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Globalization and educational equity in Latin America: perspectives from the global south/Globalizacion y equidad educativa en Latinoamerica: perspectivas desde el sur global.

In recent years, a growing number of English-language research studies and academic publications have explored the topic of globalization in the field of education. Educational research in (and about) the global North, conducted by prominent scholars (e.g., Apple, 2011; Banks, 2006, 2008; Bloom 2004; Hill, 2003, 2009; Hill & Kumar, 2008; Lipman, 2002; McLaren & Farahmandpur, 2001; Stromquist & Monkman, 2000; Torres, 2002), draws attention to globalization as a polarizing force of power and inequality in today's society. A small but growing number of publications in recent years, particularly in education, have begun to shift the focus to the global South, describing it as a space of tensions as well as a locus for generation of new knowledge relative to issues and problems associated with the existing social and economic inequities facing populations in such contexts (Bartlett & Ghaffar-Kucher, 2013; Shoba & Chimbutane, 2013). The wide range of topics addressed by these publications converge on key points, particularly in recognition of the spatial, temporary, geographical, and virtual flows that characterize these regions. Researchers have also paid attention to the rapid demographic changes as well as the growing disparity that continues to affect today's marginalized populations by limiting their access to education and economic or social opportunities in diverse societies of the global South. Such populations include those with transnational "lives in movement" not only between the south and the north, but also between the south and the south (Bartlett & Ghaffar-Kucher, 2013).

From this perspective, a number of qualitative scholars emphasize the important role of local knowledge in enabling a more complex analysis of context for social and educational research. These analyses contrast with traditional "mainstream" perspectives that have conceived the generation of knowledge and expansion of development as a phenomenon that inevitably, and "necessarily," takes place in the North and moves to the South or that is to be imposed by privileged spaces and geographies upon those of poverty, inequality and underdevelopment. In response to this oversimplification, new scholars have produced analyses focusing, for example, on diverse epistemological, political, and economic possibilities offered by the global South as proposal and as alternative to the top-down imposition of the North. In this sense, new perspectives have emerged from the global South as a legitimate space for knowledge generation with substantive significance not only in the South but also in the global North (Appadurai, 2000; Escobar, 1995; Mignolo, 2000; Quijano, 2000; Spivak 2012). The South is the place, from this perspective, where we can re-imagine notions of present and future prosperity and progress, rather than subscribing to the top-down models of development explicitly and implicitly predetermined in and imposed from the global North. This, then, becomes the new space, from which we can ask new questions, such as, "What is it that the global North can learn from the South?"

This special issue of the International Journal of Multicultural Education on the theme "Globalization and Educational Equity in Latin America: Perspectives from the Global South" brings together articles that represent discussions on globalization and equity at the academic level, as well as in the worlds of fieldwork, community cultural practices, and teacher training projects both in Latin America and in the United States. In the first article, titled "Conversations on Indigenous Education, Progress, and Social Justice in Peru" and written in English, Elizabeth Alva Sumida Huaman turns the gaze of the reader and multicultural educator precisely on an examination of the Western epistemological assumptions that have dominated the field of education in theory and practice. The criticism offered by Sumida Huaman on this unwelcome Western domination emphasizes its colonial roots as well as the social and economic injustice that globalization has consistently exacerbated in Indigenous communities. As a researcher with extensive experience in international comparative studies in Indigenous communities and as a member of the Wanka Indigenous community in Peru, Sumida Huaman argues that the central involvement of members of the local Indigenous communities in their own education, moving far beyond symbolic acts of representation, is essential in the context of today's globalization and social injustice. Her article examines possible linkages to substantial and transformative changes of education for Indigenous peoples.

Echoing Sumida Huaman's critique, authors Rukmini Becerra Lubies, Felipe Hasler, and Simona Mayo conceptualize globalization as a hegemonic force of domination and exclusion. In their article "Re-thinking the Place of Indigenous Languages in Chile: Globalization and Intercultural Bilingual Education," written in Spanish, the authors highlight the premise that every social and structural movement towards social justice is rooted in an epistemological transformation, inextricably linked to deep understanding of the role of Indigenous languages as a central element of people's lives and identity formation. Drawing on the legacies of Freire and Appadurai among others, Becerra Lubies, Hasler, and Mayo propose a pedagogy of transformation and globalization from the bottom up to examine the relevance of linguistic capital as a response to globalization processes that have excluded Indigenous languages, cultures, and identities. Focusing on initiatives developed by Indigenous youth and student movements prioritizing bilingual intercultural education, Becerra Lubies, Hasler, and Mayo examine grassroots proposals, from the bottom up, for the revitalization of the Mapudungun Indigenous language in Chile.

These authors build upon the well-researched premise that the institution of schooling and the role of the school teacher in her/his community are key loci from which some of the most explicit polarizations between western and Indigenous peoples are formed. In "Coloniality and Cognitive Justice: Reinterpreting Formal Education for the Indigenous Peoples in Ecuador," written in English, Tuija Veintie also discusses intercultural bilingual education as a form of colonial re-territorialization in the context of globalization. Veintie examines teachers' notions about possibilities for re-defining formal intercultural education in the context of a teacher training institute for bilingual teachers in the Ecuadorian Amazon. This study describes both explicit and contradictory attempts at reconceptualizing teaching and intercultural education, as enacted by Shuar, Achuar and Kichwa Indigenous teachers.

In the article "Parankuecha, Dialogues and Learnings: The Bonfires of Cheran as Community Educational Praxis" written in Spanish, Jurhamuti Jose Velazquez Morales and Luz Maria Lepe Lira present educational and political actions outside of the formal setting of the school, describing attempts to counteract the violent extraction of natural resources of the Cheran territory in Michoacan, Mexico. As a member of the community and an active participant of the bonfires of Cheran himself, Morales Velazquez attests to the violence affecting Indigenous communities inhabiting territories rich in natural resources where greedy economic interests, blind to the impacts of economic exploitation on Indigenous community life, are concentrated. The text of this article also becomes the testimony of Morales Velazquez as an educator, who responds to the context of violence by promoting a critical and liberating education for Indigenous children in Cheran.

Jubin Rahatzad, Hannah L. Sasser, JoAnn Phillion, Nastaran Karimi, Yuwen Deng, Reiko Akiyama, and Suniti Sharma dedicated the article, "Postglobal Teacher Preparation: Border Thinking Along the Global South Through International Cross-Cultural Experiences" written in English, to the analysis of international experience in a teacher preparation program as a space for critical thinking and epistemological transformation for future teachers. While this article is not intended to present all international experience in teacher education as a panacea, it does emphasize that experience as fertile ground for epistemological transformation. The article also points to the need for explicit and intentional practice by those dedicated to the training of teachers, without which international experience of future teachers would lack transformative potential.

Thus, the present special bilingual edition brings together articles that converge in their discussion of the critical need for epistemological transformation, drawing both on re-conceptualizations (theory) as well as on social and critical educational practices (praxis) as essential elements in efforts to counteract the injustices and inequities exacerbated by hegemonic forces of globalization. Of course, the alternatives presented to us by the global South in the various articles in this volume also have their own complexities and contradictions. Sumida Huaman, Velazquez Morales, and Lepe Lira suggest that these alternatives may be deeply transformative, serving to bring about forms of socially just coexistence where Indigenous epistemologies, pedagogies, and cultural practices are centrally recognized, valued, and practiced (see Becerra Lubies, Hasler, and Mayo for further examples). Other authors in this volume, such as Veintie as well as Rahatzad, Sasser, Phillion, Karimi, Deng, Akiyama, and Sharma, however, remind us that current notions and practices among present and future educators have served, and still continue, to sustain the reproduction of hegemonic structures which in turn perpetuate grave inequalities leading to dire consequences reaching far beyond formal education.

While this volume represents IJME's first attempt to include articles written in other languages, in this case Spanish and English, this is a preliminary effort that we fully expect to continue growing and developing. Our idea of access to a broader audience by featuring languages other than English also includes Indigenous languages, which have been underrepresented in academic publications in general. We strongly believe that this is an initiative that should continue to expand, and we look forward to future efforts to present/ represent diverse languages and voices of communities in the Americas and beyond.

We especially thank our team of anonymous reviewers for their valuable work in reviewing articles for this special edition. We also want to acknowledge the dedicated work of talented graduate students who provided assistance in the preparation of this special volume. We especially recognize the contributions of Daniel Morales Morales, Carlos Paez Paez, Amabilia Valenzuela, Hilda Sotelo, and others who committed time and attention to careful review of articles in both Spanish and English.

Laura A. Valdiviezo

University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Judith H. Munter

University of Texas, El Paso

El tema de la globalizacion en el ambito educativo ha venido examinandose en estudios y publicaciones academicas en el idioma ingles desde hace mas de una decada. En el norte global y en el campo de la educacion son conocidos los trabajos de Apple (2011), Banks (2006, 2008), Bloom (2004), Hill (2003, 2009), Hill & Kumar (2008), Lipman (2002), McLaren & Farahmandpur (2001), Stromquist & Monkman (2000) y Torres (2002), entre otros, que destacan la globalizacion como fuerza polarizante del poder e inequidad existentes en sociedades actuales. Un numero creciente de publicaciones mas recientes en educacion se viene dedicando al sur global, situandolo como espacio de tensiones asi como de generacion de conocimiento sobre temas y problemas asociados con la inequidad social y economica que enfrentan las poblaciones en dicho(s) contexto(s) (Bartlett & Ghaffar-Kucher, 2013; Shoba & Chimbutane, 2013). Los debates que estas publicaciones toman en cuenta coinciden en reconocer los flujos espaciales, temporales, geograficos, y virtuales, y los rapidos cambios demograficos que forman parte de estos espacios asi como la creciente disparidad que viene afectando a las poblaciones que han sido marginales a las oportunidades de acceso educativo, economico y social en las diversas sociedades del sur global incluyendo poblaciones transnacionales con vidas en movimiento no unicamente entre el sur y el norte sino tambien entre el sur y el sur (Bartlett & Ghaffar-Kucher, 2013).

Los diversos estudios cualitativos al respecto, destacan la importancia del conocimiento local como elemento complejizante para la investigacion social y educativa. Estos analisis contrastan con perspectivas tradicionales y mas comunes que conciben el desarrollo del conocimiento y expansion del desarrollo como algo que ocurre--y debe "necesariamente" ocurrir--desde el norte hacia el sur, o desde espacios y geografias privilegiadas hacia aquellos que enfrentan pobreza, inequidad, y subdesarrollo. A esta simplificacion han respondido analisis culturales que por ejemplo se focalizan en lo que ofrece el sur global como propuesta y como alternativa a las imposiciones del norte, tanto epistemologicas como politicas y economicas (Escobar, 1995). En este sentido el sur global se abre como espacio legitimo de generacion de conocimiento con sustantiva trascendencia no unicamente en el sur sino tambien en el norte global (Appadurai, 2000; ver mas analisis criticos sobre la globalizacion en el contexto postcolonial en Mignolo, 2000; Quijano, 2000 y Spivak, 2013). El sur es el espacio donde se reimaginan presentes y futuros de progreso y bienestar distintos a los modelos de desarrollo explicita e implicitamente prescrito desde el norte global. Asi, es el espacio donde puede entonces hacerse la pregunta ?que es lo que norte global puede aprender del sur?

La presente edicion especial de la Revista Internacional de Educacion Multicultural, Globalizacion y Equidad Educativa en Latinoamerica: Perspectivas desde el Sur Global, reune articulos escritos en ingles y en espanol que representan debates sobre la globalizacion y la equidad que se dan a nivel academico, asi como al nivel del trabajo de campo, de las practicas culturales comunitarias, y al nivel de la formacion de maestros tanto en Latinoamerica como en los Estados Unidos. En el primer articulo, titulado Conversaciones sobre Educacion Indigena, Progreso, y Justicia Social en el Peru, Elizabeth Alva Sumida Huaman torna la mirada del lector y educador multicultural hacia un necesario examen de las suposiciones epistemologicas occidentales que han dominado el campo educativo en teoria, investigacion, y practica. La critica ofrecida por Sumida Huaman sobre esta innecesaria dominacion occidental, tambien llamada globalizacion, enfatiza sus raices coloniales asi como la exacerbacion de la injusticia social y economica hacia las comunidades indigenas. Como investigadora con experiencia extensiva en estudios comparados internacionales en comunidades indigenas y como miembro de la comunidad indigena Wanka en el Peru, Sumida Huaman advierte que en el presente contexto de globalizacion e injusticia social, la participacion central de los miembros de las comunidades indigenas locales en su propia educacion no es unicamente un acto simbolico sino que va unido a transformaciones profundas y contrahegemonicas en contenidos y formas de conocimiento y educacion para los pueblos indigenas.

De manera similar a Sumida Huaman, los autores Rukmini Becerra Lubies, Felipe Hasler, y Simona Mayo tambien conceptualizan la globalizacion como fuerza hegemonica de dominacion y exclusion. En su articulo titulado Repensando el Lugar de las Lenguas Indigenas en Chile: Globalizacion y Educacion Intercultural Bilingue, los autores destacan que la premisa de todo cambio social y estructural hacia la justicia social se encuentra en la transformacion epistemologica que contribuye al conocimiento profundo de la lengua indigena como parte central de la vida e identidad de los pueblos. Utilizando respectivamente el legado de Freire y Appadurai, entre otros, Becerra Lubies, Hasler y Mayo plantean la pedagogia de transformacion y la globalizacion desde abajo para examinar la relevancia del capital linguistico como respuesta a los procesos de globalizacion excluyentes de lenguas, culturas e identidades indigenas. Focalizandose en esfuerzos realizados por movimientos estudiantiles y juveniles indigenas en relacion a la educacion intercultural bilingue, Becerra Lubies, Hasler, y Mayo examinan propuestas desde abajo para la revitalizacion de la lengua indigena mapudungun en Chile.

Los autores parten de la premisa de que el ambito de la escuela y la figura del maestro son ejes claves desde los que se construyen las polarizaciones mas explicitas entre lo occidental y lo indigena. Tuija Veintie en Colonialidad y Justicia Cognitiva: Reinterpretando la Educacion Formal para los Pueblos Indigenas del Ecuador, examina tambien la educacion intercultural bilingue como una forma de reterritorializacion colonial en el contexto de la globalizacion. La autora examina las nociones de los maestros sobre lo que es o lo debe ser una educacion formal intercultural en el contexto de un instituto de formacion de maestros bilingues en la Amazonia Ecuatoriana. Este estudio presenta intentos explicitos y tambien contradictorios de ensenanza y reconceptualizacion intercultural por parte de maestros indigenas shuar, achuar y kichwa.

En el articulo Parankuecha, Dialogos y Aprendizajes: Las Fogatas de Cheran como Praxis Educativa Comunitaria, los autores Jurhamuti Jose Velazquez Morales y Luz Maria Lepe Lira presentan las acciones educativas y politicas fuera del contexto formal de la escuela que contrarrestan la violenta extraccion de los recursos naturales del territorio Cheran en Michoacan, Mexico. Como miembro de la comunidad y participante activo de las fogatas de Cheran, Velazquez Morales da fe de la violencia que afecta a comunidades indigenas que habitan territorios ricos en recursos naturales en los que se concentran intereses economicos codiciosos y ciegos al impacto de la explotacion economica sobre los miembros del Cheran. El texto de este articulo se convierte tambien en el testimonio de Velazquez Morales como educador que responde a un contexto de violencia, promoviendo una educacion critica y liberadora para los ninos indigenas en Cheran.

Jubin Rahatzad, Hannah L. Sasser, JoAnn Phillion, Nastaran Karimi, Yuwen Deng, Reiko Akiyama, y Suniti Sharma dedican el articulo La Preparacion Post Global del Maestro: El Pensamiento de Frontera en el Sur Global a traves de Experiencias Internacionales Transculturales, a analizar la experiencia internacional en un programa de educacion de maestros como espacio de pensamiento critico y transformacion epistemologica para futuros maestros. Si bien este articulo no pretende presentar toda experiencia internacional en la educacion de maestros como panacea, si enfatiza dicha experiencia como terreno fertil para la transformacion epistemologica. Este articulo tambien sugiere una praxis explicita e intencional por parte de aquellos dedicados a la formacion de maestros, sin la cual la experiencia internacional de los futuros maestros careceria de potencial transformativo.

Asi, la presente edicion especial bilingue reune articulos que coinciden en afirmar la necesidad de una transformacion epistemologica, dada en reconceptualizaciones y en practicas sociales y educativas como un paso esencial para contrarrestar la injusticia e inequidad exacerbadas por fuerzas hegemonicas globalizantes. Es claro que las alternativas que nos presenta el sur global en los diferentes articulos de este volumen tambien poseen sus propias complejidades y contradicciones. Estas alternativas pueden ser, como lo senalan Sumida Huaman, al igual Velazquez Morales y Lepe Lira profundamente transformativas hacia formas de convivencia socialmente justas donde las epistemologias, pedagogias y practicas culturales indigenas sean centralmente reconocidas, valoradas y practicadas, como lo indican igualmente Becerra Lubies, Hasler y Mayo. Los autores en este volumen, en especial Veintie y Rahatzad, Sasser, Phillion, Karimi, Deng, Akiyama, y Sharma tambien sugieren la existencia de nociones y practicas entre educadores presentes y futuros que siguen reproduciendo estructuras hegemonicas que a la vez perpetuan graves desigualdades mas alla del ambito educativo formal.

Finalmente nos complace presentar este volumen como un primer intento de IJME por incluir articulos escritos en otras lenguas, en este caso espanol ademas del ingles. Nuestra idea de expandir el acceso a los lectores a la revista en otras lenguas ademas del ingles incluye tambien lenguas indigenas, las cuales se encuentran menos presentes en publicaciones academicas en general. Creemos firmemente que esta es una iniciativa que debe continuar ampliandose, y esperamos con interes los esfuerzos que se realicen en el futuro en diversos idiomas, que representan las voces de las comunidades de las Americas y mas alla.

Queremos agradecer a nuestros evaluadores anonimos por la valiosa revision de los articulos para esta edicion especial. Asi mismo estamos agradecidas por el gran apoyo prestado por nuestros estudiantes graduados en la preparacion de este volumen especial. Vaya nuestro reconocimiento al trabajo de Daniel Morales Morales, Carlos Paez Paez, Amabilia Valenzuela, Hilda Sotelo, y otros que dedicaron su tiempo y atencion a la revision de articulos en espanol y en ingles.

Laura A. Valdiviezo

Universidad de Massachusetts, Amherst

Judith H. Munter

Universidad de Texas, El Paso

References

Bibliografia

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Title Annotation:EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECIAL BILINGUAL ISSUE
Author:Valdiviezo, Laura A.; Munter, Judith H.
Publication:International Journal of Multicultural Education
Date:Dec 1, 2013
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