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Glossary of terms.

abbreviation--a punctuation mark (') used to form contractions and possessives access, date of--see date of access acronym--a "word" constructed of the first letters of the words in a phrase or title, for example, HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point)

action verb--a verb that tells what the subject of a sentence is doing; see also verb

active voice--verb form used when the subject of the sentence is performing the action of the verb; compare passive voice

address--in a letter, the name of the person and/or business that you are writing to

adjective--a word that describes or modifies a noun adverb--a word that describes or modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb; see also conjunctive adverb agreement--when one word in a sentence changes form to match or "agree with" another word, for example, subject-verb agreement and pronoun-antecedent agreement

allusion--a reference to or description of a person, place, event, or work of art or literature

alternating format--in a compare and contrast essay, a type of organization in which you focus on the first characteristic of the two items, then the second characteristic, and so on; also called point-by-point format

analogy--a comparison of the similarities between two items, often to explain an unfamiliar concept using a more familiar one; metaphors and similes are analogies analysis--breaking down a topic or an idea into its component parts and examining how it's put together in order to learn something about the whole

antecedent--a word, phrase, or clause for which a pronoun is substituted; see pronoun-antecedent agreement

APA style--format for documentation used by the American Psychological Association (APA)

apostrophe--the raised "comma" (') that is used to form possessives and contractions appositive--a word or phrase that sits next to a noun and renames it

argument--a series of connected statements or claims that are supported by evidence and used to prove a point; sometimes used interchangeably with claim articles--the words a, an, and the, which specify whether a noun refers to a specific or general person, place, or thing; a and an are indefinite articles; the is a definite article

audience--those who receive a communication, for example, through reading an essay, listening to a speech, or watching a movie

auxiliary verb--see helping verb

base form--with verbs, the word that follows to in an infinitive phrase (for example, the base form cook is part of the infinitive phrase to cook); also called the stem

block format--(1) in a compare and contrast essay, a type of organization in which you write all about the first item, then all about the second; (2) in a letter, a format in which every line begins at the left-hand margin

body--(1) the middle section of an essay, containing specific information that develops the main idea of the piece; (2) the content of a letter

brackets--a type of punctuation mark used in pairs [ ], often within quotes to indicate inserted material brainstorm--to generate ideas and information through freewriting, making lists or charts, talking to others, or doing research or experiments

capitalization--using capitals or uppercase for the initial letter of a sentence or proper noun

case--(1) the name given to different forms of nouns and pronouns: the subjective case is used for the subject of a sentence (Ivan or he), the objective case for a direct or indirect object and with prepositions (Ivan or him), and the possessive case for modifiers (Ivan's or his); (2) one of two types of letters, uppercase (or capital letters) and lowercase

causal chain--a sequence in which one event is the cause of another, which in turn causes another, and so on

causation--see cause and effect

cause and effect--a way of developing ideas by analyzing the causes and/or effects of an event or condition. An immediate cause occurs a short time before the event; a remote cause is farther away in time. A main cause is the most important or powerful cause; a contributing cause is a less important or powerful cause.

central idea--the main point you want to make, the claim you want to prove in an essay; sometimes called the thesis or thesis statement

character--a person in a literary work; sometimes characters are animals or mythological creatures

characterization--methods used by an author (such as speech, action, description, and narration) to portray a character's personality

Chicago style--a documentation format laid out in The Chicago Manual of Style

chronological order--an organizational plan that follows the sequence of events

citation--(1) quoting from an outside source to add authority to your work; (2) a source cited in your work; see also parenthetical citation

cite--to quote and document an outside source in your work

claim--a statement supported by evidence that forms part of a larger argument classification--organizing a topic into different kinds or categories

clause--a group of words that contains a subject and a verb; clauses may be independent or main and stand alone as a complete sentence; or they may be dependent, subordinate, or relative and unable to stand alone

cliche--a phrase that has been used so often that it has lost both precision and interest, for example, hungry as a horse

close reading--a focused and thorough study of a text

closing--the line that ends a letter, for example, Sincerely yours, plus your name and title

"coat hanger"--in this textbook, a subordinating conjunction

collective noun--a word that names a group with several members, such as team; in American usage, collective nouns are usually treated as singular; see also noun

colon--the punctuation that looks like two periods, one above the other (:), used to introduce a list or connect independent clauses

comma--a punctuation mark (,), used to separate parts of sentences

comma splice--a sentence error in which two independent clauses are joined by a comma only

common noun--a noun that refers to a category rather than a specific individual, place, or thing, for example, city rather than Chicago; see also noun and proper noun

communication--any of several ways of sharing information, feelings, and ideas; communication may use words (verbal) or not (nonverbal). Speech and writing are examples of nonverbal communication.

compare and contrast--to develop an idea by looking for similarities and differences

comparative form--the form of an adjective or adverb created by adding the suffix -er or the word more and used to judge two items against each other

comparison--see compare and contrast

complete predicate--see predicate

complete subject--see subject

complete thought--one of the three elements of a sentence, in addition to the subject and verb, and not to be confused with context or information. A complete thought suggests an independent structure; that is, the sentence can stand alone.

complex sentence--two clauses joined by a subordinating conjunction

compound adjectives--adjectives that contain more than one word, such as cage-free or well-behaved

compound number--a number spelled with two words connected by a hyphen, such as twenty-one

compound sentence--a sentence that contains two or more simple sentences joined by a coordinating conjunction, semicolon, or colon

compound subject--two or more subjects that share the same verb

compound verb--two or more verbs that share the same subject

compound-complex sentence--a sentence that contains a series of connected dependent and independent clauses

conclusion--the end of an essay, which may summarize its main points, state or restate the main idea, resolve the problem, and provide the reader with a sense of closure

conjunction--a word that joins two or more words, phrases, or clauses. The coordinating conjunctions (the so-called FANBOYS: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) join equal elements; subordinating conjunctions (such as because, although, while) join a dependent to an independent clause.

conjunctive adverb--a word or phrase that modifies an entire clause and suggests how its idea is connected to that of another word or clause; for example, however or then

connotation--the feelings or associations that make a word seem positive or negative, or simply neutral; compare denotation

context--the time and place, as well as the audience, purpose, and subject of a communication; see also kairos contraction--a combination of two words in which missing letters are indicated by an apostrophe coordinating conjunction--a conjunction that joins equal elements; see also conjunction and FANBOYS

count nouns--generally refer to concrete things and can be counted; compare noncount nouns

cover letter--a type of business letter in which you introduce yourself to the prospective employer and specify the job for which you are applying; usually accompanied by a resume

critical analysis essay--analysis of a literary or other artistic "text" that looks at how specific features or elements work to create certain effects

cut and paste--(1) editing functions on the word processor; (2) to physically separate and tape together sentences and paragraphs from a handwritten or printed essay

dangling modifier--an error in which a modifier, often an initial participial phrase, does not actually refer to a specific word in the sentence

dash--a punctuation mark (in MLA format, the em dash--) used variously like a comma, semicolon, or colon; see also em dash, en dash, and hyphen

date of access--in the list of works cited, the date of access is the day, month, and year on which you last viewed an electronic source

definite article--the; see also article definition--an explanation of what an item looks like or what it is made of, where you can find it, what it does, what it's used for; see also extended definition, denotation, and connotation

demonstrative pronoun--a word (this, these, that, those) that directs the reader's attention to particular nouns or pronouns

denotation--the basic definition of a word; compare connotation

dependent clause--a group of words that contains a subject and verb but cannot stand alone as a complete sentence; also called a subordinate clause

description--writing that "paints a picture," often using sensory details

direct address--using the name or title of the person you are writing or speaking to, for example, "Yes, Chef"

direct object--the direct object of a verb receives the action of the verb; compare indirect object

direct quote--an exact copy of the words and punctuation of the original text; compare paraphrase

draft--(1) to write or compose; (2) a piece of writing, often the first or rough draft, or a revised or final draft

edit--to correct or revise the grammar, word usage, and punctuation of a text

edition--a specific version or printing of a book; second and later editions should be specified when documenting a source

editor--one who collects various essays or poems into a book and/or prepares a manuscript

em dash--these long dashes--like commas--are used between words and phrases to set off a thought that interrupts the rest of the sentence

emphatic order--organizational plan that corresponds to the importance of the ideas or the emphasis you want to give them

en dash--shorter than the em dash (--), the en dash (-) is used in APA format to join a compound adjective where the words are of equal weight

end marks--punctuation marks that indicate the end of a complete sentence, including the period, question mark, and exclamation point

essay--a series of paragraphs or sections that develops a single main idea; see also personal essay

ethos--the character of a speaker or writer; persuasive strategies that show the reader you are knowledgeable, fair-minded, and trustworthy

euphemism--a watered-down term used supposedly to spare the reader's feelings when uncomfortable things like death or sex must be discussed

example--an event, story, fact, or other specific information that is used to illustrate, explain, or prove a general point; see also extended example

exclamation point--punctuation mark (!) at the end of sentence used to add emphasis or emotion

exemplification--the process of developing an idea through examples

extended definition--writing in which several paragraphs or an entire paper is focused on defining a complex term such as success, marriage, or tortillas

extended example--writing in which several paragraphs or an entire paper develops a single example; see also example

FANBOYS--a common acronym for the seven coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so

feminine pronouns--a group of third-person singular pronouns that refer to females: she, her, hers

figurative language--a group of methods by which you compare one item with another to create pictures or explore ideas; a figure of speech refers to a single method

figure of speech--a method of comparing items to create pictures or explore ideas, for example, metaphor or personification

first person--I (singular), we (plural) flashback--in a narrative, a scene that takes place before the current time

format--the style or rules governing the layout of a paper and the documentation of sources

fragment or sentence fragment--an incomplete sentence, one that is missing a subject, a verb, and/or an independent structure or "complete thought" so that it cannot stand alone

freewriting--a method of brainstorming that allows writers' ideas to flow freely, without editing

future perfect tense--see perfect tenses

future tense--formed with will + the base verb, it describes an action or condition that is expected but has yet to occur

gender--a characteristic of third-person singular pronouns, which may be masculine (he, him, his), feminine (she, her, hers), or neutral (it, its)

generic noun--a noun that names the typical member of a group, such as the average student

genre--a type or category of literature, music, etc., for example, detective story or romantic comedy

gerund--the base form of the verb + -ing, for example, cooking or baking; used as a noun

heading--(1) in an essay in MLA format, your name, the instructor's name, the course title, and the date in the upper left-hand corner; (2) in a letter, your name and address and the date

helping verb--in a verb phrase, one or more words that indicate the mood, tense, or voice of the main verb; also called auxiliary verb

hyphen--the short line used (-) within a word to connect compound numbers or adjectives

image--word or words that refer to one or more of the five senses

imagery--the collection of images in a single work; sometimes used for figurative language

imperative mood--a sentence in this mood is a command, such as Please sit down; see also mood

in medias res--some stories start "in the middle of things" instead of at the beginning

indefinite article--a and an; see also article

indefinite pronoun--a pronoun that refers to a general rather than a specific person, place, or thing (everyone); often, it suggests an amount (some)

independent clause--a group of words that contains a subject and a verb and that can stand alone; also called main clause

indicative mood--a sentence in this mood is a simple statement or question; see also mood

indirect object--the person or thing to which or for which the action is performed; compare direct object

indirect question--contains the content but not the exact words, for example, He asked me what the homework was. The exact words would be enclosed in quotation marks, as in "What is the homework?" he asked.

indirect speech--contains the content but not the exact words of a conversation, for example, She mentioned that she has a sister. The exact words would be enclosed in quotation marks, as in "I have a sister," she said.

infinitive--to + base form of verb, such as to cook, to write, or to be; infinitives may function like nouns

infinitive phrase--see infinitive

informative writing--intends to communicate information

instructions--directions on how to do something; a recipe

intensive pronouns--formed by adding -self to the personal pronouns and used to add emphasis

interjection--an exclamatory word such as Hey! that can be added to or deleted from a sentence without changing the sentence's structure

interrogative pronoun--a pronoun such as who or what used to ask a question

introduction--the beginning of an essay; an introduction should catch the reader's attention and generally states the topic of the paper

inverted sentence--a sentence in which the verb precedes the subject

irony--the use of words or other techniques to convey a meaning opposite to the obvious or literal one. In dramatic irony, the audience knows something the character does not; in verbal irony, the effect of the words is the opposite of their literal meaning.

irregular verbs--verbs that change form in unpredictable ways; compare regular verbs

italics--a slanted style of print (print) used for the titles of books, periodicals, movies, television series, works of art, and ships; for words in a foreign language; and when referring to a letter or word

jargon--the technical vocabulary specific to particular jobs, professions, or specialties

kairos--the context, or time and place, of a particular piece of writing

letterhead--a type of stationery on which the individual's or company's name, address, and/or logo are printed

linking verb--a word that "links" or joins the subject to the rest of the sentence; linking verbs include forms of to be, to appear, and to seem

literary present--the use of the present tense in discussing a literary work

logos--in persuasive writing, a strategy that uses reasoning and evidence, such as facts, statistics, and examples

lowercase--refers to small letters; compare uppercase

main clause--a group of words that contains a subject and a verb and that can stand alone or form part of a compound or complex sentence; also called independent clause

masculine pronouns--a group of third-person singular pronouns that refer to males: he, him, his

metaphor--a figure of speech in which one thing is said to be another; for example, "The kitchen was a cardboard box inferno."

misplaced modifier--a word or phrase that is out of position relative to the word it describes

MLA style--format for documentation used by the Modern Language Association (MLA)

modified block format--in a letter, a format in which the heading and closing begin at (or slightly to the right of) the center line, while all other lines are flush with the left-hand margin

modifier--a word, phrase, or clause that describes, explains, or limits another word, phrase, or clause; adjectives and adverbs are modifiers; see also dangling modifier and misplaced modifier

mood--a property of verbs including the indicative mood, which tells or asks without suggesting any hidden meaning; the imperative mood, which is used to give orders or commands; and the subjunctive mood, which is used mostly in formal situations to talk about a wish or to make a statement that is not factual

narration--the process of telling a story

narrator--the character who is telling the story; the narrator can be participating in the events or stand outside the story itself

neutral or gender-neutral pronouns--third-person singular pronouns that don't specific a gender: it, its; note that all third-person plural pronouns are gender-neutral: they, their, theirs

noncount nouns--include things that cannot be counted and do not have a plural form; see count nouns

nonrestrictive clause--compare restrictive clause nonverbal communication--communication without words; compare verbal communication

noun--a word that names something--a person, place, thing, or idea; a common noun may refer to categories of persons, places, and things; a proper noun refers to a specific person, place, or thing and is always capitalized; a generic noun names the typical member of a group; see also collective noun

noun fragment--a group of words that renames or describes a noun but does not form a complete sentence

number--a property of subjects and verbs, which are either singular (one) or plural (more than one)

object--the object of a preposition is the noun or pronoun that follows the preposition to form a prepositional phrase; the direct object of a verb receives the action of the verb; the person or thing to which or for which the action is performed is the indirect object

objective case--a noun or pronoun form used for the objects of verbs or prepositions; see case

outline--to put the main (and supporting) ideas in order; some writers create an outline before beginning a rough draft; others make an outline after completing a rough draft and use it to guide the revision process

paragraph--a group of sentences that develops a single main idea

paraphrase--to restate or translate the original text into your own words without quotation marks

parallelism--when equivalent ideas are expressed in equivalent grammatical forms

parentheses--a punctuation mark () used to set off words and phrases that explain or refer to something within the main sentence.

parenthetical citation--information enclosed in parentheses within the text about a source you've used in your work

participle--a form of the verb used as an adjective; the present participle adds -ing to the base form; the past participle of regular verbs adds -d or -ed

passive voice--verb form used when the subject of the sentence is receiving that action of the verb; compare active voice

past participle--see participle

past perfect tense--see perfect tenses

past tense--describes an action that occurred in the past or a condition that existed in the past; regular verbs add -d or -ed to form the past tense; see also tense

pathos--a strategy in speaking or writing intended to invoke pity or courage or hope, which in turn moves the reader to agreement and possibly action

perfect tenses--the past perfect indicates that one action in the past was completed before another; the present perfect indicates an action that occurred or a condition that existed at some indefinite time in the past; the future perfect describes an action that will be completed before another time in the future; see also tense

period--a punctuation mark (.) that indicates the end of a sentence

periodical--a magazine, journal, or newspaper published at regular intervals

person--a characteristic of pronouns; see first person, second person, third person

personal essay--a piece of writing in which the author tries to explain an idea from his or her personal perspective; often characterized by a more intimate tone and less formal organization than academic essays

personal pronoun--a word that refers to a specific person, place, thing, or idea, for example, I, we, you, he, she, it, they

personification--a figure of speech that attaches human thoughts and feelings to inanimate objects

persuasive writing--writing that seeks to compel a response from the audience, whether it is sympathy, agreement, or action; see also Aristotle's persuasive strategies: logos, ethos, pathos, and kairos

phrase--a group of words that functions like a single word

plot--the sequence or arrangement of events in a story

plural--more than one, as in the plural form of a noun

point-by-point format--see alternating format

point of view--the narrator's position with regard to the story, generally first person (I) or third person (they)

positive form--the form of an adjective or adverb that describes a noun without comparing it to another one

possessive adjective--the form of the possessive that modifies a noun: my, our, your, his, her, its, their

possessive case--a noun form that indicates possession, usually by adding 's; see case

possessive pronoun--the form of the possessive that replaces a phrase (That book is mine, that is, my book): mine, ours, yours, his, hers, theirs; note that it is not used in this way

predicate--the part of the sentence that is not the subject; the simple predicate is the verb

prefix--a word or syllable attached to the beginning of a word to make a new word

preposition--a word that shows the "position" of one noun in relation to another

prepositional phrase--a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun

present participle--see participle

present perfect tense--see perfect tenses

present tense--describes an action that is happening now, in the present; see also tense

principal parts--see verb

process--an activity performed in a certain sequence of steps with the necessary equipment and ingredients; see also process analysis, process narrative, and instructions

process analysis--an explanation of how a process is performed; a type of organization according to the sequence of steps in a process

process narrative--the story of how a process was performed

progressive tenses--indicate that an action was (past progressive), is (present progressive), or will be (future progressive) continuing

pronoun--word used in place of a noun or to indicate an amount; see also personal pronoun, possessive pronoun, relative pronoun, reflexive pronoun, demonstrative pronoun, interrogative pronoun

pronoun reference--a pronoun should refer clearly to a particular noun or nouns

pronoun--antecedent agreement--pronouns must agree with their antecedents in person, number, and gender

proofread--to read a piece of writing in order to find and correct errors in spelling and punctuation

proofreading--the final check of a piece of writing for spelling and punctuation errors

propaganda--written or spoken material that seeks to compel a response from the audience through manipulation rather than through open debate

proper noun--a noun that refers to a specific person, place, or thing and is always capitalized, for example, Chicago or Uncle John; see also noun

punctuation marks--provide visual, nonverbal guides to the structure and meaning of a sentence; see Chapters 29-31

purpose--the reason for communication, for example, to inform, entertain, and/or persuade quarterly--a periodical published four times per year question mark--punctuation mark (?) at the end of a sentence to indicate a question; see also indirect question

quotation marks--used to set off speech and the titles of songs, poems, short stories, individual episodes in a television series, articles, and chapters

recipe format (vs. essay format)--Recipes are different in that they usually begin immediately with a list of ingredients. The steps themselves may be listed or appear in small "paragraphs," but they are not in essay format. The steps are written in the imperative mood (that is, as commands).

reflexive pronouns--formed by adding -self to the personal pronouns and used when the subject of the sentence is also the object

refutation--an outline of some of the arguments on the opposite side and explanation of why these arguments are unreasonable, unethical, or otherwise less persuasive than your arguments

regular verbs--follow the same general rules as they change form, for example, add -ed to form the past tense; compare irregular verbs

relative clause--a type of dependent clause containing a relative pronoun that connects or "relates" to a noun or pronoun in an earlier part of the sentence

relative clause fragment--a sentence fragment containing a relative pronoun (who, which, that)

relative pronoun--a word that "relates" to another noun and connects it to a dependent or relative clause; relative pronouns include who, which, and that

research--gathering information or evidence in order to answer a question

restrictive clause--a clause that limits the meaning of a word or is otherwise essential to the meaning of a sentence; a nonrestrictive clause is not essential to the meaning of a word or sentence

resume--a summary of your qualifications for a job, both in terms of training and of experience

revision--the process of reevaluating and rewriting a piece of writing; literally re-seeing

rhetorical modes--waysof developing an idea and/or organizing an essay; rhetorical modes include narration, description, exemplification, compare and contrast, process analysis, and cause and effect

rhyme--similarity or identity of sound between words, particularly at the end of lines of poetry

rough draft--the first version of an essay, also called the first draft

run-on sentence--two independent clauses joined without an appropriate conjunction and/or punctuation

salutation--the greeting in a letter, such as Dear John second person--you (singular and plural)

semicolon--a punctuation mark that looks like a comma with a period on top (;), often used to join related independent clauses

sensory details--information that comes from the five senses (sight, smell, taste, touch, hearing)

sentence--a group of words that contains a subject, a verb, and a "complete thought," that is, an idea that can stand alone; see also simple sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence, and compound-complex sentence

sentence fragment or fragment--an incomplete sentence, one that is missing a subject, a verb, and/or an independent structure or "complete thought" so that it cannot stand alone

setting--where and when a story takes place

sexist language--expressions that inappropriately specify one gender when both should be included, for example, he used to mean "people in general"

signature block--conclusion of an email that may include sender's full name and title, department, company, street address, telephone and fax numbers, website, and business logo

simile--a figure of speech in which one thing is said to be like another; contains the words like or as

simple predicate--see predicate

simple sentence--a sentence that contains only one

subject-verb pair or independent clause

simple subject--see subject

simple tenses--the past, present, and future tenses of verbs

singular--one, as in the singular form of a noun

slang--words or phrases that have become popular within a certain group of people but may not be recognized by a general audience

slash--a punctuation mark (/) used when citing URLs, quoting lines of poetry, offering paired alternatives, and writing certain abbreviations

spatial order--an organizational plan that follows the physical layout

speaking--a form of verbal communication specific details--examples, descriptions, or factual information that develops, explains, or illustrates an idea

speech--a type of verbal communication

stanza--a group of lines in a poem, very much like a paragraph

stem--see base form

story--a story answers the question What happened? and includes characters, setting, and plot. Stories are often enriched with vivid descriptive details, a complex problem for the characters, suspense, and surprising twists and turns in the plot.

subject--the word or group of words that is performing the action of the sentence or that is being described by the rest of the sentence; the simple subject consists of one or more nouns or pronouns (or phrases acting like nouns); the complete subject includes all the words that modify or describe the subject

subject-verb agreement--verbs must agree with their subjects in number and person

subjective case--see case

subjunctive mood--used mostly in formal situations to talk about a wish or make a statement that is not factual; see also mood

subordinate clause--a group of words that contains a subject and verb but cannot stand alone as a complete sentence; also called a dependent clause

subordinate clause fragment--a type of incomplete sentence that consists of a subordinating conjunction plus a subject and verb

suffix--a word or syllble attached to the end of a word to make a new word

summary--a condensed statement of a text's main idea(s) and key supporting points

superlative form--the form of an adjective or adverb created by adding the suffix -est or the word most and used to compare more than two items

symbol--a thing that represents or stands for something else; for example, a dove may symbolize peace

symbolism--the use of symbols in a text

tag line--a phrase that introduces outside material, often by naming the author and/or title of the source

tense--a characteristic of verbs that indicates the time that an action was performed or that a condition existed; see also past tense, present tense, future tense, simple tenses, perfect tenses, and progressive tenses

text--(1) a book or written work; (2) the original wording of a source; (3) more broadly, any artistic work, including films and paintings

textual evidence--includes quotes, summaries, details, and descriptions from and of the "text," details that can be independently verified by the reader

thesis or thesis statement--a sentence that summarizes the central idea of an essay; the topic of the paper plus the point the author hopes to make about that topic

third person--he, she, it (singular); they (plural)

title--(1) the name of a piece of writing, such as an essay, story, poem, or book; (2) a name that describes a person's job or rank, such as Dr., Chef, or Assistant Manager

topic sentence--the main idea of a paragraph

transition or transitional expression--a word or phrase that shows the connection between ideas; transitions can move the reader from one part of a sentence to the next, from one sentence to the next, or from one paragraph to the next

uppercase--refers to capital letters; compare lowercase

URL--an acronym for Uniform Resource Locator or Internet address

verb--an essential ingredient of a sentence, it is a word or phrase that tells what the subject of the sentence is doing or connects the subject with some information later in the sentence; regular verbs follow the same general rules as they change form, while irregular verbs have different forms that must be memorized; the principal parts of a verb include the infinitive or base form, the past tense, and the past and present participles; see also action verb, helping verb, linking verb, and verb phrase

verb phrase--a main verb preceded by one or more helping verbs

verbal--a word that is made from and thus resembles a verb but is used in a different way, for example, as a noun (see gerund and infinitive phrase) or adjective (see participle)

verbal communication--see communication

voice--(1) used of a writer, the combination of features--including the attitude toward the topic, the choice of details that develop the topic, the choice of vocabulary, and the rhythm of the sentences--that creates a distinctive flavor; (2) a characteristic of verbs; in the active voice, the subject of the sentence is performing the action of the verb, while in the passive voice, the subject of the sentence is receiving that action

Works Cited page--a list in MLA style of all the sources cited in your paper

Works Consulted page--a list of sources read for the purpose of writing the paper, not all of which are necessarily cited

writing--a type of verbal communication
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Publication:A Taste for Writing, Composition for Culinarians
Article Type:Glossary
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2015
Previous Article:Appendix D: annotated research paper.
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