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Giving back: pro bono accounting services.


* THERE ARE NUMEROUS OPPORTUNITIES for CPAs to make a difference in their communities. Many volunteer accounting services are provided through such not-for-profit groups as Accountants for the Public Interest (API).

* VOLUNTEERS COME FROM ALL SECTORS of the accounting profession, including public accounting firms, private industry, government and education. Services offered commonly include consulting on accounting and auditing matters and providing accounting or income tax assistance and help in preparing for audits. Services are offered only to qualifying organizations, such as small not-for-profit organizations or businesses that cannot afford to pay, and individuals, such as poor, elderly and disabled taxpayers.

* MOST VOLUNTEER WORK is motivated by the personal satisfaction that comes from helping others. Public service can also contribute to the development of a practice and help CPAs expand their professional skills and their areas of expertise.

Resources for CPAs who want to make a difference.

After Gary Skerik's father died of cancer, the Los Angeles CPA decided to volunteer his accounting expertise to assist the American Cancer Fund for Children. In 1997 Barbra Sanders, an Illinois CPA, served as treasurer for the local chapter of Habitat for Humanity, taught a free course on not-for-profit reporting for board members of several Illinois resource conservation and development corporations, and helped achieve tax-exempt status for a group that provides free medical services in Central America. Every year since 1993, Cheryl Cruz, a CPA, attorney and accounting professor, has trained a group of her students to participate in the IRS-sponsored Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) program. These are but a few examples of the thousands of CPAs who volunteer their time to worthwhile causes.


CPAs have numerous opportunities to make a difference in their communities. Many provide pro bono accounting services through not-for-profit groups such as Accountants for the Public Interest (API). API has 21 affiliate organizations nationwide that coordinate pro bono efforts by matching volunteer accountants with individuals and organizations that need their expertise. The volunteers come from all sectors of the accounting profession, including public accounting firms, private industry, government and educational institutions. Although the services offered through API affiliates vary widely, they commonly include consulting on accounting and auditing matters and providing accounting or income tax assistance and help in preparing for audits. Services are offered only to qualifying organizations, such as small not-for-profit organizations or businesses that cannot afford to pay for them, and individuals, such as poor, elderly and disabled taxpayers.

The types of services offered by various API affiliates (see exhibit 1, at right) illustrate the breadth of public interest accounting work. In a recent year, more than 7,400 API volunteers provided assistance to over 45,000 organizations and individuals. In addition, CPAs from all areas of the profession also participate in other groups in their communities, doing various forms of public interest accounting work.

Exhibit 1: Services Provided Through API Affiliates

Direct Accounting Assistance

* Tax preparation, including participation in IRS-sponsored Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) programs.

* Preparation for the annual audit.

* Reduced-rate auditing.

* Designing and implementing accounting and control systems.

* Staff training.

Consulting or Advisory Services

* Tax matters.

* Financial management.

* Loan or grant applications.

* Responsibilities in reporting to government agencies.

* Business start-up consulting.

Community Service

* Providing free or low-cost seminars and workshops on accounting and finance.

* Publishing accounting guides and newsletters for not-for-profits.

* Serving on a not-for-profit's board of directors.

* Advising local government agencies or public schools on a variety of accounting, tax and other financial issues.

* Assisting in reconstructing records for victims of fires, floods, hurricanes and other disasters.

* Speaking at high schools about accounting careers.

* Giving lectures at high schools on basic accounting concepts, such as taxes, financial planning and personal cash management.

* Sponsoring conventions for not-for-profits.

* Mentoring for women or minority small business owners.

* Offering bilingual assistance to small, minority-owned businesses.

* Mentoring university accounting students.

Most large CPA firms encourage employees to participate in volunteer activities--some even provide time off with pay for such participation. Frierson and Associates, P.C., a midsize local firm in Houston, provides a good illustration of pro bono work among smaller practitioners. The firm's managing partner, Ray Frierson, has provided a variety of volunteer services, such as serving on not-for-profit boards of directors and helping with fund-raising events. The firm has also provided auditing and accounting services for a number of emerging not-for-profits at significant discounts. According to Frierson, "The discount is a function of several factors, including the type of organization, its ability to pay, and the ancillary benefits of being involved with it. For instance, several years ago I was introduced to an organization created to protect the habitat of the Monarch butterfly in Mexico. After one visit to the nesting grounds high in the mountains of Mexico--and having my entire body covered with butterflies--I was so overwhelmed I provided my accounting services free for years."


Most people volunteer primarily because of the personal satisfaction they get from helping others. Gary Condie, incoming president of the Los Angeles chapter of the California Society of CPAs, says he gains a sense of fulfillment when he volunteers. Condie has provided an array of services, among which was serving on boards of directors for both a hospital and the Boys and Girls Club. Rachel Murray, a sole practitioner in San Francisco who provides free accounting services for a small not-for-profit organization, says her volunteer efforts were motivated by the realization of what's really important in life.

CPAs often volunteer for organizations whose goals they support or with which they feel an emotional connection. A good illustration is Bob Mayeri, a Beverly Hills CPA who serves as volunteer treasurer of the World Children's Transplant fund, a not-for-profit organization that sets up organ transplant centers for children worldwide. He became interested in helping this group when his mother had a successful liver transplant in 1994. Gary Skerik not only volunteers with the American Cancer Fund for Children, but also for Film Makers United, a small organization that assists young film makers. Because Skerik's firm has many ties to the film industry, he has been able to use his contacts to aid this group.

Ray Frierson says his volunteer work not only has been personally fulfilling but also has contributed to the development of his practice. In addition to the personal contacts that can be made with managers and directors of not-for-profits, community service can enhance a firm's public image.

Volunteer work can also help CPAs develop their professional skills and expand their areas of expertise. Paul Glass, president of the Clearinghouse for Volunteer Accounting Services in California, said many volunteers develop valuable skills--for example, in communication and interpersonal relations. After Rachel Murray volunteered to help a not-for-profit organization achieve 501(c)(3) status, she felt she could offer the same service to potential clients.

Pro bono services can benefit the accounting profession by enhancing the public image of CPAs. The AICPA Code of Professional Conduct recognizes a commitment to serve the public interest, and participation in pro bono services is one way CPAs can demonstrate this commitment, thereby increasing public trust in the profession.


CPAs are probably already aware of numerous not-for-profit organizations in their own communities. For more information, the API affiliates shown in exhibit 2, page 97, typically maintain a roster of organizations and people in need of assistance and attempt to match them with the skills and time commitments of volunteers. There are also other sources of volunteer opportunities. For example, some state CPA societies conduct public service programs not affiliated with API. In addition, through its VITA and Tax Counseling for the Elderly (TCE) programs, the IRS assists poor, elderly, disabled and non-English-speaking taxpayers to comply with federal and state tax laws. While some VITA/TCE programs are administered through API affiliates, most are conducted directly by the IRS and state tax authorities with the assistance of "volunteer coordinators" who are often experienced CPAs. Information on participation in the VITA/TCE programs may be obtained from state tax authorities. No matter where CPAs channel their energies, they will find pro bono work to be a satisfying experience.

Exhibit 2: API Affiliates
Parent Organization
Accountants for the Public Interest at
the University of Baltimore
 Thurnel Business Center, Room 155
 1420 North Charles Street
 Baltimore, Maryland 21201
 Phone: 410-837-6533
 Fax: 410-837-6532

Clearinghouse for Volunteer Accounting
 Phone: 805-295-8912
 Fax: 805-295-8333
 Web site:

Community Accounting Aid and
Services, Inc.
 West Hartford
 Phone: 860-570-9113
 Fax: 860-570-9107
 Web site:

District of Columbia
Support Center of Washington
Volunteers for Community Service
 Washington, DC
 Phone: 202-833-0300
 Fax: 202-833-0077
 Web site:

Florida Association of Nonprofit
 Miami Lakes
 Phone: 305-557-1764
 Fax: 305-821-5228
 Web site: www.special-event.

Nonprofit Resource Center
 Phone: 404-688-4845
 Fax: 404-521-0487

CPAs for the Public Interest
 Phone: 312-993-0407
 Fax: 312-993-9432
 Web site:

Quality for Indiana Taxpayers, Inc.
 Phone: 317-974-0736
 Fax: 317-974-0768
 Web site:

Maryland Association of Nonprofit
Organizations Baltimore
 Phone: 800-273-6367
 Fax: 410-727-1914
 Web site:

Community Tax Aid, Inc.
 Phone: 617-330-4721
 Fax: 617-439-9731

Accounting Aid Society
 Phone: 313-961-1840
 Fax: 313-961-6257

Minnesota Accounting Aid Society
 Phone: 612-636-8770
 Fax: 612-636-8772
 Web site:

Mississippi Center for Not-for-Profits,
 Phone: 601-968-0061
 Fax: 601-352-8820
 Web site:

New Jersey
API--New Jersey
 East Brunswick
 Phone: 732-249-7565
 Fax: 732-249-8158

New York
Support Center for Nonprofit Management
API--Accounting Aid Program New York City
 Phone: 212-924-6744
 Fax: 212-924-5544
Community Tax Aid, Inc.
 New York City
 Phone: 800-225-0256 ID #98741

Community Accountants Philadelphia
 Phone: 215-893-9333
 Fax: 215-893-9339
 Web site: www.libertynet/org./
Western Pennsylvania Community
Accountants, Inc.
 Phone: 412-462-9722
 Fax: 412-462-3275
 Web site:

Rhode Island
Nonprofit Resources of Southern New
 Phone: 401-861-8930
 Fax: 401-273-0540
 Web site: www.not-for-profit

Virginia Society of CPAs
Public Service Volunteer Program
 Phone: 804-270-5344
 Fax: 804-273-1741
 Web site:

Wisconsin Institute of CPAs
Public Interest Committee
 Phone: 800-772-6939
 Fax: 414-785-0838
 Web site:

API Student Chapter
Lincoln University Accounting Club
 Lincoln University, Pennsylvania
 Phone: 610-932-8300
 Fax: 215-932-8317

WILLIAM E. SHAFER, CPA, PhD, is a professor of accounting at California State University, Los Angeles. His e-mail address is L. JANE PARK, CPA, PhD, is an associate professor of accounting, also at California State University. Her e-mail address is ALICE A. KETCHAND, CPA, PhD, is an associate professor at Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas. Her e-mail address is
COPYRIGHT 1999 American Institute of CPA's
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 1999, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

Article Details
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Author:Ketchand, Alice A.
Publication:Journal of Accountancy
Article Type:Directory
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Nov 1, 1999
Previous Article:Someone to look up to.
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