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Glossary.

abscission The fall of leaves or other plant parts from the plant.

accent plant A plant that has greater visual appeal than many other plants, yet is not as showy as a specimen plant.

accessory fruit Developed from one or more ovaries and includes the calyx and/or receptacle.

acclimatization The adjustment of an outdoor plant to interior conditions.

action threshold The point at which the injury to host plants or the number of pests present is unacceptable and warrants the application of control measures.

adjuvant A chemical additive that improves the effectiveness of a pesticide when combined in a spray or other means of application.

adobe A heavy, clay-like soil common to the U.S. Southwest.

adventitious A term usually applied to those roots or shoots that develop in unusual locations.

aeolian soil Soil that is transported and deposited by wind.

aeration The addition of air; for example, to the soil or to water.

aesthetic Attractive to the human senses.

after-ripening The changes that occur within a dormant seed that are necessary to permit its germination and natural growth.

aggregate fruit Developed from a single flower having a group of ovaries.

aggregates The adherence of small soil particles to form larger particles.

agronomy The science that deals with field crops and soil management.

alkaline Characterized by a high pH. Also called basic. The opposite of acid.

alluvial soil Soil that is carried in water such as rivers.

ammonification The conversion of nitrogen in organic compounds to ammonia.

analysis The percentage of various nutrients in a fertilizer product. A minimum of three numbers on the package indicates the percentage of total nitrogen (N), available phosphoric acid (P205), and water soluble potash (K20), in that order.

annual A plant that completes its life cycle in one growing season.

anther In flowering plants, the part of the stamen that bears the pollen.

anthocyanin A common pigment in plants responsible for red coloring.

antitranspirant A liquid sprayed on plants to reduce water loss through transpiration. It helps prevent transplant shock, windburn, and sun scald.

apical meristem The tissue at the tip of a root or stem where growth occurs most rapidly.

apomixis The development of seed without the full sexual process occurring. The process of meiosis may be bypassed and the seed formed directly from a diploid megaspore.

arborist A tree maintenance specialist.

arid A term used in the description of landscapes where there is little usable water.

ATP Adenosine triphosphate. The unit of energy released when plants respire.

auxin A natural growth regulator occurring in plants. Auxins promote cell elongation.

balance sheet One part of a financial statement. It shows the financial status of a business on the date of issue. The firm's assets, liabilities, and net worth as of that date are shown.

balled-and-burlapped A form of plant preparation in which a large part of the root system is retained in a soil ball. The ball is wrapped in burlap to facilitate handling during sale and transplanting.

bare root A form of plant preparation in which all soil is removed from the root system. The plant is lightweight and easier to handle during sale and transplanting

bedding plant A herbaceous plant preseeded and growing in a peat or plastic pot or packet container. blend A combination of the seeds of two or more cultivars of a single species. bonsai The ancient Japanese craft of dwarfing trees.

break-even point The point in the operation of a business where total revenue equals total cost and there is neither a profit nor a loss.

breaker A greenhouse hose nozzle that diminishes the force of the water but not the rate of flow.

buccal spear The feeding apparatus of a nematode. It is used to puncture host cells and withdraw cellular fluids.

budding A type of grafting which uses a single bud as the scion material.

bulb A flowering perennial that survives the winter as a dormant fleshy storage structure.

calibration The adjustment of a piece of equipment so that it distributes a given material at the rate desired.

caliche A soil common to the American Southwest, characterized by high alkalinity and a calcareous hardpan deposit near the surface. The hardpan layer blocks drainage.

callus Wound tissue that develops from the parenchyma.

cambium Meristematic tissue that produces secondary phloem and xylem tissue (vascular cambium) or protective cork tissue (cork cambium).

canopy The collective term for the foliage of a tree.

carotene A common pigment in plants responsible for orange coloring.

caryogamy The fusion of two sexual nuclei. It occurs as part of plasmogamy in fungi.

cation exchange The capacity of colloidal soil particles to attract positively charged ions (cations) and to exchange one ion for another.

cell The basic structural unit of all plant and animal life.

chitin A nitrogenous polysaccharide compound that comprises most of the exoskeleton of insects.

chlorophyll Green pigment necessary for photosynthesis; located within the plastids of the plant cell.

chloroplast A specialized, subcellular structure within a plant cell that contains the chlorophyll.

chlorosis The yellowing of plant tissue for reasons other than a lack of light.

chromosomes Bodies within the nucleus of a cell that are composed of DNA and proteins. They determine heredity.

clone A group of new plants reproduced asexually from a single plant.

cold frame A low growing structure that uses the heat of sunlight passing through glass or plastic to provide the warmth needed to propagate, start, or harden-off plants.

colloidal A chemical state common to clay particles in which surface changes attract water and ions.

colluvial soil Soils that have moved in response to gravity, as after a landslide or mudslide.

color family One of the six major groupings of

colors visible when white light is passed through a prism: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet. color scheme A grouping of colors.

compaction A condition of soil in which all air has been driven from the pore spaces. Water is unable to move into and through the soil.

compatible graft A permanent union of the stock and scion in a grafted plant.

complete fertilizer A fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, the three nutrients used in the largest quantities by plants.

complete flower A flower that contains all of the floral parts (petals, sepals, pistils, and stamens).

composite flower A grouping of many tiny flowers that gives the appearance of being a single blossom.

conditioning Preparation of soil to make it suitable for planting.

cone The reproductive structure of plants in the division of Coniferopsida. Naked, unenclosed seeds are contained on the upper surface of each cone scale.

containerized A form of plant preparation for sale and transplanting. When purchased, the plant is growing with its root system intact in a container.

cool-season grass A turfgrass that is favored by daytime temperatures of 60[degrees] to 75[degrees] F.

cotyledon A specialized leaf contained within a seed. It protects the embryo and supplies nutrients to permit growth of the embryo.

cover crop A rapidly growing crop used to stabilize field soils and prevent erosion. It is planted after harvest of the major crop (as in a nursery) and before replanting of another major crop.

crop rotation Alternation of major crops and cover crops to permit rebuilding of the soil, soil stabilization, and a reduction of host-specific inoculum persisting in the soil.

crotch The point at which a branch meets the trunk of a tree or another larger branch.

crown The point at which the branches and root system of a shrub join.

cultivar An intentionally cultivated variety whose continuance is due primarily to propagation by horticulturists.

cuticle A waxy layer exterior to the epidermis of a plant. It is composed of cutin and is water resistant. cytokinesis The division of the non-nuclear material in a cell during growth, including the formation of a new cell wall.

cytokinins Naturally-occurring hormones known to be active in the division of cells. They often interact with auxins to stimulate the initiation and growth of roots and shoots.

cytoplasm All of the living material in a cell other than the nucleus.

dead-heading Removing dead flower blossoms.

deciduous A type of plant that loses its leaves each autumn.

delayed incompatibility A graft union that appears permanent but is later found to be unsuccessful.

dicot An angiosperm (flowering plant) that has two seed leaves.

dihybrid cross A cross between parents that differ genetically in two or more independently inherited characteristics.

dioecious The male and female reproductive organs are borne on separate plants.

diploidal Having two sets of chromosomes.

dividend A profit paid to corporate shareholders.

dormancy A period of rest common to certain plants at certain stages of growth (for example, seeds) or at certain times of the year (for example, winter).

double dormancy A condition in seeds resulting from a hard, water-impermeable seed coat and an embryo that requires after-ripening.

drafting cloth A translucent plastic surface with a thin layer of linen bonded to it, used in landscape design.

drainage The act of water passing through and beyond the root area of plants in a growing medium.

drum-lacing A technique for securing a balled-and-burlapped plant. Twine is wound around the ball and then laced in a zig-zag pattern.

ectoparasite A parasite whose life cycle occurs outside the host plant. The term is often applied to nematodes.

elevation view A method of illustration that provides two-dimensional views of the front, rear, or side of an object or area.

embryo The basic sporophytic plant that develops from a zygote inside an archegonium or an ovule.

endoparasite A parasite that completes most of its life cycle within a host plant. The term is often applied to nematodes.

epigynous A flower with an inferior ovary; that is, one attached to the stem below where the other flower parts are attached.

equity The dollar amount of assets owned by a business which is not offset by indebtedness. Equity = Total assets - Total liabilities.

eradicant A pesticide that is applied to a plant when a pathogen or insect has arrived and must be killed immediately.

erosion The wearing away of the soil caused by water or wind.

espalier A pruning technique that allows trees or shrubs to develop only two-dimensionally. Espaliered plants have height and width, but little depth.

etiolation A condition resulting in a plant due to lack of light. The plant turns yellow, leaf size is reduced, and stems become weak and spindly.

evergreen A plant that retains its leaves all year.

exoskeleton The solid, outer portion of an insect's body. It serves as the point of attachment for muscles while protecting the softer tissues inside.

exotic plant A plant that has been introduced to an area by humans, not nature.

explant A piece of plant tissue used in tissue and organ culture.

fertilization The addition of nutrients to the growing medium through application of natural or synthesized products called fertilizers.

focal point The point of greatest visual attraction within a larger composition.

fogger A greenhouse hose nozzle that permits water to be applied as a fine mist to seedlings and tender plants. Also a means of delivering pesticides.

foot candle The amount of light produced by a standard candle at a distance of one foot. A foot candle (f.c.) is a measure of light intensity.

foundation planting The planting next to a building that helps it blend more comfortably into the surrounding landscape.

fungicide A chemical used for the control of fungi.

gamete A sex cell.

gametophyte The haploid phase of a plant's life when the sex cells (gametes) are produced.

ganglia Groups of specialized cells that are part of the nervous system of insects.

gene A part of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) portion of a chromosome that determines heredity.

genotype The genetic composition of a plant.

geology The science that deals with natural history as recorded in rocks.

geotropism Movement in plants caused by gravity.

gibberellins A group of thirty or more closely related plant hormones that promote cell enlargement, often causing dramatic increases in plant height.

girdling The complete removal of a strip of bark around the main stem of a plant. After girdling, the ability of nutrients to pass from roots to leaves is lost, causing eventual death of the plant.

glacial till Soil deposited by glaciers.

glazing The covering for a greenhouse. Traditionally, the term refers to glass, but it can also be hard plastic.

grading Altering the existing slope or terrain of the land.

graft The union of two or more plant parts growing as a single plant.

graft union The place in the grafted plant where the stock and scion fuse.

green manure A crop planted as an alternate between the times of harvest and replanting of a major crop (as in nurseries). It serves as a cover crop but also improves soil structure, fixes nitrogen, and adds organic matter.

groundcover A low-growing, spreading plant, usually 18 inches or less in height.

guttation The slow exudation of liquid water from the hydathodes of a leaf.

haploidal Having one set of chromosomes. hardening-off A reduction of the temperature and water given a plant in order to permit its survival under more stressful conditions.

hard paving Surfacing that is either poured in place, later hardening, or is set into place as modular units.

hardy Describes the ability of a plant to survive the winter in a cold climate.

heading back The shortening of a shrub branch. It is a pruning technique.

heaving Exposure of the root system of shallowly rooted plants caused by repeated freezing and thawing of the soil.

heeling-in Covering the root ball or container of nursery stock to insulate the root system against drying or freezing.

herbaceous Describes plants that are weaker and more succulent than woody plants. They lack a bark covering, and their twigs display little increase in diameter. Above-ground portions are often unable to survive the winter in cold climates.

herbicide A chemical that kills higher plants. The term usually means weed killers.

heterozygous A gene pair whose members are not alike.

high-analysis fertilizer A complete fertilizer with 30 percent or more of its weight in available nutrients.

holdfasts Appendages of certain vines that allow them to climb. homozygous Both genes of a pair are alike.

hotbed A low growing structure that uses electric cables or heating pipes to provide the warmth needed to propagate, start, or harden-off plants.

hue A color in its most brilliant and unaltered state.

humus An organic colloidal component of soil resulting from the enzymatic breakdown of plant tissue.

hybrid vigor A phenomenon that occurs when the F1 offspring of an inbred cross has qualities superior to that of either parent.

hydathode Openings in leaves, often at the tip, through which water can pass out in liquid form. hydrology The science that deals with water, especially surface and ground water.

hyperplasia Growth, usually abnormal, resulting from an increase in the number of cells produced.

hypersensitivity The reaction of a plant cell to invasion by a pathogen or insect in which the cell dies so quickly that it fails to support further proliferation of the pest.

hypertrophy Growth, usually abnormal, resulting from an excessive increase in cell size.

hypha A thread-like filament that is part of a fungal thallus.

hypogynous A flower with a superior ovary; that is, one attached to the stem above the place where the other flower parts are attached.

hypoplasia Dwarfing resulting from a reduction in the number of cells produced.

hypotrophy Dwarfing resulting from a reduction in cell size.

imperfect flower A flower that has either pistils or stamens but not both.

incompatible graft The failure of a stock and scion to unite permanently in a grafted plant.

incomplete flower A flower lacking one or more of the floral parts.

incurve The center of a corner planting. It is the natural focus of attention and a logical place to use a specimen plant or other focal feature.

indoleacectic acid (IAA) The most commonly occurring natural auxin.

inert material The percentage, by weight, of material in a package that is not active. With packaged seed, it is the material that will not grow.

infected A condition in which a harmful agent is within a host plant.

infested A condition in which a harmful agent is on a host plant.

inflorescence Clusters of small flowers arranged on an axis.

inorganic fertilizer A fertilizer that is synthesized from chemicals that are not derived from living systems. Also known as a chemical fertilizer.

insecticide A chemical used for the control of insects.

intangible A quality of visual strength or weakness that characterizes a color.

intensity The quality of visual strength or weakness that characterizes a color.

internode A region of the stem between two nodes.

interstock A piece of plant stem placed between the stock and scion, resulting in two graft unions. It is used to join two species that are incompatible with each other but not with the interstock.

inventory shrinkage Losses of perishable materials due to aging and death.

irrigation Application of water to a crop to maintain the proper balance of moisture and air in the soil.

jump-cutting A tree pruning technique that allows a scaffold limb to be removed without stripping off a long slice of bark as it falls. The technique requires three cuts.

juvenility A condition of vegetative growth during which a plant is incapable of flowering, even when the stimuli for flower initiation are present.

landscape design The arrangement of outdoor space in a way that serves the needs and desires of people without damage to natural ecological relationships.

lateral bud Any bud below the terminal bud on a twig.

layering A technique of asexual propagation that permits a severed stem to remain partially attached to the parent until roots are initiated at the cut. Afterwards the new rooted plant is separated from the parent.

leaching The passage of nutrient elements through the root region of the soil, making them unavailable to the plant.

lead branch The dominant branch of a tree.

lenticel A pore-like opening in stems and roots. light quality The color of light emitted by a particular source.

lime A powdered material used to correct excess acidity in soil.

liner A rooted cutting ready for transplanting into a nursery field or container.

loam Soil which contains nearly equal amounts of sand, silt, and clay (a desirable condition).

loppers Long handled pruning shears.

low-analysis fertilizer A complete fertilizer with less than 30 percent of its weight in available nutrients.

luminosity The quality of certain colors that allows them to be seen under dim light.

lux The illumination received on a surface that is one meter from a standard light source known as unity. A lux is an international measurement of light intensity.

macronutrient An essential mineral element required in large amounts for healthy plant growth.

market The geographic area from which a business attracts most of its customers.

markup The difference between the wholesale cost of materials and their selling price.

maturity A condition of growth during which a plant is capable of flowering when the appropriate stimuli are provided.

megasporangium The structure in which megaspores are produced.

megaspore A haploid spore (N) that will develop into a female gametophyte.

meiosis A sequence of cell divisions that reduces the number of chromosomes in a cell by half.

meristematic tissue Plant tissue where the cells are actively dividing and rapid growth occurs. Regions of meristematic activity are found in the tips of stems and roots, in the cambium of the vascular system, and at the base of grass leaves.

metamorphosis The changes in insect form as they grow.

micro-injection The introduction of a pesticide directly into the vascular system of a tree.

micronutrient An essential mineral element required in small amounts for healthy plant growth.

microsporangium The structure in which microspores are produced.

microspore A haploid spore (N) that will develop into a male gametophyte.

mitosis The normal division of cell nuclei that occurs as plants grow, involving no reduction and recombination of chromosomes.

mixture A combination of the seeds of two or more different species.

monocot An angiosperm (flowering plant) that has parallel veination and a single seed leaf.

monoculture The cultivation of a single species in abnormally large quantities.

monoecious Both male and female reproductive organs are borne on the same plant.

monohybrid cross A cross between parents that differ genetically in only one characteristic.

mulch A material placed on top of the soil to aid in water retention, prevent soil temperature fluctuations, and discourage weed growth.

multiple fruit Developed from multiple ovaries of multiple flowers borne on a single stalk.

mycelium A fungal thallus made of hyphae.

mylar A translucent plastic surface used in making landscape designs.

nanometer The unit of measurement for light wavelengths.

native plant A plant that evolved naturally within a given geographical region.

naturalized plant A plant introduced to an area as an exotic plant that adapts so well it may appear to be native.

necrosis A symptom of plant injury in which the tissue becomes desiccated and dies. Necrosis may be localized and limited or extensive.

nematicide A chemical used for the control of nematodes.

nematode A microscopic, worm-like pathogen.

nitrification The conversion of ammonia to nitrite, then to nitrate.

nonselective herbicide A weed killer that kills all plant material with which it makes contact.

noxious weed A weed that is extremely undesirable and difficult to eradicate.

nucleus The subcellular structure within a cell that contains the chromosomes, nucleolus, and nucleoplasm.

nutrient ratio The proportion of each nutrient in a fertilizer in lowest terms. Example: A fertilizer with a 5-10-5 analysis has a 1-2-1 nutrient ratio.

organ A grouping of related tissues to perform a complex function.

organ culturing The reproduction of plants from tiny pieces of plant organs.

organic fertilizer A fertilizer composed of compounds derived from living organisms. The nutrients are made available to the plants more slowly than with inorganic fertilizers. The cost of the nutrients is greater than with inorganics.

outcurve The outer regions of a corner planting.

overhead costs Fixed costs in the operation of a business. They include administrative salaries, advertising costs, rent or mortgage payments, telephone, and utility costs. They are not directly related to the cost of doing business on any single day or for any one client. Overhead may be fixed or variable.

overseeding Planting new seed into an established turf area to extend its time of use.

oviparous A classification for eggs that hatch inside the female. The term is applied to insects.

ovipositor A special organ for laying eggs, found in female insects.

ovoviviparous A term applied to insects that do not lay eggs but whose young develop inside the female.

ovule A megasporangium. In seed plants it will develop into the seed.

parasite An injurious agent that is biological and infectious or infestious. It is incapable of manufacturing its own food and derives its sustenance from the cells of other organisms.

parthenocarpy The initiation of fruit-set without pollination. It is accomplished by the application of either auxins or gibberellins to the pistils of flowers.

parthenogenesis Reproduction from eggs that have not been fertilized; common in certain insects.

pasteurization The elimination of undesirable weeds, microbes, and insects from soil. It is accomplished with steam or with chemical fumigants. It does not kill all life in the soil; only the harmful organisms.

pathogen The causal agent in plant diseases. perennial A plant that lives more than two growing seasons. It often is dormant during the winter.

perfect flower A flower that has both pistil and stamens.

periogynous A flower with a superior ovary and the petals and sepals fused to form a tube-like structure around but separate from the ovary.

permanent wilting Wilting that results from severe water deficiency in the soil. Transpiration reduction alone will not alleviate the condition. Water must be added to the soil or the plant will die.

personnel management The direction of workers in a manner that brings out their best efforts and attitudes on behalf of the business.

perspective view A method of illustration that provides a three-dimensional view of an object or area.

pesticide A chemical used for the control of insects, plant pathogens, or weeds.

petiole scar The scar left on a twig by the leaf petiole of the previous year's growth.

pH A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of soil. A pH of 7.0 is considered neutral. Ratings below 7.0 are acidic; above 7.0 basic (alkaline).

phenotype The external physical appearance of a plant.

phloem Part of the vascular tissue of a plant. It carries organic materials from the leaves to other parts of the plant.

photoperiodism The effect of varying durations of light exposure on plant growth and development.

photosynthesis A process unique to green plants in which sugar is manufactured from water and carbon dioxide in the presence of chlorophyll. Light energy drives the chemical reaction, and oxygen is released in the process.

phototropism A growth movement in plants in response to light.

pinching Removal of the terminal shoot on a flowering branch to permit development of lateral shoots for a fuller plant. The technique is applied to herbaceous more than to woody plants.

pistil The female reproductive organ of a flower. It is located in the center of the flower.

pith The paranchymatous tissue that is located in the center of a dicotyledonous plant stem. A plant's pith may be described as solid, chambered, or hollow depending on the species.

plasma membrane Thin, continuous, semipermeable material surrounding the protoplast and controlling the substances that can move into or out of the cell.

plasmogamy The fusion of two compatible gametes.

plastid A specialized unit within the cytoplasm of a cell. It is usually involved in food manufacture and storage.

plug A small piece of sod used to start a new lawn or repair an established one. Plugging is a time-consuming means of installing a lawn, common to the southern United States.

plugs Rooted seedlings ready for transplanting with their root systems intact, thereby eliminating transplant shock.

plug sheet A shallow, chambered flat used to produce plugs.

polarity In plant propagation, the term refers to the formation of new shoots at the end of a cutting nearest the tip and the formation of roots at the end nearest the crown.

pollination A transfer process necessary for sexual reproduction. In flowering plants, pollen is transferred from the anther to the stigma. In non-flowering plants, pollen is transferred from a microsporangium to an ovule.

profit-and-loss-statement One part of a financial statement. It records how much money a business earned or lost over a period of time.

propagation Reproduction that is deliberately controlled and manipulated.

protectant A pesticide applied to a plant before a pathogen or insect arrives to kill the injurious agent when it does arrive.

protoplast The living matter of a plant cell. proximal/distal balance A form of balance in which the on-site landscape counterbalances the off-site landscape.

pruning The removal of a portion of a plant for better appearance, improved health, controlled growth, or attainment of a desired shape. pubescence Covered with fine epidermal hairs.

purity The percentage, by weight, of pure grass seed in a mixture.

quality Meeting the customers' requirements and exceeding their expectations.

ramet An individual plant within a clone.

respiration A breaking-down process that uses oxygen and enzyme catalysts to oxidize sugar to carbon dioxide and water. In the process, energy is produced.

rodenticide A chemical used for the control of rodents.

root cap A mass of cells that covers the apical meristem (growing region) in a root to protect it as the root grows through the soil.

rosetted The condition of a plant in which leaf development is good but internodal growth is retarded.

runner A stem that grows along the ground and forms new plants at one or more nodes.

scaffold branches The branches of a tree that create the canopy. They arise from and are secondary to the lead branch.

scarification The breaking of a seed coat otherwise impervious to water to permit water uptake by the embryo. It is a pregermination treatment.

scion The shoot portion of a grafted plant. sedentary soil A soil that weathered from bedrock and remains in place.

selective herbicide A weed killer formulated to be effective only against particular plants, such as annual grasses or broadleaved species.

senescence The aging of a plant or plant part.

shade A color hue darkened by the addition of black.

shrub A multistemmed woody plant, smaller than a tree.

side dress The application of fertilizer along the side of a row of crop plants at a time most satisfactory to growth of the plants.

simple fruit Developed from a single ovary. site An area of land having potential for development.

slow-release fertilizer A slow-action fertilizer in which nitrogen content is in a form not soluble in water. The nitrogen is released more slowly into the soil for more efficient uptake by plants.

sod Established turf which is moved from one location to another.

soft paving Loose aggregate materials used as surfacings.

soil The thin outer layer of the earth's crust, made up of weathered minerals, living and nonliving organisms, water, and air.

soil separates Groups of soil particles formed as bedrock weathers. Depending on the particle size, a separate may be clay, silt, sand, or gravel.

soil structure The arrangement of soil particles into aggregates.

soil texture The composition of a soil as determined by the proportion of sand, silt, and clay that it contains.

soluble salts Fertilizer elements that dissolve in water in the soil. In excess quantities, they can limit the availability of water to the plants or may reach excessive levels in the plant tissue, thereby causing harm or even death, to the plants.

species A category of plant classification distinguishing a plant from all others.

specimen plant A plant distinguished by some unusual visual quality such as its shape or colors.

spiracles Small openings along the side of the thorax and abdomen through which insects breathe.

sprig A piece of grass shoot. It may be a piece of stolon, rhizome, or lateral shoot. Sprigging is a vegetative method of establishing a lawn.

stamen The male reproductive organ of a flower.

stigma In flowering plants, the part of the pistil that receives pollen during pollination.

stipule A leaflike appendage located where the petiole of a leaf joins the stem.

stipule scar A mark left on a stem after the stipules fall away. They adjoin the petiole scar.

stock The root portion of a grafted plant.

stolon An aerial shoot that takes root after coming into contact with the soil.

stratification The chilling period required by some dormant seeds to accomplish the after-ripening necessary for germination.

sucker A shoot that originates from a plant's underground root system.

sun scald A temperature-induced form of winter injury. The winter sun thaws the above-ground plant tissue, causing it to lose water. The roots remain frozen and unable to replace the water. The result is drying of the tissue.

tangible A quality denoting something that can be physically touched.

taxonomy The systematic classification of plants.

temporary wilting Wilting from which the plant will recover as soon as the rate of transpiration falls below the rate of water uptake by the plant.

tender Describes the inability of a plant to survive the winter in cold climates. It is also used to describe the vulnerability of a young plant to weather extremes.

tendrils Appendages of certain vines that allow them to climb.

terminal bud The bud at the end of a twig. It exercises apical dominance over the lateral buds below it.

thallus The vegetative body of a fungus.

thatch A layer of organic residue located on the soil surface. It can be in varying stages of decomposition.

thinning out The removal of a shrub branch at or near the crown. It is a pruning technique.

tiller The lateral shoot of a bunch-type grass. Tillers are produced from axillary buds located within the leaf sheath.

tint A color hue lightened by the addition of white. In flowers, a tint appears as a pastel color.

tissue A grouping of similar cells to perform a common function.

tissue culturing The reproduction of plants from tiny pieces of undifferentiated plant tissue.

tone A color hue grayed by the addition of both white and black.

top dressing Broadcasting a thin layer of material, such as granular fertilizer, over the surface of the soil.

topiary The pruning of plants into unnatural shapes such as animals, architectural features, or geometric forms. The technique is associated with formal gardens.

topography A record of an area's terrain.

top working The grafting of scions onto the existing framework and root system of a large, established tree. It is done with fruit and nut trees to produce a crop faster than natural growth permits.

total quality management Managing a company in a manner that allows continuous improvement of its services, products, processes, and organization to satisfy the requirements of its customers and exceed their expectations.

trace element A nutrient essential to the growth of plants but needed in far less amounts than the major elements.

transition Used in floral design, the term refers to the use of flowers in a size sequence similar to the way they unfold in nature; that is, largest at the center, smallest at the edges.

translocation The movement of organic solutes within a plant. It occurs in the phloem and can flow in both directions through the plant.

transpiration The loss of water vapor from a plant.

transported soil Soils that are moved by the forces of nature. See colluvial, alluvial, aeolian, and glacial soils.

twining A manner by which certain vines are able to climb.

vacuole A cavity within the cytoplasm containing the cell sap.

variety A classification of a plant that recognizes some characteristic distinguishing it from others of the same species.

vascular bundle The conducting tissue of a plant. It is composed of the xylem and the phloem. vellum A translucent paper used in landscape designing.

venation The pattern of the veins in a leaf.

vendor A supplier of materials needed in the operation of a business.

vine A plant with a vigorous central lead shoot and a long, linear growth habit.

warm-season grass A turfgrass that is favored by daytime temperatures of 80[degrees] to 95[degrees] F. water sprout A small shoot of a tree or shrub that develops along the trunk.

weed A plant growing where it is not wanted and having no economic value.

windburn The drying out of plant tissue (especially evergreens) by the winter wind.

winter injury Any damage done to elements of the landscape during the cold weather season.

woody Describes plants that have a corky outer surface of bark covering their older stems. Woody plants usually survive the winter, and woody stems normally increase in diameter after pruning.

wound paint A sealing paint used over plant wounds of 1 inch or more in diameter each year.

working drawing A copy of a landscape design done on heavy paper or plastic film. It is used repeatedly during the construction of a landscape and must be very durable.

wound paint A sealing paint used over plant wounds of one inch or more in diameter after pruning.

xanthophyll A common pigment in plants responsible for yellow coloring.

xylem Part of the vascular tissue of a plant. It carries water and minerals from the roots to the above-ground plant parts.

zygote A diploidal plant cell.

JACK E. INGELS

State University of New York

College of Agriculture and Technology

Cobleskill, New York
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Author:Ingels, Jack E.
Publication:Ornamental Horticulture, Science, Operations & Management, 3rd ed.
Article Type:Glossary
Date:Jan 1, 2001
Words:5921
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