George Hore's Gallipoli experience: a light horseman's record of the Gallipoli campaign--the 'Anzac Panorama' and its background.
Rather than entering the army, George went to Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and studied law. He practised as a solicitor in London before emigrating to Tasmania, where he arrived at the end of October 1895 and became a barrister. (4) The next few years saw a flurry of activity as Hore settled down in Hobart and did his best to make his mark. On 30 March 1896 he married Emily Jane Lacy (1874-1951), who six years earlier, aged 16, had gained fame for having survived 20 hours alone in the sea after the shipwreck of the steamer Quetta near Torres Strait. (5) They had two sons, Dyson and Basil, and a daughter, Margaret. Hore diligently compiled a Digest of cases decided in Tasmania, 1856-1896; published by the Southern Law Society of Tasmania, it proved to be of abiding usefulness. (6) He unsuccessfully contested the electorate of Queenborough in the Tasmanian general election of 1900, claiming at a public meeting 'new blood was desirable not only for the benefit of Queenborough but for that of the colony.' (7) After losing, but still wanting to become a recognised public figure, he opened a Primitive Methodist "Beehive" at the Hobart Town Hall. (8) He began to put down roots: as well as buying a house in town, he acquired 2,066 acres of property near Sorell, northeast of Hobart. (9) In addition, he leased 15,000 acres of Crown Land at Glamorgan on the Freycinet Peninsula. (10)
Among his relaxations was sketching, and over the years, he gained a reputation as 'a clever panoramic artist'. (11) In 1911, the Hobart Daily Post informed its readers:
Captain L.F.S. Hore has prepared and presented to the Tasmanian Tourist Association two topographical maps illustrating the various views obtainable from the pinnacle on Mount Wellington. The maps show the entire panoramic view he had from the pinnacle at all the points of the compass, and are very neatly finished ... It is the intention of the Tourist Association to reproduce the maps and make them available for visitors. (12)
These two panoramas are not thought to have survived, and do not seem to have been published, but they appear to have been of a sufficiently high standard to attract attention. His later Gallipoli sketches were clearly the work of an experienced if untrained artist.
Hore's years at Wellington College with its strong Army influence may have influenced his next step. Just after losing the election, and amid public rejoicing at the relief of Ladysmith in South Africa following a protracted Boer siege, he joined an elite colonial militia unit, the Tasmanian Mounted Infantry, in March 1900, and was promoted captain in 1902. (13) In 1903, when the colonial contingents were reorganised, the Hobart Squadron, Tasmanian Mounted Infantry, was formed into the 12th Australian Light Horse Regiment. (14) The Tasmanian Mounted Infantry then had a total strength of 294, a figure that included officers and men. (15) Hore's appointment as one of three captains was gazetted on 9 December 1903. (16) The total strength of the Tasmanian forces was 2,208; all were part-time volunteers: the notion that the Commonwealth Military Forces would be largely based on a part-time militia was set out in the Defence Act 1903. (17,18) Hore was a citizen soldier, like all the other officers of the 12th Light Horse, whose commanding officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Cyril St Clair Cameron, C.B., a militia officer since 1879 and a decorated veteran of the Afghan and Boer Wars, was a Senator for the State of Tasmania. (19)
There were problems with pay and morale in these early years of the Citizen Military Forces; for many, the reality of earning a wage outweighed patriotic sentiment. A journalist writing in the Launceston Daily Telegraph reported that 'it is impossible in this State ... to get sufficient men of the class who can afford the time to attend daylight parades without pay'. (20) His detailed report, apparently informed by Hore, dealt with each unit, including the 12th Australian Light Horse Regiment. He continued: 'From what I have been able to gather, up to the present, the Light Horse will be able to carry on as they are for another twelve months .but Captain Hore is afraid that when the men see so many of their friends leaving from other corps, they will very likely do the same.'
There was a very poor turnout for an inspection by the General Officer Commanding, General Sir Edward Hutton, and the Minister for Defence Austin Chapman, who both visited Tasmania in the following February. A furious Hutton issued an official order naming nine units none of whose men were present and another two whose attendance was unsatisfactory. Only the 12th Light Horse and one other unit escaped censure. Mounted troops prided themselves on their esprit de corps. Hutton declared that 'a proper spirit of discipline and of soldierly feeling is wanting among the troops concerned'. (21) He set up a Court of Inquiry to report on the situation. During the next few years there was gradual improvement, and annual camps of between four and eight days' duration were well attended and followed a well-planned training programme. (22) Hore, evidently the commanding officer of the Light Horse contingent, is mentioned as having attended an Easter camp in 1907 at Ross, with four officers and forty men. (23) Two years later, in July 1909, he was transferred to the unattached list; this was announced in the same issue of the Commonwealth Gazette which notified the appointment of several other officers. (24) Then approaching his fortieth year, Hore may have decided that the 12th Light Horse, by then well officered, could be left in their hands.
The Hores were a family with a strong Imperial loyalty. George's elder son Dyson, born in 1897 and not yet 13, passed the qualifying examination for a cadetship in the Royal Navy and went to England to enter the Royal Naval College at Osborne, the junior training establishment for naval cadets. (25) Thus in March 1915, three related Hores would wear the King's uniform: George, Percy and Dyson.
George volunteered for the AIF on 10 February 1915, aged 44, one of many public-spirited older men who responded to the shortage of experienced officers at this early stage of Australia's involvement in the war. Another was his partner, Mr R. Smith. Later the Tasmanian legal profession, honouring its members who had served, recognised that their case was 'an exceptional one, inasmuch as out of three partners two had gone to the front, and left one partner to carry on'. (26)
HORE'S GALLIPOLI DRAWINGS
Hore was posted as a captain to the 8th Australian Light Horse Regiment, 3rd Brigade, Australian Imperial Force, and sailed on 25 February 1915 with the 4th Reinforcements. A photograph taken prior to departure (Fig. 1.) shows a man in early middle age with a strong sense of authority about him, very much in command of a group of accoutred Light Horse troopers.
Hore joined the regiment at Gallipoli on 26 May. As an experienced sketcher, he had brought sketching paper, pencils and watercolours with him. Soon after reaching the peninsula he commenced sketching; three of his sketches are dated May 1915, including a night attack at Quinn's Post. Fifteen more are dated June, and by the time he was wounded in August, he had completed 21. Eventually there would be 46 Gallipoli sketches. (27) Hore worked on small pieces of paper measuring in the main 13 x 17 cm or 12.5 x 55 cm. He does not seem at the time to have titled individual works but he wrote notes on them in pencil. These notes indicate place names and explain particular features of the scene. Later, Hore seems to have added, in pen, further annotations, some titles and his own initials (Figs. 2a & 2b.).
Re-joining his regiment on 26 September after spending several weeks in hospital in Egypt, Hore completed another 25 sketches, the last being his only night time drawing: the final stage of the evacuation of his regiment in the early hours of 20 December 1915, the scene eerily lit by a fire burning in a stack of nearby stores. This must have been drawn and painted later; all the others appear to have been sketched en plein air. He was fond of views, and despite the unceasing din of warfare, could find solace in drawing a peaceful shore or a golden sunset. Yet here too, the war is never far away. An undated sketch, but perhaps drawn in November, is entitled 'The Bacchante tolls the knell of passing day.' It is a tranquil scene, looking westwards from Walker's Ridge, where Hore was then posted, towards the sun setting over the sea. However the gentle curfew of Grey's 'elegy in a country churchyard', which poetically captures a peaceful rural evening, was replaced with what Wilfred Owen would later call 'the monstrous anger of the guns' of the battleship Bacchante, seen shelling Turkish positions.
While many of his views search for tranquillity in this terrible place where the din of warfare never ceased, Hore does not shrink from horror, but he never drew an Anzac corpse. A soldier presses closely to the side of a trench as a shell from a 75 mm howitzer explodes nearby; the bloated carcass of a mule lies washed up on North Beach; a newly dug trench uncovers the boots of a dead soldier buried in the first days of the fighting. Most poignantly, No Man's Land in front of the 8th Light Horse position on Russell's Top is seen in a sketch entitled 'the morning after' littered with Turkish dead after an attack was repelled with heavy loss on 30 June (Fig. 2a.). Hore played a significant part in this operation, leading a group of Light Horse troopers into an Australian sap under attack from Turks. Here he shot a Turk, his men then clearing this forward position. (28)
Tragically, Hore's 8th Light Horse Regiment would be sent to its death on the very same killing field five weeks later. In November, Hore returned to sketch the scene, with Chunuk Bair, the objective on 7 August, looming in the distance (Fig. 2b.). It is a dark drawing, full of menace. Hore's dugout was for some time at Mule Gully, a little above Anzac Cove, and six of his drawings depict men and animals here. Hore made a point of including Indian muleteers. A drawing entitled 'A fellow feeling makes us wondrous kind' commends the care given by two men to an injured mule. Nine drawings depict soldiers, but not his own light horsemen. Only one drawing, 'Tea on the Terrace' shows officers, a group of whom are calmly enjoying a mug of tea as though they were at a peacetime hotel. Hard conditions are seldom depicted; 'Frostbite' shows the frozen landscape after the severe blizzard of late November, but not frozen hands and feet. In the last few days before the evacuation, Hore's mind and pencil turned to a sharp comment on the tragedy of Gallipoli: 'Fame! Grave of unknown comrade' was drawn on 13 December. He sent the drawings home to his wife Emily, who in 1919 offered them to the Mitchell Library in Sydney, adding 'I value them very much, as they were sent to me from week to week and are a very complete history of the Peninsula'. (29) She meant of course that they were a visual, not a written history. In addition, she had a written account, which could also be described as a 'very complete' description of her husband's part in what was for him a climactic event in the Gallipoli campaign.
'DEEDS OF GALLANTRY' (30)
On 12 August Hore completed a letter giving his wife a detailed account of his role in the attack of the 8th and 10th Light Horse Regiments of the 3rd Light Horse Brigade at the Nek on 7 August. He gave her brief details of the timing of the attack and the casualties his regiment suffered.
Leaving their horses in Egypt, the light horsemen had been sent dismounted to Gallipoli as infantry in May, and little more than two months later were thrown into what proved to be a futile and bloody disaster. It was a tragedy that has been deeply etched on Australian consciousness ever since. The Nek was a narrow piece of land at the apex of Russell's Top, a ridge precariously held by the Anzac troops. It had been briefly occupied by Australians on 25 April, but a Turkish counter-attack drove them off it that afternoon, and this key position remained in Turkish hands from then on. It was one of the objectives in the August offensive, intended to break the stalemate that had existed from the beginning of the campaign. British troops were to land in force at Suvla Bay and Australian troops were to assault Turkish trenches at Lone Pine as a feint to draw enemy forces away from Suvla Bay. New Zealand forces were tasked with occupying Chunuk Bair, the high ground above the Nek on 6 August. The 3rd Light Horse Brigade was to attack at the Nek the following morning, trapping the Turks between New Zealanders descending upon them from above and Australians coming up from below. However, the New Zealand attack failed, so this risky plan to outmanoeuvre the Turks could never succeed. Nevertheless, the Australian attack went ahead, the 8th Light Horse going in first in two succeeding lines. Hore led the right flank of the second line against ferocious enemy fire. All the officers in the first line were killed; Hore was the only surviving officer in the right flank of his line, where No Man's Land was at its widest. (31)
After running past the bodies of the first line, all dead or dying, he looked around, and saw that all the men he was leading had fallen. He dropped down, hit in the shoulder and eventually dragged himself back to Australian lines. He wrote to Emily from the hospital ship, 'I had a trying time after being hit. [I was] carried down to a dug-out, where a good chap looked after me like a brother; [I was] put in an open boat at sunset, and took seven hours before we got on the hospital ship.' He had a bad time, but he was fortunate: those shot in the abdomen could not be rescued and died in agony in the short distance between the Australian and Turkish trenches.
Emily sent his letter to the Melbourne newspaper the Argus, which published it on 19 October 1915.32 It reads in part:
Truly, we have been through the Valley of the Shadow of Death, as our regiment has been cut to pieces, and all our officers killed or wounded except two. Out of 18 officers present, 12 were killed and four wounded. Our orders were that at half-past 4 on 7th August we were to rush the neck which divides us from the Turks, and is about 200 yards lengthwise, and from 30 to 100 yards (varying) between trench and trench, and after that bayonet our way up the trenches as far as we could.
The naval bombardment ceased at 4:25 a.m., five minutes before the start time, giving the Turks ample time to prepare for the coming attack. Hore continued:
In a few minutes the crackle of musketry turned into a roar. Never have I heard such an awful sound and no wonder. We knew they had three machine guns trained on the neck and quite possibly there were more; their trench must have had at least 200 men. Judging from the number we had in ours, more likely 250.
Hore's calculation of Turkish fire-power and his precise estimates of casualties reflected his lawyer's keen sense of evidence. (33)
Now, a machine gun fires at top speed 600 rounds a minute, and a rifleman 15 rounds per minute. So we had concentrated on a piece of land, say, 200 yards long and 100 yards deep, no fewer than 5,000 bullets per minute. Out went the first line, and we waited for our word. By the time they had covered the first 40 yards they were down to a man. What could 175 men do against that volume of fire? We saw our fate in front of us, but we were pledged to go, and, to their eternal credit, the word being given, not a man in the second line stayed in his trench. (34) As I jumped out I looked down the line, and they were all rising over the parapet. We bent low, and ran as hard as we could ... I passed our first line, all dead or dying it seemed, and went on a bit further, and flung myself down about 40 yards from the Turkish trenches. I was a bit ahead of my men, having got a good start and travelling lighter. I looked round and saw them all down, mostly hit. The trench ahead was a living flame, the roar of musketry not a bit diminished. I was protected by a little--a very little fold in the ground and by a dead Turk--dead about six weeks. (35)
Hore, hit in the shoulder, dragged himself back to his own lines but was hit again.
After going a few yards I felt a hard sting in my right foot; but so long as my arms and chest were right I didn't mind. I passed through our dead, and fell into one of the saps, managed to limp out into one of the back trenches, and lay down wondering how on earth I had got out of it. My three subalterns were killed, and I should say about 75 per cent. of my men. There were no live men near me when I started back, except one who did the same as I did, and I hope got back. (36) Our colonel was killed; one major killed, the other wounded; the only captain (myself) wounded. 10 subalterns killed and three wounded, leaving only two officers not hit, and about 75 per cent. of the men killed or wounded. And so perished the 8th Light Horse.' (37)
The regiment remained at Walker's Ridge on Gallipoli until the evacuation on 20 December. Hore rejoined it on 26 September. That very day, the War Diary of the 3rd Light Horse Brigade, parent unit of the 8th Light Horse Regiment, warned that it was unable to withstand an enemy attack. The diarist wrote: 'The Bde is in a very serious condition in regards to its depletion in all ranks. It has been in Trenches since May 21st without any rest or respite and is practically worn out. (38) Hore resumed drawing and painting as opportunity permitted; it was his personal respite in this grim situation.
THE ANZAC PANORAMA--HORE'S MEMORIAL TO THE 8th LIGHT HORSE REGIMENT
Already experienced in this genre, Hore produced two small panoramas in June and two more in October, all of locations close to the positions occupied by the 8th Light Horse. They are sketched in broad outline, showing the prospect from Walker's Ridge, high above Anzac Cove. A fifth shows the Cove itself, and a sixth, drawn on 5 October, looks north towards Suvla Bay from flat ground near North Beach. The panoramas appear to have been sent back to Australia with the rest of his art work. He does not seem to have planned his 'Anzac Panorama' until he returned to Egypt in the first few days of 1916, because he makes it plain that it was drawn from memory. In other words, he did not have his portfolio with him to refer to. For several weeks from Christmas Day 1915 the 8th Light Horse was encamped at the Cairo Racecourse. (39) Duties were lighter, and Hore had the opportunity to draw, but his extant oeuvre contains nothing of Cairo. Instead, he devoted his energies to bringing together his memories of Gallipoli in the way he knew best: a panorama that would honour the men he had fought with there (Fig. 3.).
This was a larger project than his previous work. Hore decided to give it a date, for 7 August was for him a day that he could never forget. Hence he gave it both a title and a sub-title: 'Anzac Panorama August 7th 1915'. He employed a technique of pictorial mapping that is a rich, centuries-old tradition, showing the mapped area as if viewed from above at an oblique angle. (40) Hore made it clear that that this is what he was doing. He asked the viewer to imagine a mountain beneath his feet, so on his map he added: 'Note: The observer is standing on a high ridge with his back to the sea. Right rear, Anzac Beach; left rear North Beach'. Anzac Cove, despite its already iconic fame, is therefore not included, because Hore wanted to show where the action was taking place in August, not the landing in April. What might be regarded as a surprising omission is in fact one of his panorama's strengths.
It might be expected that an army officer would sketch a scene in the traditional military manner, for instruction in linear sketches had been part of military training for many years. Junior navy and army officers were all taught the art of sketching as a necessary part of their proficiency as officers. (41) Naval charts were often accompanied by sketches of landfalls to assist later navigators. Artillery and infantry officers both needed to be able to produce quick and accurate topographical sketches of the terrain in which future operations might take place. However, Hore had not trained as a professional army officer: while he drew capably, his work did not have the precise attention to topographical detail expected of professionals. It was not intended to assist or to record military operations, but to inform people at home, beginning with his wife. He had a view to publication of at least some of his pictures, though this did not happen. His sketch of Chunuk Bair drawn in November has an unrelated small sketch on one side--Hore has written 'omit this'. Nevertheless he did produce a publication--the Anzac panorama--in the form of a pictorial map commemorating the terrible events of 7 August.
His projection of the view presented is concave, not linear, inviting the viewer to look from left to right as he surveys the scene. Hore draws attention to significant features that convey the important role the men of the A.I.F. and the New Zealand Expeditionary Force had in maintaining their tenuous grip on the Anzac position in extraordinarily difficult circumstances, facing a formidable foe. In that sense it is a powerful map, as the spatial reality expressed by Hore is communicated effectively to the viewer.
Most of Hore's drawings have explanatory notes, and he followed this practice for the 'Anzac Panorama'. His notes are detailed and well-informed, but they include an important qualification: 'This sketch, being done from memory, is approximate only.' On the left in the distance is Suvla Bay, marked 'British landing Aug. 6-7'. On the right, the Australian front line is marked with a series of arrows. Salient points are identified with a note. Special attention is given to the attack on Lone Pine ('Taken by Australians Aug. 6'). The small ridge now known as The Nek is identified with a simple note: 'where 8th & 10th L.H. cut up' (Fig. 4.). Other places Hore regarded as significant are Pope's Hill, Quinn's Post, Courtney's Post and Steele's Post, all at the edge of Monash Gully and held precariously throughout the Anzac presence at Gallipoli. These and names like Johnston's Jolly, Walker's Ridge, Rhododendron Ridge and Russell's Top were all familiar to the Australian public in 1915 and 1916. It was important to Hore to show the presumed location of the Turkish guns that incessantly menaced the Anzacs. There were 'Beaching Billie & Co.', a 'French 75' and 'Gentle Annie'. In case his viewer was unfamiliar with this example of soldiers' mordant wit, Hore added to this last name an explanation: 'used to snipe us bathing'.
Hore avoided the temptation to overcrowd his panorama with the names of units, as this would not have been important to his viewers in Australia. However, lest it be thought that there was no Australian artillery, its location on the right flank is indicated. In the foreground, in the centre of the panorama is Walkers Ridge, marked 'held by 3rd Brigade Austn. Light Horse & a New Zealand Mounted Brigade under Gen. Russell up till August 7 1915'. The hills above and beyond the front line are dominant, for it was these hills which defined the campaign, and Hore does not let his viewer overlook the fact. He names the principal objective of the August offensive, Chunuk Bair, emphasising its significance by printing its name in bold type, but does not show the lines of attacks by Anzac forces. Thus Hore's 'Anzac Panorama' is busy, but not overcrowded or confusing. It is not a campaign map, but succeeds in its purpose of informing a civilian viewer. (42)
While it has strong elements of cartography, it departs from usual cartographic conventions in several ways. Hore has deliberately eliminated some of the characteristics of the mapped area that were not relevant to his purpose. Accordingly, his careful selection of detail gives his panorama a remarkable degree of intensity. It gives no indication of elevation by contours or spot heights, while hachures are used only to show extreme situations such as the steep drop below Pope's Hill at the northern end of Monash Valley. Watercourses are absent; the location of Anzac and Turkish trenches are indicated, but there are no trench diagrams; no scale is given; it does not indicate orientation, though anyone familiar with the Gallipoli campaign would know that it faced East; there are no cadastral details. The reason for these omissions was not ignorance, as Hore had many years' experience as an officer in the militia. He obviously had military maps readily available to him, both at Gallipoli and in Cairo; indeed, he sent one home to his wife, possibly to enable her to compare his panorama with a regular map.
It is probable that Hore drew his 'Anzac Panorama' and had it printed between January and March 1916. There are no typographical errors; the meticulously careful lawyer would have seen to that.
The circumstances in which the 'Anzac Panorama' was printed by the Nile Mission Press in Cairo are unknown, but the number of copies must have been small. They were hand-coloured, possibly by Hore, who also initialled them, as he did with his earlier sketches. He then sent them home to his wife Emily in Hobart. Here they were placed on sale by J. Walch and Sons Ltd, who advertised the panorama just twice in a small advertisement in the Hobart Mercury, on 15 and 16 May 1916:
A Sketch in colours of that part of GALLIPOLI PENINSULA occupied by the ANZACS during 1915, by Captain L.F.S. Hore, of Hobart. PRICE, 1/. Posted, 1/1.
The copies posted were folded into sixths to fit into a standard envelope to qualify for the penny post. The circulation of the 'Anzac Panorama' was therefore confined to Hobart, where it was advertised only twice. It seems likely that only a few were sold.
Meanwhile, the 3rd Light Horse Brigade was tasked in March 1916 with defending the Suez Canal. (43) A Turkish attack was expected following the end of the Dardanelles campaign which had released Turkish forces, so the brigade was posted to the inhospitable Sinai Desert, under the command of Brigadier-General J.M. Antill, well-known for his refusal to halt the carnage at the Nek. (44) Hore may have been reluctant to serve under Antill, who was heartily disliked by many of his men. (45) Preferring to fight in France, Hore accepted an offer on trial as Brigade Machine Gun Officer with the 6th Infantry Brigade. He had seen at first-hand how vitally important machine guns were in modern warfare, so in March 1916 he travelled with the brigade to France. As a Light Horse officer, he had had no experience with machine guns, as later attested by Major-General Sir John Gellibrand, then commander of the 6th Brigade.
His knowledge of M.G.s was summed up in three letters--nil, and at the time of his transfer he did not know a soul or a soldier in the brigade. But by the time the command of the 6th M.G. Coy. became vacant at Fleurbaix, it was obvious that Hore was the man to make individuals into a unit. (46)
Hore was promoted to Major on 5 August 1916 during the battle of Pozieres. The horror of this battle is conveyed by Charles Bean's often quoted comment that Pozieres Ridge 'is more densely sown with Australian sacrifice than any other place on earth'. (47) Soon afterwards, on 11 August, he was recommended for the Military Cross for conspicuous gallantry. (48) Later that year he was posted to the Machine Gun Training Depot at Grantham in England and on completing the course was granted the temporary rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. (49) During this period, Gellibrand encountered Hore while Gellibrand was in charge of A.I.F. depots in the United Kingdom, where he overhauled the entire organisation and recommended drastic changes in the training syllabus of the several arms.
Gellibrand had an extraordinary influence over officers and men. (50) Among them was Hore, remembered fondly by Gellibrand nearly twenty years later: 'To those who served with him he stands as an example of the Good Comrade. It was a pleasure to be with him, a comfort to work with him.' (51) On 20 September 1917, his role as Corps Machine Gun Officer, in which he worked hard and successfully to raise the efficiency of Machine Gun Companies, was recognised by a Mention in Despatches. (52) He completed his service with the A.I.F. as commander of the 2nd Machine Gun Battalion from 14 March 1918. At the end of the war, he left France on 19 February 1919 and was discharged in Australia on 4 June.
Like many who had experienced close to four years of war at Gallipoli and on the Western Front, Hore did not return to his old occupation. He had been away from the law for too long, and his legal clientele may have been taken over by others. He saw the former German New Guinea, occupied by the Australian Naval & Military Expeditionary Force in 1914, as a land of opportunity. (53) However, its status was not that of an Australian colony. The Treaty of Versailles, signed in 1919, allocated the territory to Australia, and the British Government, on behalf of Australia, assumed a mandate from the League of Nations for governing the Territory on 17 December 1920. (54) Effectively, it would continue to be under Australian administration and the military administration remained in control until 1921.
In July 1919, Hore applied for a commission with the AN&MEF in New Guinea. (55) Hore joined the military administration's Department of Justice as a Law Officer at Rabaul, New Britain. (56) It was a sound move, as it gave him both the opportunity of command and also the exercise of his legal training and experience in a jurisdiction in which a British-based legal system was in its early stages.
In short, it was a fresh start, but with challenges that Hore relished. He was, his son Dyson recalled, an amiable, popular and highly respected person. (57) He held the position of Chief Judge of the Central Court at Rabaul with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel until the civil administration took over in May 1921. In these nascent days of Australian administration in the Territory of New Guinea, the Justice Department had a wide variety of responsibilities, its decisions being issued in the name of the Chief Judge. (58)
He transferred to the civil administration of the Territory of New Guinea when the military administration came to an end in 1921. Like many officers in the AN&MEF, he continued in the Territory of New Guinea's Public Service, over the years developing a keen interest in native administration. (59) This was recognised in Hore's subsequent appointments as Certifying Officer at Rabaul and Deputy District Officer at Kokopo in New Britain. (60) In 1925 he was appointed a Member of the Court of Native Affairs at Gasmata, a village on the southern coast of New Britain, and his jurisdiction was later extended to the whole of New Britain. (61) He resigned from the Public Service on 12 March 1928. (62)
Hore then took up a copra plantation at Luburua, 60 km from Kavieng on New Ireland under the preferential tendering plan by which expropriated German plantations were made available. The Germans, who ruled the territory from 1884 to 1914, had used forced labour to build a road, enabling an extensive chain of copra plantations to be developed along the coast of New Ireland. (63) These were well established and highly profitable until the lean years of the Depression. (64) Then in the last five years of Hore's life, New Guinea's dependence on a single-crop economy brought serious problems. (65)
The price of copra fell from 13.10.0 [pounds sterling] per ton in 1929 to 4.11.0 [pounds sterling] per ton in 1934. (66) This led to many plantation owners considering a move to other crops. During these years, and familiar with the culture and climate of New Guinea, George and his sons Dyson and Basil, who also came to New Guinea, dealt well with the local people. George remained at New Ireland until his death from septicaemia arising from a tropical ulcer on 1 September 1935 aged 65. (67) He was buried in Kavieng cemetery with military honours. (68)
Nothing in his background suggested that he would begin a new career as a plantation owner at the age of 57. Yet it was characteristic of George Hore to undertake the challenge vigorously, as he had done when he arrived at Hobart in 1895, determined to make his mark. At Gallipoli in 1915 and on the Western Front between 1916 and 1918 this determined and energetic man also did his best. Likewise, his 'Anzac Panorama' reveals something of the qualities of the man. He used his skills to create a fine personal memorial to the men he had led in that tragic attack on 7 August 1915.
The assistance of Messrs Dyson and Ian Hore-Lacy, grandsons of L.F.S. Hore, in providing family information is gratefully acknowledged.
Stuart Braga 
 Stuart Braga, educator, writer and book collector, is the author of several Australian military biographies and other books on educational and religious history. His most recent publications are concerned with the cultural history of Hong Kong and Macau, where his family links go back three centuries. He holds degrees from four Australian universities, including a PhD from the Australian National University. Contact firstname.lastname@example.org
(1) Email from Ian Hore-Lacy (grandson), 22 April 2016.
(2) flintshirewarmemorials.com Accessed 15 April 2016.
(3) Founded in 1850, Wellington was established for the sons of army officers.
(4) Launceston Examiner 1 November 1895.
(5) Daily Mercury (Mackay, Qld), 27 February 1932; Twenty hours in the sea. An extensive account extracted from an unknown publication, State Library of Victoria.
(6) 'The material has been gathered from collections of newspaper cuttings...together with the two volumes in the possession of the registrar of the Supreme Court.'- Preface. A facsimile was issued about 1970 and the book is now on-line: https://archive.org/details/digestcasesdeci01courgoog
(7) Hobart Mercury, 14 December 1899, 10 March 1900.
(8) Hobart Mercury, 15 March 1900.
(9) Hobart Mercury, 1 July 1950.
(10) 14 May 1908, Tasmanian Archives, LSD177/1/869.
(11) Grenfell Record and Lachlan District Advertiser, 9 September 1935.
(12) Hobart Daily Post, 18 November 1911.
(13) Service Record, B2455/1, National Archives of Australia.
(14) Launceston Daily Telegraph, 28 July 1903. The Australian Army was gazetted on 1 March 1901, but the colonial contingents continued until 30 June 1903 when they were disbanded and their members transferred to the Australian Army. The newspapers printed detailed reports on the activities of the citizen soldiers between 1903 and 1914.
(15) Hobart Mercury, 28 July 1903.
(16) As reported in the Mercury, 14 December 1903.
(17) Tasmanian News, Hobart, 27 July 1903.
(18) Jeffrey Grey, A Military History of Australia, 3rd ed., Melbourne, Cambridge University Press, 2008, p. 61, 141.
(19) Caroline L. Cameron, 'Cameron, Cyril St Clair (1857-1941)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/cameron-cyril-st-clair-5615/text9305, published first in hardcopy 1979, accessed online 23 June 2016.
(20) Launceston Daily Telegraph, 11 September 1903.
(21) Hobart Mercury, 9 February 1904.
(22) Hobart Mercury, 4 April 1906.
(23) Hobart Mercury, 23 March 1907.
(24) Hobart Daily Post, 10 July 1909.
(25) Kalgoorlie Miner (W.A.), 12 February 1910. Reporting the selection of a local boy, this Goldfields paper also mentioned Hore's name. Commissioned during World War I, Dyson Hore returned to Australia in 1919. Dyson and his younger brother Basil changed their surname to Hore-Lacy in 1929 as both of their uncles, Emily's brothers James Dyson Lacy and Francis Pryor Lacy MC, were killed in World War I (email from Ian Hore-Lacy, Dyson's son, 22 April 2016). Dyson re-joined the Royal Navy in World War II, retiring in September 1945 as Commander (Emergency). http://discoveringanzacs.naa.gov.au/browse/records/475626 accessed 15 April 2016. He was Mentioned in Despatches in 1944. Supplement to London Gazette 1 Aug 1944, p 3566.
(26) World (Hobart), 10 May 1919.
(27) They have been in the Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales since 1919, at collection numbers PXE 702 and PXE 703. PXE 702 has 32 sketches, drawings and two letters. PXE 703 has 70 pictures, mostly of the Western Front, but 14 are of Gallipoli. They are all on-line: www.acmssearch.sl.nsw.gov.au/search/itemDetailPaged.cgi?itemID=69889 and http://acmssearch.sl.nsw.gov.au/search/itemDetailPaged.cgi?itemID=69890.
(28) C.E.W. Bean, The Story of Anzac, Sydney, Angus & Robertson, vol. 2, 1924, p. 212-213.
(29) Mitchell Library PXE 702.
(30) 'Deeds of Gallantry. Officer's Graphic Story'. The Age, 19 October 1915. Newspaper headline to Hore's letter about the Nek.
(31) C.E.W. Bean, The Story of Anzac, vol. 2, 1924, p. 615, 618, 623n.
(32) The Argus mistakenly reported that the letter had been sent to his mother, but she had died in 1872 when Hore was an infant. The letter immediately attracted interest, and was also published between 21 and 23 October in the Australasian, the Barrier Miner (Broken Hill), the Ararat Advertiser and the Darling Downs Gazette (Queensland). All are on-line. Argus: http://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/1572440
(33) He could not have known the official casualty list, having been evacuated before a roll call of survivors was taken. The 8th Light Horse Regiment's War Diary indicates that the losses that day of the 8th and 10th Light Horse totalled 435, including 16 of 18 officers of the 8th Light Horse. (AWM4 10/3/7) Of the 300 men from the 8th Light Horse Regiment thrown into that terrible onslaught, 159 were killed and 80 wounded. Those who fell lay on a fairly flat and exposed ridge later described by Charles Bean, the official historian, as a 'strip the size of three tennis courts'. C.E.W. Bean, Gallipoli Mission, Crows Nest, NSW, ABC Books, 1990, p. 109.
(34) The War Diary notes: 'The position assaulted by 3 L.H. Bde was absolutely impossible to take by frontal attack ... [but] there was no hesitation or falter amongst our officers and men, especially of the 8th L.H., which was practically wiped out.' AWM4 10/3/7.
(35) He would have been killed when the Turks attacked Australian lines on 30 June and were repelled with heavy losses. The Turks had tried to do what the Australians were now attempting. The Turks failed, although they had the advantage of higher ground, and their losses were perhaps comparable.
(36) Bean, who had clearly read Hore's letter before writing his account of this account, noted that the other man appeared to have been killed. The Story of Anzac, vol. 2, 1924, p. 618n. Bean listed Hore in his Acknowledgements (p. v)
(37) Hore plainly did not mean that the regiment had been annihilated. When the 8th Light Horse was sent to Gallipoli, one third of the men stayed in Egypt to look after the horses. Moreover, as Hore says, some 25% of the men at the Nek survived. He meant that the regiment had for the time being ceased to exist as a fighting unit. Bean devoted several pages to the disaster in his diary. It was written a few days later as he and others eventually became aware of what had happened to the 3rd Light Horse Brigade. He listed Hore among the casualties of the 8th Light Horse Regiment, and realised that the right side of each line had suffered more severely than those on the left. (AWM38 3DRL 606/12/1--August 1915).
(38) AWM4 10/3/8.
(39) AWM4 10/3/12.
(40) 'Pictorial maps', Wikipedia, accessed 18 April 2016.
(41) Harry W. Dickinson, Educating the Royal Navy: 18th and 19th Century Education for Officers, Routledge, Oxford, 2007. 'Ability on the part of an officer to make rapid and clear landscape sketches is positively essential to complete equipment for duty in the field.' J.J. Fulmer, Military Panoramic Sketching, Franklin Hudson Publishing Co., Kansas City, Missouri, 1917. Fulmer, an American Army officer, urged the US Army to improve its training to the standards expected by the British and French armies. Following the declaration of war by the USA on Germany in July 1917, the US Army was committed to send a large army to fight alongside America's allies on the Western Front.
(42) The copy now in the National Library of Australia was on this writer's wall for many years and fascinated visitors.
(43) 3rd Light Horse Brigade War Diary, AWM4 10/3/14.
(44) Rex Clark, 'Antill, John Macquarie (1866-1937)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/antill-john-macquarie-5040/text8393, published first in hardcopy 1979, accessed online 20 April 2016.
(45) P. Burness, The Nek, the Tragic Charge of the Light Horse at Gallipoli, Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, NSW, 1996, passim, especially p. 39-42, 144-145.
(46) Obituary of Hore by Sir John Gellibrand in Reveille, 1 November 1935.
(47) C.E.W. Bean, Anzac to Amiens, Canberra : Australian War Memorial, 1968, p. 264.
(48) Service Record, B2455/1, National Archives of Australia. The decoration was gazetted in the London Gazette, second Supplement, No. 30448, 28 December 1917 and the Commonwealth Gazette No. 57, 18 April 1918.
(49) The Launceston Daily Telegraph, no doubt informed by his wife, reported: 'The friends of Lieutenant-Colonel L F. S Hore will be interested to hear that he has been appointed to General Birdwood's staff as machine gun officer.' Daily Telegraph, 21 April 1917.
(50) A. W. Bazley, 'Gellibrand, Sir John (1872-1945)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/gellibrand-sir-john-6295/text10855, published first in hardcopy 1981, accessed online 17 April 2016.
(51) Reveille, 1 November 1935.
(52) London Gazette, 28 December 1917, p. 13567.
(53) Ian Hore-Lacy (ed.), Commander Dyson Hore-Lacy 1897-1992, edited and collated reminiscences, Mont Albert, Victoria, Ian Hore-Lacy, 1992, p. 10.
(54) Wikipedia, 'Territory of New Guinea', accessed 29 April 2016.
(55) Service Record, B2455/1, National Archives of Australia.
(56) His Service Record gave details of his appointments and movements in this period. 'Re-embarked with Australian Naval & Military Expeditionary Force, 15 July 1919; taken on strength, AN&MEF, Rabaul, 29 July 1919. Seconded for duty in Department of Justice, 29 July 1919; proceeded on special duty to Kavieng and Namatanai, 28 September 1919; to Rabaul, 9 October 1919. Appointed temporary Lieutenant Colonel whilst acting as Head of Department of Justice, 23 December 1919. Left Rabaul on furlough to Australia, 13 November 1920; returned to Rabaul from furlough, 7 February 1921. Transferred to Civil Administration, Rabaul, 9 May 1921. AN&MEF appointment terminated, 9 May 1921.' (Service Record, B2455/1, National Archives of Australia).
(57) Ian Hore-Lacy (ed.), Commander Dyson Hore-Lacy 1897-1992, edited and collated reminiscences, Mont Albert, Victoria, Ian Hore-Lacy, 1992, p. 12.
(58) Besides civil and criminal jurisdiction, these included the registration of births, marriages and deaths, probate, the registration of companies and ships, licensed premises, guardianship and supervision of the sale of deceased persons' effects. Government Gazette, British Administration of German New Guinea, August 1919-May 1921.
(59) C.D. Rowley, Australians in German New Guinea, 1914-1921, Carlton, Melbourne University Press, 1958, p. 28, 33.
(60) New Guinea Gazette, 15 October 1921, 14 May 1923, 27 July 1925.
(61) New Guinea Gazette, 24 January 1924, 1 July 1926
(62) New Guinea Gazette, 2 April 1928.
(63) C.D. Rowley, p. 39, 169.
(64) C.D. Rowley, p. 185.
(65) In the decade following the Australian occupation, copra accounted for between 81% and 98% of the territory's exports. Report to the Council of the League of Nations, 1925-1926, p. 22.
(66) Report to the Council of the League of Nations, various years, 1929-1935.
(67) Ian Hore-Lacy (ed.), Commander Dyson Hore-Lacy 1897-1992, edited and collated reminiscences, Mont Albert, Victoria, Ian Hore-Lacy, 1992, p. 12.
(68) Grenfell Record, 9 September 1935. Other obituaries were published in the Melbourne Argus, 6 September 1935, and the RSL magazine Reveille, 1 November 1935. A death notice was inserted by his family in the Sydney Morning Herald on 1 October 1935. Dyson Hore-Lacy continued his interest in New Guinea, gaining authoritative experience in labour relations. He was one of three members of the Commission Appointed to Inquire into the Matter of Native Labour in the Mandated Territory of New Guinea. Named for its chairman, the Melrose Report was published in 1939.
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