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George Cardinal Pell: creation of the seventh Cardinal of the Australian Church.

This article is intended to record the creation of Australia's most recent Cardinal and to place him in the context of the earlier Cardinals of the Australian Church. It is not intended to be a detailed history of the cardinalate or the Church in Australia or a biography of Cardinal Pell or any of his Australian forerunner in the College of Cardinals. (1)

On 21 October 2003 His Holiness Pope John Paul II named and proclaimed 'Our Venerable Brother George Pell Archbishop of the Metropolitan See of Sydney', formerly seventh Archbishop of Melbourne and previously titular Bishop of Scala and auxiliary of Melbourne, to be 'among the scarlet-clad Fathers of the Sacred College ... as Cardinal Priest'. (2) He became the seventh Cardinal of the Australian Church. Australia now has three Cardinals and, for a period of less than two months, had three Cardinal electors.

George Pell was born on 8 June 194l at Ballarat in Victoria, the son of George Arthur Pell and Margaret Lillian Burke. He received his primary education at the Loreto Convent in Ballarat and his secondary education at St Patrick's Christian Brothers College in Ballarat. He entered Corpus Christi Seminary at Werribee outside Melbourne in 1960 and continued his studies at the Pontifical Urban University for the Propagation of the Faith in Rome over four formative years, a period which coincided with the Second Vatican Council. He was ordained in St Peter's Basilica on 16 December 1966 and completed his Licentiate in Theology Magna Cum Laude in 1967. In 1967 he moved to Campion Hall within the University of Oxford, where he took a Doctorate of Philosophy in 1971. The subject of his thesis was 'The Exercise of Authority in Early Christianity from about 170 to about 270'. (3)

Later in 1971 he returned to his Diocese of Ballarat as curate of Swan Hill on the Murray River. On 5 November 1973 he became Director of Aquinas College, Ballarat, which is now the Aquinas Campus of the Australian Catholic University and of which he was founding Pro-Chancellor. tic became Rector of Corpus Christi Seminary from 1985 until his appointment as auxiliary in 1987.

He was consecrated titular Bishop of Scala on 21 May 1987 in St Patrick's Cathedral Melbourne as an Auxiliary Bishop of Melbourne. He was a member of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace from 1990. Appointed Archbishop of Melbourne on 16 July 1996 in succession to Archbishop Sir Thomas Francis Little KBE, he received the Pallium for the Archdiocese from Pope John Paul II on 29 June 1997. He put this aside on his appointment as Archbishop of Sydney on 26 March 2001. The Pallium for the Archdiocese of Sydney was imposed on him by the Pope on 29 June 2001 (4).

The Cardinalate

The Cardinals, who oversee the presbyterates of various titular and quasi parish churches of Rome, are the advisers and collaborators of the Pope. (5) From 1059 they have been the exclusive electors of the Pope and from 1150 have formed the College of Cardinals. In the 12th century prelates who were resident outside Rome began to be named Cardinals.

The number of Cardinals, in the 13th to the 15th centuries usually not over thirty, was fixed by Sixtus V to seventy. Paul VI established that when Cardinals reach the age of 80 they cease to be members of the Dicasteries of the Roman Curia and of all the Permanent Organisms of the Holy See and of the Vatican City State and they become ineligible to elect the Pope or to enter the Conclave. He fixed the number of electors at 120, which Pope John Paul II reconfirmed in 1996.

Cardinals are considered Princes of the Church, with the title of Eminence. Those resident in Rome, whether within the Vatican or not, enjoy the rights and privileges of citizenship of the Vatican City State. (6)

Since 1983, the creation and function of cardinals of the Church has been provided for in the Code of Canon Law of the Latin Church, Part II, Section 1, Chapter 3. (7) Reference is made here to that Code rather than to the provisions for the creation of earlier Australian Cardinals in former Codes.

The Code recognises the College of Cardinals who have the prerogative to elect the Pope under rules which are to be found outside the Code. The Cardinals assist the Pope in his governance of the Church collegially, particularly in consistories, (8) and individually, in the holding of various offices. They must tender their resignation from those offices at the age of seventy-five.

The College is divided into Cardinal Bishops, the holders of the twenty-one suburbicanan churches of Rome and the eastern-rite patriarchs who are Cardinals, Cardinal Priests and Cardinal Deacons. Each Cardinal has the title of the church which is assigned to him, with special provision for the titles of the Patriarchs and the Dean of the College. They must promote, but may not interfere in, the administration of those Churches. Cardinals who are not diocesan bishops are required to reside in Rome.

Selection of Cardinals is at the sole discretion of the Pope. They must be priests and those who are not already bishops must be consecrated. (9)

The creation of a Cardinal is effected by a decree of the Pope, called a Bull after the knob (10) of lead impressed with the seal of the Fisherman which was traditionally appended from it. It is announced at a consistory. The Pope may also announce the creation of a Cardinal but reserve his name 'in petto', (11) in which case the Cardinal does not enjoy the office until the Pope publishes his name.

From the time of the creation of Cardinal Pell, there were 194 Cardinals, plus (if that is the correct word) one reserved 'in petto'. Of that number 60 (30.1 per cent) were over 80 years of age and 134 were papal electors. (12)

The Public Consistory of 21 October 2003.

The then Archbishop Pell was attended at the consistory by a party of over a hundred persons, including one of his Auxiliaries, Bishop Anthony Fisher op, seven members of the Archbishop's immediate family, the Chancellor (13) and Business Manager (14) of the Archdiocese of Sydney, the Archbishop's Private Secretary (15) and clergy and laity from Sydney, Melbourne, England and the United States. Cardinals Clancy and Cassidy attended the consistory.

The events surrounding Archbishop Pell's elevation to the cardinalate commenced with a Mass celebrated by the Archbishop for his party at the Basilica of S. Maria Maggiore on the evening of Monday 20 October 2003.

The ordinary public consistory of Tuesday 21 October 2003 at which the new Cardinals were created by the Pope took place in St Peter's Square directly in front of the Basilica in the same location where the Pope holds large public audiences. The consistory followed the new rite introduced during the consistory of 28 June 1991. (16) Following a liturgical greeting, the Pope read the formula of creation, and solemnly proclaimed the names of the new cardinals. The first of the new cardinals, Jean-Louis Cardinal Tauran, then addressed the Holy Father, on behalf of the newly appointed Cardinals. There followed the Liturgy of the Word, a homily by the Pope, the Profession of Faith by the new Cardinals and the taking of the oath by each Cardinal. Each new Cardinal in order of their creation then approached the Pope and knelt before him to receive the red biretta and to be assigned a titular Church or deaconry.

As the Pope placed the biretta on Cardinal Pell's head, he said: 'This is red as a sign of the dignity of the office era Cardinal, signifying that you are ready to act with fortitude, even to the point of spilling your blood for the increase of the Christian faith, for peace and harmony among the people of God, for freedom and the spread of the Holy Roman Catholic Church'.

The Pope handed the Bull of creation as a Cardinal Priest and assignment of his titular church to Cardinal Pell and exchanged a kiss of peace with him. Cardinal Pell then exchanged a kiss of peace with the existing members of the College and then with the other new Cardinals. The rite concluded with the Prayer of the Faithful, the recitation of the Our Father and a final blessing.

The Bull of creation which was delivered by the Pontiff to the newly created Cardinal Pell reads, in English, as follows:
 John Paul Bishop
 Servant of the Servants of God,
 To Our Venerable Brother George Pell
 Archbishop of the Metropolitan See of Sydney,
 chosen Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church, Greetings and Our

 Since it seemed to Us that you, Venerable Brother; have been endowed
 with outstanding qualities, and highly deserving for your
 contributions to the Catholic Church.

 We officially name and proclaim you by Our Apostolic Authority among
 the scarlet-clad Fathers of the Sacred College in this Consistory as
 Cardinal Priest with all the rights and privileges appropriate to
 Cardinals of your rank.

 and We assign to you the Church of this beloved City named

 S. Maria Domenica Mazzarello

 We also request that the Rector and the other priests associated
 with him receive you with sentiments of warmth and gladness when you
 take possession of your Church, and that they accord you special
 care and every courtesy.

 For the rest, it gives Us very great satisfaction in the knowledge
 that you are now elected to the highest Council of the Catholic
 Church, and that you will be assisting Us in collaborating on very
 important commissions in the esteemed Roman See, and We pray
 earnestly to our bountiful God that He may lavish still greater
 gifts and graces on you and constantly confirm you in a strong
 spirit of service and thankfulness.

 Given at Rome, at the Tomb of St. Peter under the Seal of the
 Fisherman, on the twenty-first day of October, in the year of Our
 Lord 2003, the twenty-sixth year of Our Pontificate. (17)


The Church of S. Maria Domenica Mazzarello is situated in the south-cast outskirts of Rome in the area called CineCitta East. It was built between 1982 and 1997 and was established as a titular church at the Consistory of 21 February 2001, at which it was first assigned to Ignacio Antonio Cardinal Velasco Garcia, Archbishop of Caracas. Cardinal Velasco Garcia died on 6 July 2003 leaving the vacancy which was filled by the assignment of the church to Cardinal Pell. (19) The Parish of S. Maria Domenica Mazzarello was formed, in part, from territory taken from the Parish of St John Bosco who was the founder, in 1859, of the Society of St Francis de Sales, known as the Salesians.

Following the Consistory, Cardinal Poll held a press conference at the Vatican Information Office. In the afternoon, from 4:30 to 6:30 p.m., the new cardinals received all those who wished to pay them a courtesy call in the Paul VI Hall and various rooms of the Apostolic Palace. Cardinal Pell received calls in the Paul VI Hall. The Apostolic Palace and the Paul VI Hall were crowded with thousands of members of the public and a large number of the existing cardinals, many taking the opportunity to visit and pay their respects to each of the thirty cardinals from twenty-three countries created that day.

In the evening, the Cardinal was guest of honour at a reception held at the Palazzo della Rovere in the Via della Conciliazione. The Palazzo is the headquarters of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, of which the Cardinal is Grand Prior of the Lieutenancy of New South Wales and was previously Grand Prior of the Lieutenancy of Victoria. During the reception he was presented with the insignia of a Knight Grand Cross of the Order by the Governor General of the Order, Conte Ludovico Carducci Artenislo. (20)

The following morning, the Pope concelebrated the Mass of the Rings in St Peter's Square with the new Cardinals. After the homily he gave each of them the Cardinal's ring, 'the sign of dignity, pastoral care and the most solid communion with the See of Peter'. (21) In the evening Cardinal Pell hosted a dinner for his family and party.

On Thursday morning, the Cardinal concelebrated Mass for his party at the Dominican Church of S. Clemente with his Auxiliary, Bishop Anthony Fisher op, and the other priests of his party. This ancient site, in earlier times a Mithraic temple of which large parts survive below and support the present church, was inspected following the Mass. Later in the morning, the new Cardinals and their parties were received in audience by the Pope, which brought the formal ceremonies and celebrations to an end.

The new Cardinal was formally welcomed back to his Cathedral in Sydney at a Liturgical Reception on 11 November 2003. This was followed by civic and other receptions offered, inter alia, by the Governor of New South Wales on 2 December 2003 and subsequently by the Premier of New South Wales.

The final formality associated with his Cardinalate took place on 26 March 2004 when Cardinal Pell took possession of his titular Church of S. Maria Domenica Mazzarello during the visit ad limina of the Bishops of Australia. The Cardinal was welcomed by the clergy and laity of the parish in a liturgy which took place in the presence of the Australian Bishops and other dignitaries, including the Australian Ambassador to the Holy See, Dr John Herron.

Cardinal Pell bears as his arms: the arms of the Archdiocese of Sydney (22) impaling (23) gules (red), a pelican in its piety proper below at dexter chief a sun in splendour and at sinister the monogram AM crowned or (gold); and for motto: Be not Afraid. (24)

Earlier Australian Cardinals

Cardinal Pell had six Australian forerunners in the College of Cardinals and there follows a brief note of the lives of each, including of the two retired Australian Cardinals.

Patrick Francis Cardinal Moran

The Australian Church provided its first Cardinal to the Catholic Church in the person of Francis Patrick Moran, third Archbishop of Sydney, who was created a Cardinal on 27 July 1885, less than l00 years after the European settlement of Australia and just over 40 years after the establishment of the Australian hierarchy. (25)

Patrick Francis Moran was born at Leiglinbridge, Ireland on 17 September 1830, the son of Patrick Moran and Alice Cullen. He attended the Irish College in Rome from the age of 12 and was ordained on 19 March 1853. He was Vice-Rector of that College from 1856 and subsequently Professor of Hebrew at Propaganda Fide College in Rome and Private Secretary to his uncle Paul Cardinal Cullen in Dublin from 1866. He was appointed as Titular Bishop of Olba and Coadjutor with the right of succession of Ossory, Ireland on 22 December 1871. He was consecrated bishop on 5 March 1872 by Cardinal Cullen and succeeded to Ossory on 11 August 1872 on the death of Bishop Edward Walsh. He was promoted Archbishop of Sydney on 14 March 1884 following the death of Archbishop Roger Bede Vaughan on 18 August 1883. The pallium which had been granted to him at the consistory on 27 March 1884 was imposed on him by his senior suffragan bishop, James Murray of Maitland, on 14 September 1884. (26)

Archbishop Moran was created a Cardinal on 27 July 1885 (27) and was assigned the titular church of S. Susanna. (28) Cardinal Moran was only the second Cardinal resident outside Europe. The appointment of an Archbishop of a small Church in a distant British colony was an unexpected event which reflected the high personal regard in which he was held by Pope Leo XIII who, as Vincent Joachim Cardinal Pecci, had been one of the principal 'objectors' at Moran's presentation for his Doctorate in Theology.

The bull of Moran's appointment as Cardinal (29) is of parchment headed with the stamped or stenciled title 'LEO PP XIII'. The bull bears the red impressed seal of that Pope and is signed by Theodolphe Cardinal Mertel, Vice Chancellor of the College since 1883. (30) Among Cardinal Moran's papers is a letter of the same date as the bull from Giuseppe Cardinal Pecci, a brother of the Society of Jesus, who speaks of himself as the 'Cardinal Brother of His Holiness'. His appointment as Cardinal by his brother Pope Leo XIII in 1879 must be seen as a late example of nepotism, if such a term can be applied to a brother. (31)

Cardinal Moran died on 15 August 1911. (32) The precedent of his appointment to the College of Cardinals was not followed in the case of his successor of 29 years, Archbishop Michael Kelly.

Cardinal Moran bore as his arms: the arms of the Archdiocese of Sydney impaling sable (black), three stars (8) or (gold), two and one, and for motto: Omnia Omnibus (To be All Things to All People). (33)

Sir Norman Thomas Cardinal Gilroy

Norman Thomas Gilroy was born 22 January 1896 at Glebe in Sydney, son of William James Gilroy and Catherine Slattery. (34) He was educated to the age of 12 by the Sisters of the Good Samaritan, the Sisters of Charity and the Marist Brothers and then commenced work, first for an estate agent and later for the Postmaster General's Department from 1909 until the outbreak of the First World War, in which he served at Gallipoli and elsewhere. He entered the seminary at Springwood in 1917 and continued his studies at the Pontifical Urban College of Propaganda Fide in Rome from 1919 until his ordination on 24 December 1923. On his return he served on the staff of the Apostolic Delegation for six years before returning to Lismore (35) in 1931 as Chancellor and Diocesan Secretary to Bishop John Carroll.

He was nominated Bishop of Port Augusta in South Australia on 10 December 1934 and consecrated bishop on 17 March 1935. He remained in that diocese until 1 July 1937 when he was promoted titular Archbishop of Cypsela and appointed as coadjutor to Archbishop Michael Kelly of Sydney with the right of succession, which occurred on 8 March 1940 on the death of Archbishop Kelly. The granting of the pallium to him was delayed until the next consistory, which did not occur until 12 May 1941, and its imposition was further delayed to coincide with the celebrations of the centenary of the establishment of the Australian hierarchy on 10 May 1942 when the Apostolic Delegate, Archbishop Panico, performed the ceremony. (36)

Archbishop Gilroy was advised on 26 December 1945 by Archbishop Panico that 'His Holiness the Pope will elevate Your Grace to the Sacred Purple in the Secret Consistory to be held on 18 February next'. (37) Cardinal Gilroy was the first Australian born Cardinal. He was appointed Cardinal Priest and assigned the titular Church of Ss. Quattro Coronati (the Four Crowned Martyrs). (38)

Cardinal Gilroy's papers do not contain a bull of appointment but include a document dated 18 February 1946 announcing his creation as Cardinal signed by Gennaro Cardinal Granito Pignatelli de Belmonte, the Dean of the Sacred College and bearing the impressed seal of the Apostolic Chancery. The papers also include a further letter of the same date from the then Monsignor Giovanni Battista Montini, the Substitute Secretary of State, who was created a Cardinal on 15 December 1958, elected Pope as Paul VI on 21 June 1963 and died on 6 August 1978. (39)

The newly elevated Cardinal Gilroy was solemnly received at St Mary's Cathedral on 24 March 1946. (40)

He was the first Australian Cardinal to participate in the election of a Pope. Having been created Cardinal by Pope Pius XII, he participated in the elections of Pope John XXIII and Pope Paul VI. Cardinal Gilroy was created a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1970, the first Cardinal to be knighted by a British monarch since the Reformation. Having achieved the age of 75 on 22 January 1971, his resignation as Archbishop was accepted on 9 July 1971 and he died on 21 October 1977. (41)

Cardinal Gilroy bore as his arms: the arms of the Archdiocese of Sydney impaling argent (silver), three dolphins azure (blue), fined or (gold), two and one; and for motto: Christus Lux Mea. (Christ is My Light). (42)

James Robert Cardinal Knox

James Robert Knox was born on 2 March 1 914 at Bayswater, Perth in Western Australia, the son of John Knox and Alice Emily Walsh. (43)

He worked as a tailor's assistant after leaving school but at twenty he returned to St Ildephonsus' Marist Brothers' College, New Norcia to complete his secondary education. In 1936 he entered the Seminary of the Abbey Nullius of New Norcia, transferring later that year to Propaganda College in Rome, where he was ordained in 1941. He continued his post-graduate studies in Rome, obtaining doctorates in theology and canon law. He was Vice Rector of the Pontifical Urban College of Propaganda Fide, Rome, from 1945 until 1948. He worked in the Secretariat of State until 1950 and subsequently in the Diplomatic Corps of the Holy See at posts in Japan, British East and West Africa and India until 1967.

He was consecrated titular Archbishop of Melitene on 20 July 1953 (ordained 8 November 1953) and translated to the Archdiocese of Melbourne on 13 April 1967. As a consistory occurred swiftly after that appointment was announced, on the occasion of his enthronement by Cardinal Gilroy on 30 July 1967, the pallium was imposed on him by the Apostolic Delegate, Archbishop Domenico Enrici, who said of it, in the old formula, that 'In it is the fullness of the pontifical office, with the right to the title of archbishop.' (44) On 5 March 1973, Archbishop Knox was appointed Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Valicella. (45)

He moved to the Vatican and his resignation of the Archbishopric of Melbourne was accepted on 1 July 1974. He was appointed Prefect of the Congregations for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments on 25 January 1974. They were united in 1975 and he was appointed Prefect of the united Congregation on 1 August 1975. He was transferred to be President of the Pontifical Council for the Family on 9 May 198l. Cardinal Knox died in Rome on 26 June 1983 and is buried with his pallium (46) in St Patrick's Cathedral, Melbourne. (47)

In Melbourne, Cardinal Knox bore as his arms: Azure (blue) on a cross argent (silver) between in 1st quarter a dove of peace volant proper, in 2nd the Immaculate Heart proper, in 3rd an orb or (gold), and in 4th a representation of the Southern Cross argent (silver), a plate irradiated or (gold) charged with the monogram "IHS" or (gold) in fess below a triangle reversed or (gold," and for motto: Ut Sint Consummati in Unum (That All might be Consumed in the One). (48)

In Rome, Cardinal Knox bore as his arms: Gules (red), a dove of peace volant or within an orle wavy counter engrailed argent (silver); and for motto: Sicut Delixi Vos (Just as I have Loved You). (49)

Sir James Darey Cardinal Freeman

James Darcy Freeman was born at Sydney on 19 November 1907, the son of Robert Freeman and Margaret Smith. He was educated by the Sisters of Charity at Elizabeth Bay and the Christian Brothers at St Mary's Cathedral. He entered the seminary at St Columba's College, Springwood, later moving to St Patrick's College, Manly. He was ordained on 13 July 1930 by Archbishop Bartolomeo Cattanco, then Apostolic Delegate and later Treasurer General of the Church.

He served as a priest in the Diocese of Lismore and subsequently in the Archdiocese of Sydney. He was a private secretary to Cardinal Gilroy and was appointed the second and, to date, last titular bishop of Hermopolis Minor and auxiliary of Sydney on 9 December 1956. He was consecrated on 24 January 1957 by Cardinal Gilroy. He became Bishop of Armidale on 18 October 1969 and Archbishop of Sydney on 9 July 1971.

Archbishop Freeman was made Cardinal Priest of Our Lady Queen of Peace of Ostia on 5 March 1973. The pallium was granted at the same consistory and, a first for Australia, was imposed personally by Pope Paul VI. (50) Cardinal Freeman's papers (51) contain a bull of his creation as a Cardinal. This document for the first time in the series of Australian Cardinals has a lead seal or bulla attached. It is signed by the French Secretary of State Jean Cardinal Villot, who had become a Cardinal on 22 February 1965 and Camerlengo in 1970.

Cardinal Freeman was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1977. He resigned the See of Sydney on 12 February 1983 and died on 16 March 1991. He bore as his arms: the Archdiocese of Sydney impaling per fess azure (blue) a star (6) argent (silver) and or (gold), on a book argent (silver), bound gules (red), thereon a pascal lamb couchant proper; and for motto: Per Ipsum Ipsa Duce. (Through Him with Her as Guide). (52)

Edward Bede Cardinal Clancy

Edward Bede Clancy was born on 13 December 1923 at Lithgow New South Wales, the son of John Bede Clancy and Ellen Lucy Edwards. He was educated at Grenfell, Richmond and Parramatta. He entered the seminary at St Columba's College, Springwood and was later at St Patrick's College, Manly. He was ordained at St Mary's Cathedral, Sydney on 23 July 1949 at the same time as the later Cardinal Cassidy. He studied at the Angelicum University in Rome from 1951 and received a Licentiate of Sacred Scripture from the Pontifical Biblical Institute.

He returned to the Archdiocese of Sydney in 1955, serving as assistant priest in the Parishes of Elizabeth Bay and Liverpool. He was appointed Professor of Sacred Scripture at St Columba's College, Springwood in February 1958. He studied overseas from 1961, obtaining a Doctorate in Sacred Theology in 1965. On his return to Sydney he was appointed Chaplain of Sydney University and the Catholic Centre and joined the professorial staff of St Patrick's College, Manly.

He was appointed titular Bishop of Ard Carna and auxiliary of Sydney on 15 November 1973 and was ordained Bishop on 19 January 1974. He was appointed Archbishop of Canberra and Goulburn on 24 November 1978 and translated to the Archdiocese of Sydney on 22 February 1983. He was installed as Archbishop of Sydney on 27 April 1983 and the pallium was imposed on him at the same time by his predecessor. (53)

Archbishop Clancy was made an Officer of the Order of Australia on 1 January 1984 'for service to religion' and, as Cardinal, he became a Companion of the Order on 26 January 1992 'for service to religion, to learning and to the disadvantaged in the community'. (54)

He was appointed Cardinal on 28 June 1988 as Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Valicella, a titular church previously assigned to Cardinal Knox. (55)

Cardinal Clancy retired as Archbishop of Sydney on 26 March 2001 and lives in semi-retirement in Sydney. Having achieved the age of 80 on 13 December 2003, Cardinal Clancy is no longer a Papal elector.

Edward Idris Cardinal Cassidy

Edward Idris Cassidy (56) was born 5 July 1924 at Sydney, the son of Harold George Cassidy and Dorothy May Phillips. He was educated at Parramatta High School, entering St Columba's Seminary at Springwood and later attending St Patrick's College, Manly, the Lateran University in Rome (becoming Doctor in Canon Law) and the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy in Rome (Diploma in Ecclesiastical Diplomacy.) He was ordained on 23 July 1949 as a priest of the Diocese of Wagga Wagga in the same ceremony as the later Cardinal Clancy.

He was appointed titular Archbishop of Amantia (ordained 15 November 1970) and Apostolic Pro-Nuncio to China on 27 October 1970. He subsequently served in Bangladesh, Lesotho, South Africa and The Netherlands. In early 1988 he moved to the Roman Curia and was Substitute Secretary of State from 1988 until 1989. He was appointed President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity and of the Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews on 12 December 1989.

Archbishop Cassidy was created Cardinal Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata on 28 June 1991. The bull (with bulla) was signed by Pope John Paul II and countersigned by Monsignor Angelo Lanzoni, Protonotary Apostolic. He was further elevated to Cardinal Priest of the same title on 6 February 2002. The bull of promotion (again with bulla) was signed by Pope John Paul II and countersigned by Monsignor Tarcesio Nardi, Protonotary Apostolic.

Cardinal Cassidy holds various Orders awarded by Germany, France, Sweden, The Netherlands, Italy, China and El Salvador. (57) He was appointed a Companion of the Order of Australia in 1990 'for service to religion and international affairs'. (58)

He retired on 3 March 2001 and lives in semi-retirement near Newcastle. Having achieved the age of 80 on 5 July 2004, Cardinal Cassidy is no longer a Papal elector. (59)


The Australian Church has made a contribution to the governance of the Church through the College of Cardinals out of proportion with its size and its age.

A tradition has become established that the Archbishop of Sydney be appointed a Cardinal and it can be expected that future Archbishops of Sydney will be selected with that role in the central governance of the Church in contemplation.

(1) I am grateful for the assistance provided by George Cardinal Pell, Edward Cardinal Clancy AC, Edward Cardinal Cassidy AC, Monsignor William Mullins, Monsignor Aldo Rebeschini, Dr Ian B Waters PP, Br John Luttrell fms, Dr Michael Casey, Michael E McCarthy, Sydney Archdiocesan Archives--Pauline Garland, and Melbourne Archdiocesan Archives (MDHC)--Rachel Naughton.

(2) Bull of Creation dated 21 October 2003 in the possession of Cardinal Pell by whose kind permission it is reproduced.

(3) Tess Livingstone, George Pell, Duffy & Snelgrove, Sydney, 2002, p. 67.

(4) Livingstone, p.230f.

(5) Historical Notes in the Annuario Pontificio 2000, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican, 2000, p. 1917ff provides the historical context of the office of Cardinal.

(6) Lateran Treaty 1929, art. 21.

(7) The Code of Canon Law in English translation, Collins, Sydney, 1983, p. 60.

(8) By canon 353, consistories can be Ordinary or Extraordinary, Public or Secret.

(9) The Pope exercises the power to dispense with this requirement, as in the case of Avery Cardinal Dulles created 21 February 2001.

(10) In Latin, bulla

(11) Literally, in the breast.

(12) services/press/documentazione/documents/inali documentazione/cardinali documentazione generale en.html#Ordinary%20Public%20Consistory as at 20 November 2003. The number of Cardinals had fallen to 125 as at 1 June 2004. Cardinal Clancy achieved the age of 80 years on 13 December 2003 and Cardinal Cassidy on 5 July 2004. They no longer have the right to participate in Papal elections.

(13) Monsignor Brian Rayner OAM, VG, RAN.

(14) Mr Danny Casey.

(15) Dr Michael Casey.

(16) services/press/documentazione/documents/cardinali documentazione/cardinali documentazione generale en.html as at 31 May 2004.

(17) I am indebted to Monsignor William Mullins for this translation.

(18) The seal is a red impressed seal.

(19) M. F. McCarthy, Heraldica Collegii Cardinalium Supplement I, Thylacine Press, Sydney, 2002, p. 18; J. Morley, 'Chance or Hand of God', The Catholic Weekly, 23 November 2003, p. 11; Dr. Ian Waters to the writer, Letter by email, 7 July 2004.

(20) The Reception was given by John McCarthy QC and the author and was attended by the Cardinal's family and party and by a number of other dignitaries, including the Australian Ambassador to the Holy See, Dr John Herron, and his wife and the Australian Ambassador to Italy, Mr Murray Cobban.

(21) services/press/documentazione/documents/cardinali documentazione/cardinali documentazione generale en.html#Ordinary%20Public%20Consistory as at 20 November 2003

(22) The arms of the Archdiocese of Sydney are--Azure (blue), on a cross argent (silver) four stars (8) gules (red.): M. F. McCarthy, An Armorial of the Hierarchy of the Catholic Church in Australia, Thylacine Press, Sydney, 1998, p. 159.

(23) This refers to the heraldic practice of joining personal arms with the arms of the office occupied by the person, the arms of office occupying the dexter (left as one looks at the shield) half of the shield and the personal arms occupying the sinister (right as observed) half of the shield.

(24) The Official Directory of the Catholic Church in Australia 2004, Melbourne, 2004, p. 361. When he was translated to Sydney, the existing Sydney practice of impaling the see arms with the personal arms of the Archbishop (not practiced in Melbourne) resulted in a slight modification of the arms he had previously borne.

(25) Some would date the establishment of the Australian hierarchy to the consecration in 1832 of Bishop William P. Morris as Vicar-Apostolic of Mauritius, a mission which embraced Australia.

(26) Waters, 'The Pallium', p. 18.

(27) McCarthy, Armorial, p. 163.

(28) Australian Dictionary of Biography, MUP, Melbourne, 1986, vol 10, p.577ff.

(29) Archdiocese of Sydney Archives, Box U2208.

(30) Cardinal Mertel Cardinal Mertel had also signed the bull of Moran's appointment as Archbishop of Sydney on 14 March 1884.

(31) M. F. McCarthy, Heraldica Collegii Cardinalium Vol. 11, Thylacine Press, Sydney, 2000, p. 184.

(32) Cardinal Moran was found dead in his bed on 16 August 1911 and is presumed to have died the previous evening: ADB Vol. 10, p. 577.

(33) McCarthy, Heraldica Vol. 11, p. 200.

(34) Cardinal Gilroy's papers are held in the Sydney Archdiocesan Archives, Box F3209.

(35) He had been working at Lismore when he applied to enter the seminary.

(36) Waters, 'The Pallium', p. 118f.

(37) McCarthy, Heraldica Vol. 11, p.397. Panico was himself appointed a Cardinal by Pope John XXIII on 19 March 1962.

(38) McCarthy, Armorial, p. 164.

(39) McCarthy, Armorial, p. 21.

(40) The program for the solemn reception of Cardinal Gilroy at St Mary's Cathedral on 24 March 1946 notes that the procession included the Gentiluomo (literally, Gentleman), whose name is not given in the program. Cardinal Cassidy informed the author (2 July 2004) that Cardinal Gilroy brought Giovanni Milanta from Rome to be his Gentiluomo after his elevation.

(41) ADB, Vol. 14p. 275.

(42) McCarthy, Heraldica Vol. II, p. 350.

(43) Waters, Letter.

(44) Waters, 'The Pallium', p. 15.

(45) Cardinal Knox's papers are held in the Melbourne Archdiocesan Archives. The papers held there do not include a bull of his appointment as Cardinal.

(46) Waters, 'The Pallium, p. 15.

(47) Who's Who its Australia 1980, Herald and Weekly Times, 1980, Melbourne, p.495; McCarthy, Hera'dica Vol II, p.447; McCarthy, Armorial, p. 115.

(48) McCartay, Armorial, p. 115.

(49) McCarthy, Heraldica Vol. II, p. 447.

(50) Waters, 'The Pallium', p. 19.

(51) Sydney Archdiocesan Archives, Box 1314.

(52) McCarthy, Heraldica Vol. II, p. 458.

(53) Waters, 'The Pallium', p. 19

(54) Frederick Kirkland, Order of Australia 1975-1995, Plaza Historical Services, Sydney, 1993, p.165.

(55) His Eminence does not hold a bull of his creation as Cardinal but holds an instrument on the letterhead of the Secretariat of State advising him of his appointment in consistory on 28 June 1988 and signed by Agostino Cardinal Casaroli: information from Cardinal Clancy to the author (7 May 2004.)

(56) Cardinal Cassidy's name at birth was registered as Idris Edward but he was baptized as Edward Idris and all Church documents use that order: information from Cardinal Cassidy to the author (11 February 2004.).

(57) Who's Who in Australia 2004, Crown Content, Melbourne, 2004 p.411.

(58) Kirkland, p. 156.

(59) Cardinal Cassidy is the only Australian Cardinal who was not a Metropolitan Archbishop and, consequently, the only one upon whom the pallium was not imposed.

Richard d'Apice AM, LLB, FSAG was a member of Cardinal Pell's party at the Consistory recorded in this article. He is senior partner of lawyers Makinson & d'Apice and President of Heraldry Australia. He is past President of the Society of Australian Genealogists and a past Councillor of both the Royal Australian Historical Society and the National Trust of Australia (NSW).
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Author:d'Apice, Richard
Publication:Journal of the Australian Catholic Historical Society
Geographic Code:8AUST
Date:Jan 1, 2004
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