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Globalization or transnationalization? Analysis of Buddhist compassion relief Tzu Chi foundation's expansion and development.

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--. The World System in the Thirteenth Century: Dead-End or Precursor?, Essays on Global and Comparative History Series, (American Historical Association: May 1994).

--. Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250-1350 (oxford: oxford University Press, 1989, reprint edition 1991).

Barber, Benjamin R. Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism Are Reshaping the World (New york: Ballantine Books, 1995), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 155-268.

Bata, Michelle and Albert J. Bergesen. "Global Inequality: An Introduction," in Journal of World-Systems Research, Special Issue on Global Inequality--Part I, VIII:1 (Winter 2002), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 2-6.

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Chandhoke, Neera. "How Global Is Global Civil Society?" in Journal of World-Systems Research XI:2 (December 2005), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 355-371.

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Dash, Robert C. "Globalization: For Whom and For What?" in Latin American Perspectives 25:6 (November 1998), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 52-54.

Evans, Grant. "Between the Global and the Local There Are Regions, Culture Areas, and National States: A Review Article," in Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 33:1 (2002), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 147-162.

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--. The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change. (Cambridge: Blackwell, 1990).

Her, Rey-Sheng. Great Love As a Running Water: Witnessing of the Development of Bone Marrow Transplantation (Taipei: Jing Si Publications, 2006).

Herman, Edward. "Globalization in Question?" in Z Magazine (April 1997), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 8-11.

Hirst, Paul and Grahame Thompson. Globalization in Question (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1996), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1-50.

Huang, julia C. "Sacred or Profane? The Compassion Relief Movement's Transnationalism in Taiwan, japan, Malaysia, and the United States," in European Journal of East Asian Studies 2:2 (2003), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 217-241.

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Lee, Jonathan H. X. ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) "Contemporary Chinese-American Religious Life," in Chinese Religions in Contemporary Societies, ed. James Miller (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2006), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 235-256.

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Li, Wei-huang, translated by Lin Sen-shou. "The Evacuation of one Million People" [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] "An Unexpected journey," in Tzu Chi Quarterly: Buddhism in Action (Hualien: Tzu Chi Foundation, 2005), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 22-42.

Marshall, Don D. "National Development and the Globalisation Discourse: Confronting 'Imperative' and 'Convergence' Notions," in Third World Quarterly 17 (1996), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 875-901.

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Nonini, Donald M. "Introduction: Transnational Migrants, Globalization Processes, and Regimes of Power and knowledge," in Critical Asian Studies 34:1 (2002), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 3-17.

Nyitray, Vivian-Lee. "History, Memory, and Narrative Ethics" (Macau Ricci Institute, May 2008), ?[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

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--. The McDonaldization of Society, Revised New Century Edition (Thousand oaks: Pine Forge Press, 2004).

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Weller, Robert P. "Afterword: on Global Nation-States and Rooted Universalisms," in European Journal of East Asian Studies 2:2 (2003), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 321-328.

Yang, Mayfair Mei-hui, ed. Chinese Religiosities: Afflictions of Modernity and State Formation (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008).

Tzu Chi's official webpage: http://www.tzuchi.org/

(1.) George Ritzer, The Globalization of Nothing (Thousand oaks: Pine Forge Press, 2003), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 71-96; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] The McDonaldization of Society, Revised New Century Edition (Thousand oaks: Pine Forge Press, 2004).

(2.) Julia C. Huang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] "What Travels? Notes on a Globalizing Buddhist Movement from Taiwan," in Questionable Returns, ed. A. Bove (Vienna: IWM junior Visiting Fellows Conferences, vol. 12, 2002); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] "Sacred or Profane? The Compassion Relief Movement's Transnationalism in Taiwan, Japan, Malaysia, and the United States," in European Journal of East Asian Studies 2:2 (2003), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 217-241; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Julia C. Huang and Robert P. Weller, Charisma and Compassion: Cheng Yen and the Buddhist Tzu Chi Movement (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2009), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 212-246.

(3.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Russell Palmer, Introduction to World Religion (Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 1997); Denise L. Carmody and T. L. Brink, Ways to the Center: An Introduction to World Religions, 5th edition (Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing, 2001); John Bowker, World Religions, 1st American edition (London: Dk Adult, 1997); Huston Smith, The World's Religions: Our Great Wisdom Traditions (New York: HarperCollins, 1990; original copyright 1958); and Ninian Smart, The World's Religions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002; first published 1989).

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Allan Anderson, An Introduction to Pentecostalism: Global Charismatic Christianity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004); john Watson, Religion and Global Order (Religion, Culture, and Society) (Wales: University of Wales Press, 2000); Lester R. Kurtz, Gods in the Global Village: The World's Religions in Sociological Perspectives, Sociology for a New Century Series, (Thousand oaks: Pine Forge Press, 1995).

(4.) Bruce Mazlish, "Comparing Global History to World History," in Journal of Interdisciplinary History XXVII:3 (Winter 1998), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 385-395.

(5.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 386-395.

(6.) William H. McNeill, "The Changing Shape of World History," in History and Theory 34:14 (May 1995), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 8-26.

(7.) Fernand Braudel, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, vol. 1, trans. Fernand Braudel (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995).

(8.) Immanuel Wallerstein, The Modern World System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World Economy in the Sixteenth Century (New york: Academic Press, 1974).

(9.) Janet L. Abu-Lughod, The World System in the Thirteenth Century: Dead-End or Precursor?, Essays on Global and Comparative History Series, (American Historical Association: May 1994); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250-1350 (oxford: oxford University Press, 1989, reprint edition 1991); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] "The World-System Perspective in the Construction of Economic History," in History and Theory, 34:14 (May 1995), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 86-98.

(10.) Mazlish, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 389.

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(15.) Edward kick and Andrew Jorgenson, eds., Globalization and the Environment, Special Issue, Journal of World-Systems Research IX:2 (Summer 2003).

(16.) Lisa Law, "Transnational Cyberpublics: New Political Spaces for Labour Migrants in Asia," in Ethnic and Racial Studies 26:2 (March 2003), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 234-252.

(17.) Paul Hirst and Grahame Thompson, Globalization in Question (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1996), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1-50.

(18.) Mark Juergensmeyer, "Thinking Globally about Religion," in Global Religions: An Introduction, Mark Juergensmeyer, ed. (oxford: oxford University Press, 2003), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 3-16.

(19.) Mazlish, "global history is mainly transnational in its subjects of study...." ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 393).

(20.) Michael Kearney, "The Local and the Global: The Anthropology of Globalization and Transnationalism," in Annual Review of Anthropology 24 (1995), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 548.

(21.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(22.) Jonathan H. x. Lee, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 25[??] (2005 [??]), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 114-127.

(23.) David Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change (Cambridge: Blackwell, 1990).

(24.) David Harvey, "Globalization in Question," in Rethinking Marxism VIII:4 (1995), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 8.

(25.) Don D. Marshall, "National Development and the Globalisation Discourse: Confronting 'Imperative' and 'Convergence' Notions," in Third World Quarterly 17 (1996), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 875-901; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Edward Herman, "Globalization in Question?" in Z Magazine (April 1997), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 8-11.

(26.) Marshall, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 878.

(27.) Herman, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 8.

(28.) Michelle Bata and Albert J. Bergesen, "Global Inequality: An Introduction," in Journal of World-Systems Research, Special Issue on Global Inequality--Part I, VIII:1 (Winter 2002), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 2-6.

(29.) Roland Robertson, "Globalization or Glocalization?" in Journal of International Communication 1 (1994), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 33-52; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] "Glocalization: Time-Space and Homogeneity-Heterogeneity," in Global Modernities, ed. Mike Featherstone, Scott M. Lash, and Roland Robertson (Thousand oaks: Sage Publications, 1995).

(30.) Ritzer 2003, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 73.

(31.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(32.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(33.) Kearney, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 548.

(34.) Aihwa Ong, Flexible Citizenship: The Cultural Logics of Transnationality (Durham: Duke University Press, 1999), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 4.

"... trans denotes both moving through space or across lines, as well as changing the nature of something ... when I use the word globalization, I am referring to the narrow sense of new corporate strategies, but analytically, I am concerned with transnationality--or the condition of cultural interconnectedness and mobility across space--which has been intensified under late capitalism. I use transnationalism to refer to the cultural specificities of global processes, tracing the multiplicity of the uses and conceptions of 'culture'" (1999:4).

(35.) Proliferation: Threat and Response, United States of America, office of the Secretary of Defense (January 2001), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 61-66.

(36.) Riva kastoryano, "The Reach of Transnationalism," available from the Social Science Research Council, "After Sept. 11," http://essays.ssrc.org/sept11/essays/kastoryano.htm (accessed October 25, 2013).

(37.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

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(39.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(40.) Benjamin R. Barber, Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism Are Reshaping the World (New York: Ballantine Books, 1995), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 155-268.

(41.) Lisa Law, "Transnational Cyberpublics."

(42.) Kearney, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 550.

(43.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 554.

(44.) Jonathan H. x. Lee, "Taiwanese Americans and Religion," in Asian American History and Culture: An Encyclopedia, ed. Huping Ling and Allan W. Austin (Armonk: M. E. Shape Inc., East River Books, 2009), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

(45.) Jonathan H. X. Lee, "Creating a Transnational Religious Community: The Empress of Heaven and Goddess of the Sea, Tianhou/Mazu, from Beigang, Taiwan to San Francisco," in Religion at the Corner of Bliss and Nirvana: Politics, Identity, and Faith in New Migrant Communities, ed. Lois Ann Lorentzen and Kevin Chun (Durham: Duke University Press, 2009), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Lee, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 114-127.

(46.) Juergensmeyer, "Thinking Globally about Religion," [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 3.

(47.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(48.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 3-4.

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(57.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 5-6.

(58.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 7-8.

(59.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 9-11.

(60.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Desmond Tutu) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1984 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(61.) Juergensmeyer, "Thinking Globally About Religion," [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 9-11.

(62.) Ninian Smart, "The Global Future of Religion," in Global Religions: An Introduction, ed. Mark Juergensmeyer (oxford: oxford University Press, 2003), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 124-132.

(63.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 130-132.

(64.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(65.) Donald M. Nonini, "Introduction: Transnational Migrants, Globalization Processes, and Regimes of Power and knowledge," in Critical Asian Studies 34:1 (2002), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 3-17.

(66.) "Awards for Master Cheng yen," http://lab2.us.tzuchi.org/global/ home.nsf/about/k10630, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 5 20 2006 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

(67.) "Tzu Chi offices," http://www.tzuchi.org/global/offices/index.html, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 5 20 2006 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

(68.) Andre Laliberte, "'Love Transcends Borders' or 'Blood Is Thicker Than Water'? The Charity Work of the Compassion Relief Foundation in the People's Republic of China," in European Journal of East Asian Studies 2:2 (2003), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 248; Peter Bernard Clarke, New Religions in Global Perspective: A Study of Religious Change in the Modern World (New york: Routledge, 2006), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 3-21; Andre Laliberte, The Politics of Buddhist Organizations in Taiwan, 1989-2003: Safeguard the Faith, Build a Pure Land, Help the Poor (New york: Routledge, 2004).

(69.) Laliberte, "Love Transcends Borders."

(70.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Monrovia) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (San Dimas). [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(71.) Lee, "Taiwanese Americans and Religion," [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

(72.) Jonathan H. X. Lee, "Contemporary Chinese-American Religious Life," in Chinese Religions in Contemporary Societies, ed. James Miller (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2006).

(73.) Lee, "Contemporary Chinese-American Religious Life," [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]? Rey-Sheng Her, Great Love As a Running Water: Witnessing of the Development of Bone Marrow Transplantation (Taipei: Jing Si Publications, 2006).

(74.) Mixtec ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Mixteca) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Oaxaca [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Mixtec, Cuicatec ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Cuicateco) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Triqui ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Trique).

Vivian-Lee Nyitray, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] "History, Memory, and Narrative Ethics" (Macau Ricci Institute, May 2008), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

(75.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

(76.) Interviewed via email exchanges/[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

(77.) Interviewed via email exchanges/[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

(78.) Interviewed via email exchanges/[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

(79.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] http://www2.tzuchi.org.tw/ tc-medical/index.htm, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 5 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 20 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 2006 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

(80.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

(81.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 9/11 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] http://www.tzuchi.org/global/projects/WTC2001/index.html, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 5 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 20 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 2006 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

(82.) Li Wei-huang, trans. Lin Sen-shou, "The Evacuation of one Million People" [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] "An Unexpected journey," in Tzu Chi Quarterly: Buddhism in Action (Hualien: Tzu Chi Foundation, 2005) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 22-42.

(83.) "Special Report: Hurricane Katrina," http://www.tzuchi.org.tw/ en/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=365 %3Ahurricane-katrina-in-united-states&catid=78%3Amissionof medicine&Itemid=178&lang=en,[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 5 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 20 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 2006 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

(84.) Laliberte, The Politics of Buddhist Organizations in Taiwan, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 243-261.

(85.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 244.

(86.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 260.

(87.) Kastoryano, "The Reach of Transnationalism."

(88.) Roger Friedland, "Religious Terror and the Erotics of Exceptional Violence," in Anthropological Journal on European Cultures (now Anthropological Yearbook of European Cultures) 14 (2005), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 39.

(89.) Huang, "What Travels?"; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Robert P. Weller, "Afterword: on Global Nation-States and Rooted Universalisms," in European Journal of East Asian Studies 2:2 (2003), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 326.

(90.) Huang, "What Travels?" [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 3 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 7; Kuo Cheng-Tian, Religion and Democracy in Taiwan (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2008), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 26-28.

(91.) Julia C. Huang and Robert P. Weller, "Merit and Mothering: Women and Social Welfare in Taiwanese Buddhism," in Journal of Asian Studies 57:2 (May 1998), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 379-396; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Huang, "What Travels?" [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 3.

(92.) Susanne H. Rudolph and James Piscatori, eds., Transnational Religion: Fading State (Boulder: Westview Press, 1997); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Kenichi Ohmae, End of the Nation State: The Rise of Regional Economies (New York: Touchstone Publishing, 1996); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Jean-Marie Guehenno, The End of the Nation-State (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995).

(93.) Kearney 1995; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Grant Evans, "Between the Global and the Local There Are Regions, Culture Areas, and National States: A Review Article," in Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 33:1 (2002), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 147-162.

(94.) Smart 2003; Juergensmeyer, 2003 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Juergensmeyer, ed., Religion in Global Civil Society (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Weller 2003, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 324; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Neera Chandhoke, "How Global Is Global Civil Society?" in Journal of World-Systems Research XI:2 (December 2005), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 355-371.

(Jonathan H. X. Lee)

(SAN FRANCISCO STATE UNIVERSITY)

(Hsun Chang)

(ACADEMIA SINICA, INSTITUTE OF ETHNOLOGY)

Jonathan H. X. Lee is assistant professor of Asian American studies at San Francisco State University. Lee's research interests are in contemporary Chinese religions in "cultural China," material and visual religion, postcolonial studies, Asian American religious studies, and Asian and Asian American folklore.

Hsun Chang is a research fellow and deputy director at the Academia Sinica, Taiwan. Chang's research interests are in medical and cultural anthropology, in addition to religions of Taiwan.
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Date:Jan 1, 2013
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