Printer Friendly

Geology and geography.

Chair: James Starnes, MS Department of Environmental Quality

Vice-chair: George Phillips, Dept. of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks

THURSDAY MORNING

Juniper

O5.01

9:00 MINING IN STREAMS: POLICY QUESTIONS FOR MISSISSIPPI

Michael B. E. Bograd

Mississippi Office of Geology

The issue of mining in streams elicits strong responses from two camps: those supporting exploitation of needed industrial minerals and those concerned about adverse environmental impacts. The focus in Mississippi is on in-stream dredging and excavation on bars for sand and gravel. The incentive to exploit river bars is high as county governments mine washed gravel with no overburden to provide low-cost services to taxpayers and private operators maximize profits because of lower costs. Such aggregates are vital to construction and resurfacing of roads. Local gravel resources may exist only in stream bars and alluvium. However, mining sand and gravel from bars and dredging in channels causes aesthetic and environmental impacts, including turbidity, bank sloughing, headcutting, and vegetation removal. These impacts can affect wildlife and recreational activities, damage property, even endanger bridges. Some argue this is a renewable resource, subject to natural reclamation. Areas of concern are the Bouie River near Hattiesburg, the Buttahatchie River near Columbus, and streams in southwestern Mississippi. The Amite and other rivers have been adversely affected by mining in the Florida parishes of Louisiana, and there is interest in mining along those streams in Mississippi. Mississippi's 30-year-old surface mining law allows mining in streams if a permit is issued, but the regulatory authority prohibits adverse environmental damage. Regulators must balance demands for needed aggregates with environmental consequences of mining affecting bars and stream channels.

O5.02

9:15 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AGGREGATE INDUSTRY AND MEMPHIS STONE AND GRAVEL COMPANY'S MODERN MINING CYCLE

Alan G. Parks, William D. Kelley, III

Memphis Stone and Gravel Company

Memphis Stone and Gravel Company mines "pre-loess" sand and gravel terrace deposits, often referred to as the Upland Complex, to produce high quality construction aggregate for the construction markets in the Memphis Metropolitan Area and Northwest Mississippi. Aggregate is broadly divided into three categories: sand, gravel, and crushed stone. These products are the basic raw materials used in the manufacture of concrete. A five part "Mining Cycle" brings these natural resources from initial discovery to the market place and returns the land for other productive use. These five parts include: exploration, planning, mining, processing, and reclamation. Construction aggregate is a high weight, high volume commodity, which trades at a relatively low unit cost. Proximity to market and efficient management is critical due to the high transportation costs. According to USGS estimates, per capita consumption of aggregate exceeds ten tons per year. It is projected that we will require as much aggregate in the next twenty-five years as we have used the previous century. Memphis Stone and Gravel Company is well positioned to meet this demand, but aggregate availability will be challenged by competing land uses, regulatory approvals, and the geological characteristics in the area. Often aggregate mining is faced with community opposition with concerns about environmental impacts, effects on property values, and increased traffic. But given the opportunity Memphis Stone and Gravel Company can demonstrate that the modern mining cycle does not require a community to accept aggregate development at the expense environmental protection and quality of life.

O5.03

9:30 APPLICATION OF SATELLITE IMAGERY AND FIELD SURVEY TO ESTIMATE AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL USE

Fazlay Faruque, Hui Li, Worth Williams, Teresa Carithers, Kaye Wilson

The University of Mississippi Medical Center

The purpose of this research was to estimate the amount of agricultural chemicals used on farm lands. Estimation was conducted based on crop type identified from satellite images, and then that estimation was evaluated through field survey. We had acquired a standard product from QuickBird Satellite for a rural agricultural county in Mississippi. A two-step classification: a) land use and land cover and b) crop type was performed. The land use and land cover classification (USGS Level I) involved shadow and cloud removal, texture bands calculation, unsupervised classification, and post classification processes. The overall classification accuracy was 95.31% in this region. For crop classification, the classification procedure included texture band extraction, optimum band selection, supervised classification with Maximum Likelihood algorithm, post classification, and accuracy assessment. Overall accuracy assessment was 72 .41%. Once the crop type and land area were identified, the amount of chemicals (fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides) used per acre on corn, rice, soybean, wheat, and cotton fields was calculated by multiplying the USDA recommended amount of chemicals per acre times the area of each cultivated land segment. This project also involved comparison of the estimated chemical amounts with actual chemicals applied. Data regarding the actual chemicals applied to crops were collected by surveying the farmers and gleaned from records they had kept for their own purpose. Statistical analysis suggests a lack of correlations between estimated and actual survey measures. However, crop type classification using high resolution satellite imagery was performed successfully with the exception of rice.

O5.04

9:45 CATAHOULA SANDSTONE AND QUARTZITE, THE HISTORIC BUILDING STONE OF SOUTH-CENTRAL MISSISSIPPI

David T. Dockery III, D. Kenneth Davis

Mississippi Office of Geology

The Catahoula Formation contains sands, clays, sandstones, and sedimentary quartzites along its east-west outcrop belt across south-central Mississippi. Flagstone slabs of sedimentary quartzite were used in 1840 to build a culvert archway for the state's first narrow-gauge railroad near Grand Gulf in Claiborne County, a structure still standing. Catahoula sandstone was used as a facing stone for the state house, the Old Capitol Building, in Jackson, Mississippi. Skates' (1990, p. 36-37) history of the Old Capitol Building recorded the quarry site as "Mississippi Springs, a small antebellum resort east of Raymond." State architect William Nichols inspected the quarry in September of 1836 and found that the stone mason "had been diverting stone quarried for the state house to other purposes." "Nichols reported: 'the ground around the quarry is covered with headstones and footstones ... [and] large square tombs.'" Examples of such gravestones can be seen today in the old Raymond cemetery, where many have fallen into disrepair. Here, the most amazingly preserved Catahoula sandstone is found in the monument to the Alston children (died 1837) in which the inscriptions appear freshly engraved. Less competent sandstone was sent to the state house and has since been replaced. The Mississippi Springs quarry was located in September of 2007 at 32 15.836' N and 90 22.896' W, a site near the proposed Norrell Road extension from the I-20 interchange to Byram.

O5.05

10:00 DELTA FLOW MODEL: THE NEXT GENERATION

Pat Mason

Mississippi Office of Land & Water Resources

The Mississippi River valley alluvial aquifer is an important groundwater resource. It is unusually prolific and very heavily used, and managing its water supply is vital to the prosperity of a large part of the state. It has unique discharge and recharge characteristics not seen in most aquifers. The area is well suited to model study and optimization due to an active monitoring network. Work is underway on a new groundwater flow model for this aquifer, to be used in predicting groundwater changes. The first and second generation models built for this aquifer, years ago, were necessarily constrained by heavy data acquisition and programming requirements. The emphasis was on gathering basic information on the aquifer, and on using simplified aquifer assumptions, with model calibration playing a large role in determining projected future heads in the aquifer. This third generation project builds on existing data, but emphasizes assumptions and approaches that will generate a model which will be as reflective of real geohydrologic conditions as possible, and will be useful for running multiple scenarios on demand. Early work has revealed several parameters which need to be addressed in new ways. These are: infiltration properties, base flow, pumping rates, boundary issues, and georeferencing. Problems, techniques, and new data sets are presented to illustrate the new approaches and tools currently in use to construct the model.

10:15 Break

O5.06

10:30 "DELTA"-BLUFF MARGIN ALLUVIAL FANS

James Starnes

Mississippi Office of Geology

Lateral migration of the Mississippi River into the river's east valley wall creates an escarpment of Peorian loess, Early Pleistocene Pre-loess terrace deposits (coarse sand and gravels of the ancestral Mississippi River), and underlying Tertiary formations (which commonly form the toe of the escarpment). As the river migrates westward from the escarpment, the trunks of dendritic drainage systems must cross an alluvial plain of low relief. Alluvial fans develop where the stream trunk enters the "Delta" as these streams lose their energy and their bed load. The fans owe their size to the extensiveness of their watersheds and are fed by an unconsolidated sedimentary section with a high susceptibility to erosion and where mass wasting events such as failures in the loess are commonplace. Streams receive spring water in their upper reaches from loess/terrace and Tertiary bedrock where lithologies permit. The trunk of the stream recharges the alluvial fan and possibly even the Mississippi River alluvial aquifer where alluvial fans and the river alluvium inter-finger. Unlike much of the Mississippi River alluvium, the "Delta"-bluff margin alluvial fans may receive recharge from surface waters over parts of the fan. The thickest accumulation of coarse-grained sediments is near the apex of the fan and this may be a local source of groundwater for agricultural irrigation or domestic wells. The fans are elevated above the flood plain surface and are associated with running water, and therefore, they commonly contain large, well-preserved, often multi-component, archaeological deposits.

O5.07

10:45 A HEURISTIC MODEL OF TRIBUTARY AND TRUNK STREAM INTERACTIONS

Zachary Musselman

Millsaps College

The purpose of this poster is to present the Confluence Effects Model (CEM). The CEM may be used to predict the resulting geomorphological impacts within a tributary stream's mouth with varying changes in trunk stream discharge and channel morphology. Currently, there is no model that directly addresses the morphological response of a tributary stream's confluence downstream of a dam. A few models do exist that have been shown to effectively predict channel response downstream of a dam in a general qualitative way. These models do not directly address tributary responses, though they may indicate the trunk stream changes to which the tributary responds. Tributary responses to imposed trunk stream conditions are simply implied through the confluence-reach effects on the impounded mainstem. Using the relationships of sediment load, stream capacity, and discharge, six possible cases that may occur within an alluvial system, downstream of an impoundment are presented. The six cases are used to qualitatively model confluence effects in downstream reaches of a dammed alluvial river with "hungry water". This approach is similar to classification and qualitative predictive models of channel changes within mainstem streams downstream of dams. The heuristic model offered here illustrates the numerous resulting cross-sectional and channel changes possible after impoundment. The six cases in the CEM were chosen because previous work on downstream dam effects indicated a lack of attention toward the affect of trunk stream morphometric changes on tributary stream morphometry.

O5.08

11:00 MAGNETOSTRATIGRAPHY SUSCEPTIBILITY USED FOR HIGH RESOLUTION CORRELATION AMONG PALEOCENE/EOCENE BOUNDARY SEQUENCES IN EGYPT, SPAIN AND THE U.S.A.

Brooks Ellwood (1), Aziz Kafafy (1), Ahmed Kassab (1), Jonathan H. Tomkin (1), Abdelaziz Abdeldayem (1), Nageh Obaidalla (1), Kelli W. Randall (1), David E. Thompson (1)

(1) Department of Geology and Geophysics, (2) Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt, (3) Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Egypt, (4) Plum Creek Timber Co., Inc.

We have used the magnetostratigraphic susceptibility technique to establish high resolution correlation among Paleocene/Eocene (P/E) boundary sequences in Egypt, Spain and the US with reference to the Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP), defining the base of the Eocene, located near Luxor in Egypt. The base of the Eocene represents the beginning of the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum identified by a negative [delta]13C excursion (CIE). While onset of the CIE is somewhat gradual in most reported P/E sections, at the GSSP it is abrupt and begins immediately after an unusual lithologic change indicating an erosional or non-depositional hiatus. Due to the hiatus in the GSSP, we have chosen a section from Zumaia, Spain, as the MS reference section for the P/E boundary interval. Because the correlation between the Zumaia section in Spain and the MGS-1 Core from the US is excellent, and because the MGS-1 data represent a longer interval of time than does the Zumaia data, we use the magnetic susceptibility (MS) data from the MGS-1 Core to extend the MS chron zonation to establish a MS composite reference section (MS CRS) for the P/E boundary interval. Orbital forcing frequencies are then identified, via spectral analysis, to determine that the portion of the Zumaia reference section sampled represents ~400 Kyr of sediment accumulation. Extending the MS chron zonation into the MS CRS allows age assignment to MS chrons for all five sections with a resolution of ~20,000 years.

THURSDAY AFTERNOON

Juniper

O5.09

1:30 SOIL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HELEN MOYERS BIOCULTURAL RESERVE, YUCATAN, MEXICO

Stan J. Galicki, Mia Cowgill, and Frances Davidson

Millsaps College

Samples obtained from 35 augur holes ranging up to 1.8 m in depth were analyzed for carbon content and mineralogy as part of reconnaissance soil sampling across the 1600 ha Helen Moyers Biocultural Reserve in Yucatan, Mexico. The Moyers Reserve is situated in the Bolonchen District which is composed of knobby cone karst hills developed on the Eocene Chichen Itza limestone. The pedogenic soils are composed of approximately 90% kaolinite and up to 10% calcite with traces of illite and crystalline quartz. The total carbon content averages 14.8% with organic content values averaging 10.8%. Soils exhibit a decrease in organic carbon content with depth. Samples in the upper 10 cm contain significantly greater inorganic carbon and average 14.24% [+ or -]2.38. Samples at depth average 8.43% [+ or -] 3.79. No change in inorganic carbon was observed with depth. The mineralogy and carbon content of samples taken within a natural depression, or aguada, were not significantly different from the samples taken from the surrounding area. The deepest auger hole within the aguada recovered angular limestone fragments at 1.8 m. The aguada, reportedly an important source of water to the ancient Maya, appears to have originated due to dissolution and collapse of the limestone bedrock.

O5.10

1:45 HYDROSTRATIGRAPHIC RELATIONSHIPS OF THE WILCOX AND CLAIBORNE GROUPS IN NORTHWESTERN MISSISSIPPI AND WESTERN TENNESSEE

Daniel Larsen (1), Kasey Hundt (1), Angela Owen (1), Brian Waldron (1), Roy Van Arsdale (1), David N. Lumsden (1), Ryan Csontos (1)

(1) Dept. of Earth Sciences, The University of Memphis, (2) Ground Water Institute, The University of Memphis

Detailed lithostratigraphic correlation of Paleocene through Eocene Wilcox and Claiborne Group strata in northwestern Mississippi and western Tennessee is being conducted to address correlation problems and assess hydrostratigraphic relationships across the state line. Specifically, borehole geophysical log and limited outcrop data are used to clarify stratigraphic relationships among these intervals and identify correlation problems that require additional data to resolve. Stratigraphic correlations of Wilcox and Claiborne strata in the northern Mississippi Embayment are hampered by absence of fossiliferous marine units, limited exposure and few detailed stratigraphic core studies. Traditionally, stratigraphic nomenclature and interpretations for the Wilcox and Claiborne in northern Mississippi have been tied to correlative marine units in the southern part of the state. Although lithostratigraphic correlations of Wilcox strata in western Tennessee are generally matched to similar intervals in northern Mississippi, specific formations in the Wilcox of Mississippi (Nanafalia, Tuscahoma, and Hatchitigbee/Bashi) are difficult to directly correlate to those of western Tennessee (Fort Pillow and Flour Island). In the lower and middle Claiborne, five formations identified in northern Mississippi correlate to a single formation, the Memphis Sand, in western Tennessee. The results from the lithostratigraphic correlation suggest that the Memphis and Fort Pillow aquifers are complexly related to several thinner aquifer intervals in northern Mississippi.

O5.11

2:00 SURFACE GEOLOGY OF THE MOSCOW 7.5-MINUTE QUADRANGLE, SOUTHWESTERN KEMPER COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

David E. Thompson

Mississippi Office of Geology

The recent announcement of a proposed lignite mine and adjacent coal-gasification power plant in Kemper County, Mississippi, to be underway by 2013, would constitute the second mine-mouth lignite power plant in the state. The Mississippi Office of Geology has completed a surface geologic map of the Moscow 7.5-Minute Quadrangle, which includes the proposed mine site. Stratigraphic units present in the quadrangle (listed in ascending order) include the Grampian Hills Member of the Nanafalia Formation and the Tuscahoma Formation, both of Paleocene age, the Hatchetigbee Formation of Eocene age, and Holocene Alluvium. The lignitic interval in Kemper County is approximately 165 feet thick, includes interbedded to interlaminated sand, silt, and clay, and is positioned largely within the Tuscahoma Formation. The lignite ore body is comprised of four, primary, economic seams and three, thin, uneconomic seams. Correlation of geologic units and lignite seams to the existing mine and power plant in Choctaw County, Mississippi, indicates that the lignite ore body in Kemper County includes some equivalent correlative seams, and incorporates some younger seams as well. One seam in particular, the 'J Seam', may be 10, or more, feet thick. Mapping subdivides the Tuscahoma Formation into three, informal, units; lower, middle and upper. The lowest seam of the lignitic interval is positioned approximately 145 feet above the coarse-grained clastics of the Nanafalia Formation (Lower Wilcox Aquifer). The Hatchetigbee Formation is represented in the quadrangle by a grouping of small hilltop outliers in the southwestern portion of the quadrangle.

O5.12

2:15 UPPER LEAF RIVER BASIN BASEFLOW STUDY: A PRELIMINARY STUDY FOR SURFACE WATER/GROUNDWATER INTERACTIONS WITHIN THE PASCAGOULA BASIN

Leonard Rawlings

Mississippi Office of Land and Water Resources

The Pascagoula River System is the nation's largest, unregulated and pristine river system. Streams in the Pascagoula Basin are generally the first to be affected during times of drought. With the presence of several industries in this basin that use surface water, staff of MDEQ/OLWR are conducting studies within the basin to determine the sources of baseflow for the basin's streams. During October 2007, 25 sites near 7Q10 were individually measured during a baseflow study conducted in the Upper Leaf River Basin utilizing SonTek Flowtracker Acoustical Doppler Velocity meters. The Upper Leaf drains 1,752 mi2 and has been in drought conditions throughout the year. The baseflow sites' discharge ranged from no-flow observations to a basin high of 375 ft3/s discharging into the Lower Leaf River Basin. Utilizing ArcGIS, the basin's topography, geology and hydrology was mapped and analyzed. Results indicated that geology plays a pivotal role in the distribution of ground water flow into the surface water streams based on unit discharges per square mile. Generally, flows in the northern third of the Upper Leaf were non-existent correlating to geology. In the southern third, ground water discharge is more prevalent also correlating to the basin's geology. This study will form the foundation for further studies in the basin for ground water/surface interactions utilizing the mappable Miocene aquifer units and stream incision to locate significant ground water contributions. These methodologies can then be applied to the entirety of Pascagoula River Basin.

2:30 Break

O5.13

2:45 BASELINE ASSESSMENT OF NUTRIENT LOADING AND SEDIMENT GEOCHEMISTRY OF TOWN CREEK, JACKSON, MS

Brad Winton and Stan J. Galicki, Millsaps College

An assessment of aqueous nutrient loading and organic sediment geochemistry from five sites on Town Creek provide baseline chemical data for the urban watershed. Jackson, Mississippi has a population of over 184,000 residents in the 174 [km.sup.2] city limit. Seven of the ten larger creeks that flow through the city originate within the city limits and are tributaries of the Pearl River. Land use within the 34 [km.sup.2] Town Creek watershed ranges from residential to industrial. Nitrate and sulfate concentrations increase from the headwater to the mouth with concentrations averaging 11.80 and 3.55 mg/l respectively. Soluble reactive phosphorus averages 1.05 mg/l and has been detected at concentrations in excess of 2.75 mg/l. The greatest soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations occur in the sampling site immediately downstream of the Sonny Guy Municipal Golf Course. Total dissolved solids average 325 mg/l; total suspended solids are negligible. The concentrations of 16 EPA priority pollutants were evaluated using EPA 8270C protocol. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) present in sediment fines were typical of pyrogenic compounds found in urban stream sediment. Sample sites within 2 km of the mouth contained detectable PAHs.

O5.14

3:00 MISSISSIPPI GEOLOGY OF NATIVE LITHIC MATERIALS

James Starnes

Mississippi Office of Geology

Man has likely occupied Mississippi more than 12,000 years. Raw materials location and utilization, provided by geological exposures, was essential for the survival of early Mississippians. While projectile point styles are excellent indicators of successive cultural time periods, analyses of lithic raw materials offers the only window into the migration patterns and trade routes of early Mississippians. Exquisite cherts of the Fort Payne Formation were some the earliest utilized materials. The Fort Payne was a dominant lithic source of the earliest Clovis peoples, the first known inhabitants of Mississippi, migrating from the Tennessee River Valley. Over time, waves of immigrants made their way into Mississippi and began to utilize more local materials such as chert and other rock-type gravels from the Tuscaloosa Formation, Citronelle Formation, and pre-loess terrace deposits, and their derived units such as stream terraces and alluvium. In their search for native geological materials, they also began to comb Tertiary outcrops and found localized, high-quality, orthoquartzites in outcrops of the Tallahatta Formation, Kosciusko Formation, Catahoula Formation, and Hattiesburg Formation (the latter of the two orthoquarzite occurrences have only recently been reported). To a lesser degree, though just as important, was the utilization of limestone, ironstone, and sandstones, which today can be traced to outcrop sources and show the remarkable awareness Native Americans had of the State's bedrock geology. The accurate petrological identification of lithic artifacts on prehistoric sites is essential to the interpretation of Mississippi's rich archaeological record.

O5.15

3:15 SHALLOW SEISMIC REFLECTION IMAGING OF THE PENITENTIARY FAULT AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH THE COMMERCE GEOPHYSICAL LINEAMENT, TAMMS, SOUTHERN ILLINOIS

Erin Elliott, James Harris

Millsaps College

The surface expression of the Commerce Geophysical Lineament (CGL), a series of northeast-trending gravity and magnetic anomalies extending from northeast Arkansas to central Indiana, is characterized by numerous areas of structural deformation. Previous studies have associated the Penitentiary Fault (PF), in southern Illinois, with a portion of the CGL. The surficial projection of the PF is coincident with a linear segment of the east-facing bluff line that separates the Cache River Valley (CRV) from the adjacent upland. To further examine the PF, a one-kilometer-long seismic reflection profile was collected near Tamms, Illinois, crossing the surficial projection of the PF. The shear-wave seismic reflection data were acquired using a 12-channel landstreamer and a sledgehammer/I-beam seismic energy source. Field records showed an abundance of shallow reflection arrivals and the processed profile was of good quality with coherent reflections from the bedrock surface (eroded Paleozoic carbonates) and overlying Quaternary deposits. East of the bluff line, in the CRV, depth to bedrock was interpreted to range from approximately 30-50 meters. To the west, in the uplands, depth to bedrock is approximately 10 meters. Beneath the bluff line, a complex zone of high-angle faults, consistent with the PF, was interpreted. In addition, shallow deformation was imaged in the CRV sediments, possibly associated with a previously unidentified fault zone.

3:30 Division Meeting and Chair Elections

FRIDAY AFTERNOON

Chesnut

2:45 Joint Division Session with History and Philosophy of Science

A HISTORY OF THE MISSISSIPPI GEM AND MINERAL SOCIETY:A HALF CENTURY OF FOSTERING INTEREST IN EARTH SCIENCE.

John Davis

Mississippi Museum of Natural Science volunteer

Archival research and interviews explain the 50 year success of the Mississippi Gem And Mineral Society. From its inception the Society has functioned through cooperation by academics, businessmen, community leaders and engaged amateurs. On October 15 1957, then Assisstant Professor of Geology Wendell Johnson requested space at Millsaps College for "A lapidary club for people interested in this hobby." The Society's first president was J. W. Tucker, founder of the Jackson Daily News. It recruited scientists like Fred Mellen, discoverer of the Tinsley Dome, to give programs. Wendell Johnson, Chairman of Geology at Millsaps, held classes in mineralogy and paleontology. Robert Paxton of Sun Oil conducted field trips. The first woman president, Sue Pitts, and her architect husband Leslie, developed rich relationships with the business community. The Society offered "fun" activities, with Martha Johnson teaching classes in jewelry making and other lapidary skills. In 1960 the Society initiated its show for minerals, rocks, lapidary work and fossils. The 2007 show drew 4,000 visitors and commercial vendors. A bulletin educates the membership and chronicles their activities. Youth members like David Dockery have found inspiration and career development. Members have discovered significant secimens such as the Zygorhiza whale state fossil. Field trip records are used to locate minerals and fossils. The Society now has about 200 members and is completing a facility in Florence MS equipped for lapidary and earth science education. The Mississippi Gem And Mineral Society demonstrates that public interest in science can be maintained.
COPYRIGHT 2008 Mississippi Academy of Sciences
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2008 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Publication:Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences
Geographic Code:1U6MS
Date:Jan 1, 2008
Words:4230
Previous Article:Ecology and evolutionary biology.
Next Article:Health sciences.
Topics:


Related Articles
GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY.
Ask Mapman[TM].
Geology and geophyscis. (Senior Division 2002).
Geology and Geography. (Divisional Report).
Division chairs 2003-2004.
Geology and Geography.
Geology and Geography.
Geology and Geography.
Geology and Geography.
Geology and geography.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2022 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |