for converting data between different thermal units of measure. See Btu Conversion Factor.
Total Energy Consumption: Primary energy consumption in the end-use sectors, plus electricity retail sales and electrical system energy losses.
Transportation Sector: An energy-consuming sector that consists of all vehicles whose primary purpose is transporting people and/or goods from one physical location to another. Included are automobiles; trucks; buses; motorcycles; trains, subways, and other rail vehicles; aircraft; and ships, barges, and other waterborne vehicles. Vehicles whose primary purpose is not transportation (e.g., construction cranes and bulldozers, farming vehicles, and warehouse tractors and forklifts) are classified in the sector of their primary use. Note: Various EIA programs differ in sectoral coverage-for more information see http://www.eia.gov/neic/datadefinitions/Guideforwebtrans.html See End-Use Sectors and Energy-Use Sectors.
Underground Storage: The storage of natural gas in underground reservoirs at a different location from which it was produced.
Unfinished Oils: All oils requiring further refinery processing except those requiring only mechanical blending. Includes naphthas and lighter oils, kerosene and light gas oils, heavy gas oils, and residuum.
Unfractionated Stream: Mixtures of unsegregated natural gas liquid components, excluding those in plant condensate. This product is extracted from natural gas.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.): A political entity that consisted of 15 constituent republics: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. The U.S.S.R. ceased to exist as of December 31, 1991.
United States: The 50 States and the District of Columbia. Note: The United States has varying degrees of jurisdiction over a number of territories and other political entities outside the 50 States and the District of Columbia, including Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, Johnston Atoll, Midway Islands, Wake Island, and the Northern Mariana Islands. EIA data programs may include data from some or all of these areas in U.S. totals. For these programs, data products will contain notes explaining the extent of geographic coverage included under the term "United States."
Useful Thermal Output: The thermal energy made available in a combined-heat-and-power system for use in any industrial or commercial process, heating or cooling application, or delivered to other end users, i.e., total thermal energy made available for processes and applications other than electrical generation.
U.S.S.R.: See Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.).
Vented Natural Gas: Gas released into the air on the production site or at processing plants.
Vessel Bunkering: Includes sales for the fueling of commercial or private boats, such as pleasure craft, fishing boats, tugboats, and ocean-going vessels, including vessels operated by oil companies. Excluded are volumes sold to the U.S. Armed Forces.
Waste Coal: Usable material that is a byproduct of previous coal processing operations. Waste coal is usually composed of mixed coal, soil, and rock (mine waste). Most waste coal is burned as-is in unconventional fluidized-bed combustors. For some uses, waste coal may be partially cleaned by removing some extraneous noncombustible constituents. Examples of waste coal include fine coal, coal obtained from a refuse bank or slurry dam, anthracite culm, bituminous gob, and lignite waste.
Waste: See Biomass Waste and Non-Biomass Waste.
Watt (W): The unit of electrical power equal to one ampere under a pressure of one volt. A watt is equal to 1/746 horsepower.
Watthour (Wh): The electrical energy unit of measure equal to one watt of power supplied to, or taken from, an electric circuit steadily for one hour.
Waxes: Solid or semisolid material derived from petroleum distillates or residues. Waxes are light-colored, more or less translucent crystalline masses, slightly greasy to the touch, consisting of a mixture of solid hydrocarbons in which the paraffin series predominates. Included are all marketable waxes, whether crude scale or fully refined. Waxes are used primarily as industrial coating for surface protection.
Wellhead Price: The value of crude oil or natural gas at the mouth of the well.
Wind Energy: Kinetic energy present in wind motion that can be converted to mechanical energy for driving pumps, mills, and electric power generators.
Wood and Wood-Derived Fuels: Wood and products derived from wood that are used as fuel, including round wood (cord wood), limb wood, wood chips, bark, sawdust, forest residues, charcoal, paper pellets, railroad ties, utility poles, black liquor, red liquor, sludge wood, spent sulfite liquor, and other wood-based solids and liquids.
Working Gas: The volume of gas in a reservoir that is in addition to the base gas. It may or may not be completely withdrawn during any particular withdrawal season. Conditions permitting, the total working capacity could be used more than once during any season.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Publication:||Monthly Energy Review|
|Date:||Aug 1, 2010|
|Previous Article:||Appendix B: Metric conversion factors, metric prefixes, and other physical conversion factors.|
|Next Article:||Section 1: Energy overview.|