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Glossary.

A + PS = MS--Attitude plus problem solving equals more sales

closing signal--any indication, verbal or nonverbal, indicating that a prospect is ready to make a buying decision.

all-inclusive--a term used in the tourism business to describe a tour that includes everything in its price including all meals, snacks, liquor, beer, wine, and tobacco.

amenities--features conducive to the attractiveness and value of accommodations in the tourism industry.

assumed sold approach--The salesperson takes the stance that the prospect is going to buy and begins to process the sale bypassing steps 2-6 of the sales process.

Assumed Sold Close--used when the salesperson takes the position that the prospect is going to buy and begins to process the order. For any type of service that has to be booked, the salesperson goes to the reservation computer or telephone and starts the reservation process asking the customer for the required information including the number of people, names, dates, time, and so on. Other versions of the Assumed Sold Close include starting to fill in an order form or counting out the required number of tickets.

benefits--things that people perceive to promote well-being. In tourism these are the things that motivate people to travel.

blind search--looking for information for a customer when you do not know where to start.

bottom line--the line at the end of a financial report that shows the net profit or loss.

break-even--the point at which cost and income are equal and there is neither profit nor loss.

captive audience--as used in this book insinuates that you have a group of tourists assembled and that they are obliged to remain together in the same place for a period of time.

check-in time--in the Accommodations sector, the time at which a hotel or motel room is ready for occupancy; in the Transportation sector, the time at which a passenger must register at a terminal before departure.

Choice Close--the salesperson simply asks a question to determine which of two choices the client prefers. If the client responds positively to either choice, consider the sale closed.

client profile--a summary of the needs and desires that a customer has when he or she travels and the information that you need to satisfy that customer.

close--the process of bringing a prospect to the point of making a buying decision.

closing--the process of asking a prospect a question that solicits an answer that gives the salesperson consent to complete the sale.

closing techniques--strategies to be used to bring a customer to a buying decision.

Closing to Resistance Close--used when a customer has a major objection that you have successfully overcome.

club class--for rail transportation is the equivalent of first class by air transportation.

cold calls--calls to a list of phone numbers at which you have no idea whether the respondents have any interest in your product or service.

collision damage waiver (CDW)--a daily fee that relieves the client of his or her liability for the deductible amount, not covered by the insurance, for loss or damage to a rented vehicle. Some companies use the term loss damage waiver (LDW) for the same thing.

commissions--fees paid to an agent or employee for transacting a piece of business usually based on a percentage of the sale.

computer reservations system (CRS)--a computerized booking system used by major carriers in the Transportation sector or organizations in the Accommodations sector. These systems contain timetables, inventory, tariffs, plus a plethora of tourism information.

confidential tariff--a price list of the cost of goods or services to the seller to which a markup must be added to cover the seller's costs and profit. It is more or less the same as a net tariff. Confidential tariff is a publication of the rates or prices for tourism products or services for the use of the salesperson only, and not the customer.

continuum--something consisting of a series of variations in regular order between two extremes.

cost comparison--a detailed list of expenses for two or more vacation packages, or a package compared to doing the same trip independently.

cost price squeeze--a term used to describe a situation when the cost of operations increases but the company cannot increase its prices proportionately because the public would perceive the service to be too expensive and stop using it. In order to maintain relatively stable prices, the company must sell a greater and greater amount of its product to remain viable.

credit card authorization--a number or code given to a vendor by a financial institution to verify that a purchase for a specified price has been approved using a customer's credit card.

cruise-and-stay--a package tour that includes a cruise and a stopover at one of the ports of call.

decision-maker--the person who has the largest say in selecting a product or service.

dependent people--friendly, warm, and thoughtful.

desk copy--the copy of a brochure that is retained by the salesperson. It will usually have important sales features highlighted or underlined and contain handwritten notes of answers to key questions.

detached people--cold, businesslike, and may seem unfriendly. These people are concerned with facts and logic. They resist emotional appeals.

domestic--as used within the airline industry means within the United States of America and/or within Canada.

dominant people--attempt to assert themselves over others and are motivated by self-esteem needs. They want to be looked up to by others. They expect a salesperson to be seasoned and firm.

economic value--a detailed list of inclusions of a vacation package in order to demonstrate its merit for the price paid.

ecotours--tours that feature sustainable, nonconsumptive, environmentally based activities such as bird watching, wildlife viewing, nature hikes, canoeing, and white-water rafting.

fauna--term used to describe animal life, especially the animals characteristic of a region.

favor--term used in Canada for an item given to a customer without charge to enhance the company's image and to serve as a constant reminder of the company's service. It is usually called a novelty in the United States.

flora--term used to describe plant life, especially plants characteristic of a region.

fly-cruise--is a travel package that includes the airfare to and from the port of embarkation plus the cruise itself. It usually includes the transfers between the airport and the cruise ship.

follow-up call--to contact a customer after he or she has returned from a trip or after participating in a tourism experience to determine the customer's level of satisfaction. The purpose is to gain insight regarding both positive and negative aspects of the experience, to begin corrective action if necessary, and to encourage referrals and repeat business.

frequent flier programs--are promotional membership clubs for regular clients of an airline and its hotel, car rental, and other partners, which offer valuable benefits to loyal customers.

greet the customer by name--If you know the prospect's name, employ a pleasant salutation using the client's name.

guest comment cards--usually placed on the table in restaurants or in conspicuous places in a hotel room requesting customers to comment on the quality of the service, facilities, ambience, and overall satisfaction with the guest's visit.

guest mix--a term to describe the type of people (based on demographics like age, family status, income level, occupation, etc.) who usually stay at a hotel or other accommodation facility.

head them off at the pass--a colloquial expression from cowboy culture that means to solve a problem quickly before it becomes an immense predicament.

hot calls--telephone calls to prospects who can benefit from the product or service that you have to offer.

I Would Recommend Close--the perfect response for the customer who asks which choice you would recommend. These customers have more or less made up their minds to buy and just need a little help to decide which one.

icebreaker approach--establishing rapport with the prospect by starting a conversation about some neutral subject of common interest and then gradually steering the conversation toward the item being sold.

inclusion--a term used in the tourism business to describe which items are included in the price of the tour.

inclusive tour--includes a number of tour elements such as airfare, accommodations, and transfers between the airport and accommodations.

independent tour--a preplanned, prepaid set of tourism arrangements, custom designed for a particular customer.

information interview--the opposite of a job interview. You interview the person who has the type of job you ultimately desire. You want to determine the qualifications and experience that the person has who is holding the job. Also you want to determine the steps that the person you are interviewing took in order to gain his or her present position.

introduction approach--starts by the salesperson introducing himself or herself and encouraging the prospect to do the same. This approach establishes rapport and solicits the customer's name to be used from this point on.

Inuit--the aboriginal people of the northern extremities of North America. They are known by many as Eskimos, a misnomer given to them by the Abnaki Indians, meaning raw fish eaters. The Inuit usually resent being called Eskimos.

load factor--the percentage of available seats paid for and occupied on an aircraft or other transportation vehicle.

loose ends--things left undecided or undone. As used in this book, the term refers to arrangements for a future date or business encounter in which the day, time, and place are not clearly specified.

loss damage waiver (LDW)--a daily fee that relieves the client of his or her liability for the deductible amount not covered by insurance for loss or damage to a rented vehicle. Some companies use the term collision damage waiver (CDW) for the same thing.

markup--an amount added to the seller's costs of goods or services to allow for the cost of marketing plus an allowance for a profit.

merchandise approach--If the salesperson observes that the customer is focusing on a particular piece of merchandise, the salesperson will use a compliment about the item as an opener to begin the sales conversation.

Minor Points Close--works well for big sales. People are hesitant to make a buying decision regarding expensive items. In this situation, get the customer to agree with parts of your sales proposal and gradually lead them toward accepting the entire package.

modern approach--to address a prospect by asking, "How may I help you?"

NAQP--an acronym for Not a Qualified Prospect.

needs--essential requirements whether a person is cognizant of them or not.

net rates--the cost of goods or services to the seller or tour operator to which a markup to cover the seller's or tour operator's costs and profit must be added.

net tariff--a price list of the cost of goods or services to the seller to which a markup must be added to cover the seller's costs and profit. It is more or less the same as a confidential tariff.

novelty--term used in the U.S.A. for an item given to a customer without charge to enhance the company's image and to serve as a constant reminder of the company's service. It is usually called a favor in Canada.

occupancy rate--the percentage of rooms sold in a hotel or other accommodation facility.

office copy--the copy of a brochure that is retained until the new edition is received, even if it is an outdated brochure.

option--as used in the tour and transportation businesses, is a reservation or booking that is held for a limited length of time with no obligation for the customer.

Option Close--the technique used by a salesperson in the tourism industry to persuade a customer to allow the salesperson to make a booking or reservation, with the understanding that the customer can change or cancel the reservation within a specified time, with no penalty or obligation.

option date--the date that money, either the deposit or full payment, must be made or otherwise the reservation will be cancelled.

overhead--all the costs of doing business that must be added to the cost of goods or services before determining the selling price.

override commissions--a greater rate of commission for selling more.

per diem--the average cost of a tour per day, derived by dividing the total cost of a tour by the number of nights of the tour.

piece system--a free baggage allowance system used by certain air carriers for specified routes. The number of pieces of free baggage, their size (as determined by adding the dimensions of the width, length, and height) and the maximum weight for each piece are specified.

predisposed to buy--a term used to describe a potential customer who telephones a company or organization with the attitude that he or she will buy, place an order, or make a reservation if he or she receives the information required.

prepaid air tickets--tickets paid for by someone other than the passenger at the destination to which the passenger will be flying.

price-break information--news of a special price that is such a value that it will stimulate the public to respond instantaneously.

principal--the company that provides the goods or services that another company or salesperson is selling.

profit margin--the amount of money added to the cost of providing goods or services to provide the company or seller with earnings.

proof of citizenship--a document proving that one is a citizen of a particular country. This is usually a passport, but for a person born in the country of citizenship, it could be a birth certificate or citizenship card. For a naturalized citizen, it could be his or her naturalization papers or citizenship card.

proof of identity--a document that proves you are who you say you are. It is an official document, usually government issued, with a photo plus a signature.

prospect--a potential buyer, customer, or likely candidate.

psyched-up--a colloquial term frequently used to describe developing a positive, confident mental attitude that enhances performance.

qualified prospect--a person who could benefit from your product or service.

qualify--the process of asking prospects questions to determine if you have a product or service to meet their needs.

qualifying questions--questions that elicit answers to determine whether a prospect could benefit from your product or service.

read between the lines--a term used to combine your knowledge of the person you are listening to and what he or she is not saying in combination with what has been said to obtain a more complete picture of the total situation.

referrals--prospective clients who have been recommended to a particular company, organization, or salesperson by a satisfied customer.

runaround--describes the situation when a customer has to go from one person or department to another, then another, and so on, before receiving the attention he or she requires.

seat sales--a term initiated by the airline industry but now used throughout the transportation industry. It usually involves a limited number of seats (excess inventory) at deep discount prices (often 50 percent or more) off normal prices, for a limited time period. They are usually subject to a number of restrictive conditions.

self-esteem needs--enhance one's sense of personal dignity when satisfied.

sell down--to offer a client a less expensive product or service. In tourism this is usually done by offering a product or service of lower quality; or, a shorter stay, tour, or adventure; or, a destination that is closer.

sell-up (selling-up)--increasing the amount of the sale. This can be done in two ways: (1) by upgrading, which means selling a better-quality tourism product; (2) by selling additional services. For example: A travel agent convinces a client to upgrade to an ocean front room instead of a standard room; a salesperson at a special event sells a weekend pass instead of a single event ticket; a reservationist for an airline or railway sells a tour or hotel accommodations in conjunction with a transportation ticket.

selling additional services--the process of selling complementary services or products that will enhance the original purchase.

Shortage Close--utilizes the suggestion that there may not be space available. Shortage of space is the strongest closing aid. The salesperson indicates that it might not be possible to obtain the space the customer would like to have. Then the salesperson offers to check on the computer or telephone whether space is available. If there is, an offer to reserve it for the customer is usually all that is required to close the deal.

space-limited--has taken on a new meaning with the introduction of seat sales by the airlines. Not all seats are available at the special seat sale advertised price, but only those seats that are considered excess capacity.

Special Deal Close--used to nudge a prospect into making a buying decision now when otherwise they would be inclined to postpone a buying decision. Of course, this technique is only successful when the offer is really a special deal.

split payment--term used when a customer uses two or more forms of payment for a purchase. For example, a customer might want to make a partial payment by check or cash and put the balance on his or her credit card.

Summary Close--effective when a prospect has agreed with your sales points or responded positively to a series of trial closes. The most meaningful benefits should be emphasized, using the customer's own words when possible.

symphonic alphabet--a word spelling method used by most international air carriers that substitutes an easily identified word for each letter when spelling a name, address, file locator, or any word.

T-Account Close--really a variation of the Summary Close. When a decision obviously has not only benefits but also some disadvantages, divide a sheet of paper in half. List the benefits and advantages on the left side of the paper and the disadvantages on the right side. Customers appreciate the logic and fairness of this method. Help the client with the advantage side and ask them for the disadvantages. Overcome the objections if necessary.

testimonial--statement by a customer affirming satisfaction regarding a product or service.

the sale--has a number of different meanings in different contexts. In this book, it is used as a synonym for buying decision, booking, or reservation.

time-limited--in the tourism business can have two meanings. First, it may mean that a certain price is available only until a certain date. Second, it may mean that a reservation must be made a certain number of days before travel. Often both of these conditions are applicable.

tough sell--any situation in which it is difficult to close the sale because the prospect is reluctant to reveal the qualifying information you require or has objections that are difficult to overcome.

tourism industry--an umbrella term for many industries that collectively provide the products and services desired by people while they are away from home.

traditional approach--to address a prospect by asking, "May I help you?" It is usually not successful.

transborder--as used in the airline business refers to flights between the United States of America and Canada.

transfer--the transportation between an air, sea, or rail terminal and one's accommodations. Transfer can also mean the transportation from one airport to another or between terminals at the same airport.

trial close--a question asked during the early stages of a sales presentation to determine how effective you have been up to that point. Often the trial close is based on a statement that the prospect has made and is asked to confirm you have understood what he or she has been saying. It also reinforces a positive sales point you have made.

unqualified prospects--potential clients who do not have the time, financial resources, or need of the goods or services that you are selling at the present time.

upgrading--a specialized type of selling-up focused on selling a higher-quality product--for example, selling first-class or business class air transportation rather than coach class. In the Accommodations sector, it could be selling an ocean view room or a suite rather than a garden view room.

wants--conscious desires or cravings for a particular thing or experience.

weight system--a free baggage allowance system used by certain air carriers on specified routes. The total number of pounds or kilograms permitted determines the amount of free baggage allowed.
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Article Details
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Author:Kay, H. Kenner
Publication:Selling Tourism
Article Type:Glossary
Date:Jan 1, 2003
Words:3305
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