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Geology and geochemical analysis of stream sediments and soil samples of Ijero Ekiti and its environs southwestern Nigeria.

INTRODUCTION

Within the last quarter of the last century, there were much interest on environmental pollution and in particular about geochemical distribution and fate of heavy metals in both water and sediment phases of urban drainage system. Though significant advances had been made in the developed regions of the world, there are still increasing concerns about the impacts of urbanization, agricultural, mining and industrial activities on drainage networks in the developing regions of the world, especially in areas with inadequate land use planning and proper waste disposal and management systems [1,3,5]. In such developing countries, contaminations of surface drainage system are mostly related to the consequences of population growth, urbanization, agricultural activities and development of new industrial zones [11], while uncontrolled direct dumping of domestic waste and discharge of domestic and industrial sewage water into the urban drainage systems are critical components of trace and heavy metal contamination [13,12,2,4] especially in areas with lack of strict land-use plan and environmental protection regulations. Though sediments are said to represent the ultimate sinks for heavy metals in the environment [8], changing physico-chemical and environ-mental conditions may lead to remobilization and release of sediment-bound metal pollutants into the water column and consequently into the trophic levels of the food chain within an aquatic environment with serious health and environmental consequences. The environment impact of mining includes erosion, formation of sinkholes, loss of biodiversity, and contamination of soil, groundwater and surface water by chemicals from mining processes. In some cases, additional forest logging is done in the vicinity of mines to increase the available room for the storage debris and soil. Chemicals like mercury, cyanide, sulphuric acid, arsenic and methyl mercury are used in various stages of mining. Most of the chemicals are released into nearby water bodies, and are responsible for water pollution. In spite of tailings (pipes) being used to dispose these chemicals into the water bodies, possibilities of leakage are always there. When the leaked chemicals slowly percolate through the layers of the Earth, they reach the groundwater and pollute it. Surface run-off of soil and rock debris, although non-toxic, can be harmful for vegetation of the surrounding areas. Sometimes the liquid waste that is generated after the metals or minerals have been extracted is disposed in a mining pit. As the pit gets filled up by mine tailings, they become a stagnant pool of water. Based on the above background, geochemical assessment of major and trace element profiles of urban drainage network involving water and bottom sediment samples within Ijero metropolis, SW-Nigeria, are presented and evaluated in this study with respect to impacts of urban activities on the overall quality of drainage systems within the metropolis.

This research work is to investigate Mineralogical appraisal of the various rock types through petro graphical analysis and to study the geochemical assessment of major and trace element profiles of the soil and stream sediments of the study are with a view to elucidate any form or extent of pollution within the Ijero study area, Southwestern Nigeria. The overall evaluation is expected to give an insight into vulnerability of urban drainage networks in a typical developing region in response to poor sanitation and waste disposal facilities and other anthropogenic activities within the populated urban catchment of a developing country. The study area include Ikoro and Ijero and it is situated in the North Western part of Ekiti . The two towns lie approximately between latitude 7[degrees]48'N to7[degrees]51'N and Longitude 5[degrees]2'E to 5[degrees]5'E. The study area is easily accessible by by complex road networks of major and minor roads as well as footpath linking one sampling point to the other, neighboring towns include Idao--Ekiti, Aiyegunle. (Figure. 1). The climate is sub-humid tropical with average annual rainfall 1348.4mm. The area is well drained the common rivers in the study area include Agbangudu, Odooye and Awo rivers the drainage pattern is dendritic and the tributary streams take their courses from the surrounding hills

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Systematic geological mapping and stream sediment sampling of first order streams in other to represent weathered rocks in the drainage system was carried out (Figure. 1b), followed by thin section Petrographic studies of fresh whole rock samples was carried out. Ten stream sediments samples were then analyzed for major and trace elements using inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES), at ACME Laboratory Vancouver Canada. The geochemical analytical procedure involves addition of 5 ml of Perchloric acid (HCl[O.sub.4]), Trioxonitrate (V) HN[O.sub.3] and 15ml Hydrofluoric acid (Hf) to 0.5gm of sample. The solution was stirred properly and allowed to evaporate to dryness after it was warmed at a low temperature for some hours. 4ml hydrochloric acid (HCl) was then added to the cooled solution and warmed to dissolve the salts. The solution was cooled; and then diluted to 50ml with distilled water. The solution is then introduced into the ICP torch as aqueous--aerosol. The emitted light by the ions in the ICP was converted to an electrical signal by a photo multiplier in the spectrometer, the intensity of the electrical signal produced by emitted light from the ions were compared to a standard (a previously measured intensity of a known concentration of the elements) and the concentration then computed.

Geological setting, field description and Petrography:

Nigeria is underlain by Precambrian basement complex rocks, younger granites of Jurassic age and Cretaceous to Recent sediments. The basement rocks occupy about half of the land mass of the country, and is a part of the Pan-African mobile belt lying between the West African and Congo cratons [6]. There are however contrasting documentation of the evolution of the basement rocks. However loosely, the basement is grouped into three major groups lithostratigraphically viz: the Migmatite-Gneiss Quartzite Complex: comprising biotite and biotite hornblende gneisses, quartzites and quartz schist. Schist Belts, comprising paraschists and meta igneous rocks, which include schists, amphibolites, amphibole schists, talcose rocks, epidote rocks, marble and calc-silicate rocks. They are mainly N-S to NNE-SSW trending belts of low grade supracrustal (and minor volcanic) assemblages. Other secondary rocks used in delineating them are carbonates, calc gneiss and banded iron formation (BIF) and Older granites, which include granite, granodiorite, diorite charnockite, pegmatites and aplites. The study area is located within Ikoro and Ijero Ekiti, its geology consists of Precambrian rocks that are typical of Basement Complex of Nigeria and these rocks includes the following three lithologies :[i] Pegmatite [ii]Banded Gneiss and [iii] Granite Gneiss (Fig 2). The Pegmatite of Ijero area and its environs intrude the older lithologies of the rocks of the study area particularly the granite gneiss (Figure. 2), and this pegmatite's trend in the NW-SE direction. They are coarse grained rock with generally milky white color. The main mineral assemblage under the transmitted light includes microcline, quartz, biotite plagioclase, mica, opaque minerals. Plagioclase ranges from (23.8% -45.6%) Microcline often intergrown graphically and are sometimes perthitic with albite occurring as patchy perthite. It however displays cross hatch twinning. Quartz ranges between (16.3% - 30.6%) it occurs as cloudy anhedral with wavy extinction and characteristic weak birefringence, while Biotite occur as fine dark brown platy grains (Figure. 3). The Granite Gneiss of the Ijero study area occupy about 90% of the study area (Figure. 2) they are metamorphosed igneous rocks that displays compositional banding where the minerals are arranged into bands of more mafic minerals and more felsic minerals and it occupies a major portion of the study area under the thin section the recrystallized fine grained quartz covers the surface of microcline phenocryst as overgrowths this is a common phenomenon in all the granite gneisses. Their main mineral assemblages include plagioclase, microcline, quartz and biotite (Figure. 4). The Banded gneiss of the Ijero study area occurs as a massive rock consisting of alternating bands of felsic and mafic minerals assemblages the dark band includes Biotite and other ferromagnesian mineral while the felsic band comprises of plagioclase feldspars and quartz, it occupies about 10% of the mapped area (Figure. 2). The petrographic study show that the plagioclase, microcline, quartz, biotite and mica are the main mineral constituents. Under the petro logical microscope, Plagioclase is colorless in plane polarized, but exhibit 1st order grey color under cross nicols. It can be distinguished from other type of feldspars because of its polysynthetic twinning visible in crystals. Plagioclase has a moderate relief and more percentage. Microcline often intergrown graphically, they are sometimes perthitic with albite occurring as patchy perthite. It however displays characteristic cross hatch twinning. Quartz is colorless in plane polarized light, it lacks visible twinning. Quartz under the cross polar exhibit wavy extinction which is a phenomenon when the stage is rotated (Figure. 5).

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

The analytical results for the Major elements are presented in Tables 1 [a-b] below. Table.1a shows the major oxides composition and Table.1b shows the statistical summary of major oxides composition with respect to their average shale content respectively. From the analytical data and the various statistical plots, Iron oxide [[Fe.sub.2][O.sub.3]] range from (1.62%-8.61%) with a mean value of 5.1390% (Tables1[a-b]). The geochemical map of [[Fe.sub.2][O.sub.3]] shows that it is more concentrated in the NE of the study area (Figure. 6 [i]). Phosphorus oxide [[P.sub.2][O.sub.5]] range from (0.064%-0.374%). [P.sub.2][O.sub.5] in all location are low in the study area with an average mean value of (0.1373%) (Tables 1[a-b]). It is more concentrated in the western portion of the study area and in other areas of the map. (Fig 7 [iv]). Magnesium oxide [MgO] range between (0.132%-0.512%) with a mean value of 0.08933% (Tables1[a-b]). The geochemical map shows more concentration in the NE area and low concentration in the southern part of the study area (figure. 6 [iii]). [Ti[O.sub.2]] range from (0.058%-0.222%) with a mean value of 0.1225% (Tables 1[a-b]), it is usually linked to Ti-bearing minerals like illmenite, the geochemical maps shows more concentration in the NE area and low concentration in the southern part of the study area (figure. 7[i]). Aluminum oxide [[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3]] range from (0.832%-5.538%) with a mean value of 3.2318% (Tables 1 [a-b]); Its concentration on the geochemical map is in the NE area of the study area (Fig 7[ii]). Sodium oxide [[Na.sub.2]O] range from (0.0013%-0.010%) with a mean value of 0.0083%, the geochemical map of [[Na.sub.2]O] shows that it is more concentrated in the Eastern portion of the study area (Figure. 7[iii]). Pottasium oxide [[K.sub.2]O] range from (0.096%-0.409%). [K.sub.2]O in all location are low in the study area with an average mean value of (0.2301%) (Tables 1[a-b]); It is more concentrated in the NE of the study area and in other areas of the map (Figure. 6[ii]). The Line diagram show the distribution of major oxides composition within the Ijero study area with [[Na.sub.2]O] having its highest concentration at Location 2 of the study area, [MgO] have its highest concentration at Location 3 of the study area, [[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3]] have its highest concentration at Location 9, Potassium oxide [[K.sub.2]O] have its highest concentration at Location 2, [Ti[O.sub.2]] have its highest concentration at Location 9 while [[Fe.sub.2][O.sub.3]] have its highest concentration at Location 8 respectively (Figure 8 [a-f]). There is a very strong correlation between Ti-Fe-Mg, Al-Fe, K-Fe-Mg-Ti-Al with 'r' values 0.785, 0.750, 0.862, 0.749, 0.945, 0.780, 0.704 respectively, indicating that they are governed by the same geochemical factors and are from the same source[Table. 1c and Figure. 8 (h)], in addition, it was also noticed that there is a strong correlation between, Al-Mg-Ti, Mg-Fe with 'r' values of 0.562, 0.637,0.647 respectively, which is indicative of the same origin and are controlled by the same geochemical factors. The analytical results for the trace element geochemistry of the study area are presented in the (Table. 2 [a-b]). Table. 2a, shows the trace elements concentrations in stream sediments and soils of Ijero study area, Table. 2b, shows the statistical summary of the trace element concentration in stream sediments and soil of the study area with respect to their average shale content respectively. from the analytical data and various statistical plots, Molybdenum [Mo] has concentrations that range from 0.16ppm-2.10ppm, with an average mean value of 0.76ppm. Cupper [Cu] has concentrations that range from 22.14ppm-98.33ppm and has the highest concentration value at Location 10, with an average mean value of 48.89ppm (Figure. 10a). Lead [Pb] range in concentration from 9.30ppm-67.33 ppm with an average value of 26.20ppm, the highest concentration value for lead was found at Location 2 of the study area. Zinc [Zn] also have values that range from 25.30ppm-203ppm with an average value of 74.58ppm in the study area. Nickel [Ni] has concentration value that range from 6.30ppm-25.00ppm with an average value of 15.75ppm in addition to this, Cobalt [Co] has values that range from 6.80ppm-30.20ppm with an average of 17.64ppm. Manganese [Mn] show a range in concentration from 311.00ppm-3269.00ppm with an average value of 1063.20ppm, and the highest value of this element was found at the Location 3 of the Ijero study area (Figure 10a). Arsenic [As], Strontium [Sr], Vanadium [V], Zircon [Zr] and Yttrium [Y] has average mean values of 2.00ppm, 21.95ppm, 66.50ppm, 1.79 ppm and 10.14ppm respectively. Chromium [Cr] also range from 20.30ppm-76.70ppm, with an average value of 47.70ppm while Rubidium [Rb] range from 13.20ppm 86.60ppm with an average of 40.88ppm and the highest concentration of this element was found at the Location 9 of the study area. The 2D and 3D geochemical maps of [Mo], [Cu], [Pb], [Zn], [Ni], [Co],[Mn], [Ar], [Sr], [V], [Zr], [Y], [Cr] and [Rb] are shown in (Figures. 9[a-e]). A very strong correlation exist between the following elements Zn-Pb, Co-Ni, Mn-Ni-Co, V-Cu-Ni-Co, Cr-Cu-Ni-Co-V, Rb-Ni-Co-V, Zr-Mo, Be-As with'r' values of 0.967, 0.961, 0.772, 0.704, 0.820, 0.912, 0.867, 0.859, 0.891, 0.827, 0.923, 0.867, 0.927, 0.790, 0.795, 0.874 respectively, indicating that they are governed by the same geochemical factors and are from the source (Table 3a). Also Pb-Mo, Ni-Cu, Co-Co, Sr-Pb, V-Mn, Cr-Mo-Zr-Mn, Rb-Mn-Cr, Zr-As-V-Cr, Y-Ni-Co-V-Rb, Be-Ni-V-Rb with 'r' values of 0.616, 0.697, 0.634, 0.523, 0.580, 0.611, 0.516, 0.692, 0.626, 0.535, 0.568,0.511, 0.641, 0.577, 0.686, 0.545, 0.588, 0.684, respectively shows strong correlation indicative of common origin (Figure. 10b). The determination of the environmental implication of trace element distribution in stream sediment of the Ijero study area was achieved using the following geochemical parameters: (i) Metal ratio (ii) Geo- accumulation index (iii) Cumulative metal enrichment (iv) Contamination factor and degree of contamination. [i]: Metal ratio is usually expressed with respect to average shale content to qualify the degree of pollution (Forstner and Wittman 1983). The computed values of metal ratio for selected trace elements within the study area is shown in (Table. 3b), while (figure 10c) shows the bar chart representing metal ratio of trace element in the study area. It is calculated thus;

Cn/Cb

Where Cn--obtained concentration in (ppm)

Cb--Average shale concentration in (ppm).

The metal ratio of the selected trace element within the study area is as follows: Ni, As, Sr, V, Zr, Y have values less than1 in all locations, which means that there is depletion of these elements in the study area. Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Mn, Cr, Rb and Be have values that are greater than 1 which means there is an enrichment of these elements in the study area.

[ii] : Geo-accumulation Index (Igeo) was originally defined by Muller (1969) for metal concentrations in the <2[micro]m fraction and developed for the global standard shale values which is expressed as It is expressed as: (Igeo= log2(Cn/1.5*Bn)

Where Cn= measured concentration of the element

Bn=Geochemical background value

1.5= a constant allowed for natural fluctuation in the contents of a given substance in the environment and very small anthropogenic influences.

There are six classes of geo-accumulation index these are shown in (Table. 3c) while (Table. 3d) show the Geo- accumulating index of selected trace element in Stream Sediment and soils of the study area. From the box plot (figure. 10d), the stream sediments of the study area falls into the class of uncontaminated to moderately contaminated with respect to Molybdenum, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Nickel, Cobalt, Manganese, Arsenic, Strontium, Vanadium, Chromium, Rubidium, Zirconium, Yttrium and Beryllium

[iii]. Cumulative metal enrichment is the cumulative representation of elements in stream sediments of the study area. It was calculated for five (5) elements (Copper, Lead, Zinc, Nickel, Chromium) and for each of the element, the average shale is brought back to 100 making it a total of 500 for the five (5) elements in each sample representing the cumulative effect of trace elements introduced into the stream sediments. The computed result is presented in (Table. 3e) while (figure. 10e) shows the bar chart of the cumulative effect of the five (5) elements. Location 2 has the highest level of trace elemental input with a value of 0.83, while location 1 has the least cumulative enrichment with a value of 0.19.

[iv]: Contamination factor and degree of contamination is the assessment of sediment contamination carried out with a view of using the contamination factor and degree of contamination parameters (Table. 3f). This enables an assessment of sediment through reference of the concentration of the surface to background values or average shale content. [9].

The formular is given thus;

Cf'= [C.sup.0]-1/Mn

Where [C.sup.0]-1 is the obtained mean concentration in (ppm) values

Mn is the average shale content of the elements.

The contamination factor is a single element index. The sum of the contamination factors for all elements examined represents the degree of contamination of the environment and four classes are recognized (Table. 3f). Contamination degree is the sum total of all contamination factors of all metals examined. It gives the overall stream sediment contamination. Based on the contamination factor (Cf), the stream sediments and soils of the Ijero study area (figure. 10f) has low contamination factor (Cf<1) indicating low contamination with respect to : Mo, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, As, Sr, V, Cr, Rb, Zr, Y; also moderate contamination factor (1<Cf<6) was noticed indicating moderate contamination with respect to [Pb] and [Mn]. The degree of contamination for the mean elemental concentration in the stream sediment is 8.75, which falls in the class 8<Cdeg<16, (Moderate degree of contamination) it is observed that (Zn) contributed most to the overall degree of contamination index (figure. 10 g) with a value of 53.8, Mn-51.4, Cu-39.9, Co-36.2, Zn-33.7, Rb-33.3, Be-25.9, V-20.9, Cr-19.3, Mo-15.6, Y11.5, As-8.2, Ni-7.8, Sr-2.0, Zr -0.37.

Conclusion:

The geology of the area mapped consist of three rock types namely banded gneiss and granite gneiss with pegmatite intruding into the older lithologies of rock deposits within the Ijero study area, thin section studies reveals quartz, plagioclase, microcline, biotite, and opaque minerals as the main mineral constituents. From the correlation matrix of major elements, a strong correlation exist between Ti-Fe-Mg, Al-Fe, K-Fe-Mg-Ti-Al with 'r' values 0.785, 0.750, 0.862, 0.749, 0.945, 0.780, 0.704 respectively which shows a very strong correlation indicating that they are governed by the same geochemical factors and are from the same source, an appraisal of the correlation matrix of trace elements shows that a very strong correlation exist between Zn-Pb, Co-Ni, Mn-Ni-Co, V-Cu-Ni-Co, Cr-Cu-Ni-Co-V, Rb-Ni-Co-V, Zr-Mo, Be-As with 'r' values of 0.967, 0.961, 0.772, 0.704, 0.820,0.912, 0.867, 0.859, 0.891, 0.827, 0.923, 0.867, 0.927, 0.790, 0.795, 0.874 respectively which indicates that they are governed by the same geochemical factors and are from the source. Also elements, Pb-Mo, Ni-Cu, Co-Co, Sr-Pb, V-Mn, Cr-Mo-Zr-Mn, Rb-Mn-Cr, Zr-As-V-Cr, Y-Ni-Co-V-Rb, Be-Ni-V-Rb with 'r' values of 0.616, 0.697, 0.634, 0.523, 0.580, 0.611, 0.516, 0.692, 0.626, 0.535, 0.568, 0.511, 0.641, 0.577, 0.686, 0.545, 0.588, 0.684, respectively shows strong correlation indicative of common origin. It could be suggested that the element distribution patterns and chemical composition of stream sediments and soils of Ijero Ekiti area is greatly influenced by the local geology of the area. Base on the result obtained from environmental geology, the sediments has low contamination factor (Cf<1) indicating low contamination with respect to [Mo], [Cu], [Zn], [Ni], [Co], [As], [Sr], [V], [Cr], [Rb], [Zr], [Y], also moderate contamination factor (1<Cf<6) was noticed indicating moderate contamination with respect to [Pb] and [Mn]. The degree of contamination for the mean elemental concentration in the stream sediment is 8.75, which falls in the class 8<Cdeg<16, (Moderate degree of contamination) it was observed that (Zn) contributed most to the overall degree of contamination index. The result has shown a moderate level of pollution and contamination within the study area. It is therefore suggested that the area should be place under close monitoring and further geochemical research be conducted in the area to determine future rise in contamination level as a result of un-regulated mining activities going on in this environment which can pose a threat to the healthy living of the inhabitants of the area.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 25 April 2014

Received in revised form 20 May

2014

Accepted 25 May 2014

Available online 22 June 2014

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors acknowledge the assistance of Mr Mafoluku, chief technologist of the Department of Geology University of Ibadan for his cooperation during the production of the thin section slides for petro graphic studies, in addition Dr Okunlola Olugbenga of the Department of Geology University of Ibadan is also highly appreciated for his numerous support

REFERENCES

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[2] Akintola, A.I, A.O. Olorunfemi, S.I. Bankole, S.J. Omotoye and B.O. Ajayi, 2013.Petrography and Geochemical Evaluation of Major and Trace Elements Concentrations in the Stream Sediments of Itagunmodi and its Environs, Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 3(4): 1-24.

[3] Akintola, A.I., N.O. Adebisi, P.R. Ikhane, S.I. Bankole and F. Olaleye, 2014a. Geology and Geochemical Assessment of Metal Contamination of Stream Sediments at Igun and Its Environs, Ilesha Area South Western Nigeria. Journal of Geography and Geology Vol. 6, (1) pp. 14-27 published by Canadian Center of Science and Education.

[4] Akintola, A.I., P.R. Ikhane, S.I. Bankole and E. Lawal, 2014b. Petro Chemistry of Major and Trace Elements Concentrations in the Stream Sediments of Awo Area and its Environs, Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth science. Vol 4, No. 3, 89-105 Published by International Institute for Science, Technology and Education

[5] Ajayi, S.O., C. Mombeshora, O. Osibanjo, 1990. Pollution studies on Nigerian rivers: The onset of lead pollution of surface waters in Ibadan. International Journal on Environmental science, 9: 81-92

[6] Black, R., 1980. Precambrian of west Africa Episode, 4: 3-8.

[7] Forstner, U and G. wittman, 1983. Metal pollution in the aquatic environment. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. pp: 484.

[8] Gibbs, A., R. Bruce, C. George, A. Bacuta jr, W. Robert, A. Kay, K. Allan, 1977. Platinum--group element abundance distribution in chromite deposits of the Acoje block, Zambales Ophiolite complex, Philippines. Journal of geochemical exploration., 37(1): 113-145.

[9] Hakanson, L., 1980. An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control. A sedimentological approach. Water Resources, 28: 975-1001.

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[13] Tijani, M.N., K. Jinno and Y. Hiroshiro, 2004. Environmental impact of Heavy metal distribution in water and sediments of Ogunpa River Ibadan Area, southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology, 40(1): 73-83.

(1) Akintola A.I, (2) Bankole S.I, (1) Ikhane P.R And (1) Salami O.O

(1) Department Of Earth Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Nigeria.

(2) Geosciences Department University Of Lagos, Akoka Lagos, Nigeria.

Corresponding Author: Akintola A. I, Department of Earth Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Nigeria. Tel:+2348033511485. E-mail: busayoakins@yahoo.com / a.i.akintola@student.utwente.nl

Table 1a: Major oxides composition of stream sediments
in the study area (%).

Locations    [Fe.sub.2]   [P.sub.2]      MgO%          Ti[O.sub.2]%
             [O.sub.3]%   [O.sub.5]%

L1           1.62         0.083          0.132         0.058
L2           6.84         0.374          0.429         0.139
L3           6.65         0.186          0.512         0.142
L4           4.16         0.126          0.215         0.068
L5           5.25         0.117          0.165         0.108
L6           2.98         0.064          0.297         0.132
L7           3.16         0.112          0.281         0.082
L8           8.61         0.121          0.363         0.222
L9           6.87         0.089          0.479         0.207
L10          5.25         0.101          0.149         0.067

Locations    [Al.sub.2]   [Na.sub.2]O%   [K.sub.2]O%
             [O.sub.3]%

L1           0.832        0.010          0.096
L2           4.498        0.017          0.409
L3           3.912        0.0067         0.349
L4           1.928        0.0094         0.145
L5           1.625        0.0067         0.096
L6           1.436        0.0067         0.193
L7           2.174        0.0067         0.181
L8           5.538        0.0013         0.325
L9           5.216        0.0107         0.374
L10          5.159        0.0080         0.133

Table 1b: summary of major oxides composition in stream sediments.

Element/Oxides         Number   Minimum     Maximum

[Fe.sub.2][O.sub.3]    10       1.62        8.61
[P.sub.2][O.sub.5]     10       0.06        0.37
MgO                    10       0.30        10
Ti[O.sub.2]            10       0.06        0.22
[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3]    10       0.83        5.54
[Na.sub.2]O            10       0.008       0.02
[K.sub.2]O             10       0.10        0.41

Element/Oxides         Mean     Std.        Ranges(%)
                                Deviation

[Fe.sub.2][O.sub.3]    5.1390   2.16448     6.99
[P.sub.2][O.sub.5]     0.1373   0.08933     0.31
MgO                    0.13     0.13920     0.38
Ti[O.sub.2]            0.1225   0.05759     0.16
[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3]    3.2318   1.80801     4.71
[Na.sub.2]O            0.0083   0.00401     0.02
[K.sub.2]O             0.2301   0.12123     0.31

Table 1c: Correlation matrix for major oxides

Element                 [Fe.sub.2]     [P.sub.2]     MgO%
                        [O.sub.3]%     [O.sub.5]%

[Fe.sub.2][O.sub.3]%    1
[P.sub.2][O.sub.5]%     0.425          1
MgO%                    0.647          0.448         1
Ti[O.sub.2]%            0.786          0.128         0.751
[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3]%    0.862          0.320         0.562
[Na.sub.2]O%            -0.108         0.644         0.137
[K.sub.2]O%             0.749          0.596         0.945

Element                 Ti[O.sub.2]%   [Al.sub.2]
                                       [O.sub.3]%

[Fe.sub.2][O.sub.3]%
[P.sub.2][O.sub.5]%
MgO%
Ti[O.sub.2]%            1
[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3]%    0.640          1
[Na.sub.2]O%            -0.222         -0.006
[K.sub.2]O%             0.782          0.705

Element                 [Na.sub.2]O%   [k.sub.2]O%

[Fe.sub.2][O.sub.3]%
[P.sub.2][O.sub.5]%
MgO%
Ti[O.sub.2]%
[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3]%
[Na.sub.2]O%            1
[K.sub.2]O%             0.253          1

Table 2a: Trace elements concentration in stream sediment
and soil samples.

Mo     Cu      Pb      Zn      Ni     Co     Mn      As

PPM    PPM     PPM     PPM     PPM    PPM    PPM     PPM

0.16   28.16   9.3     32.2    6.3    6.8    311     0.2
0.72   58.77   67.33   203.2   23.1   24.4   1246    1.5
1      51.81   29.73   89.3    24.9   24.5   3269    2
0.3    29.05   14.09   52      12.1   14.5   517     1
2.01   51.79   58.03   132.6   8.8    10.6   564     0.4
0.37   58.85   14.25   41.4    11.3   13.3   504     0.3
0.34   22.14   16.85   41.6    9.4    14.8   763     0.3
1.12   98.33   19.38   72.3    25     25.6   1295    3.6
0.83   59.07   19.29   55.9    24.4   30.2   1537    2.3
0.75   30.99   13.79   25.3    12.2   11.7   626     8.4

Mo     Sr      V       Cr      Rb     Zr     Y       Be

PPM    PPM     PPM     PPM     PPM    PPM    PPM     PPM

0.16   8.9     28      20.3    13.2   0.8    4.57    0.4
0.72   31.8    95      61.1    51.4   1.8    11.91   1.6
1      26.3    84      69.6    56.1   2.2    10.22   2.1
0.3    12.2    31      31      32.2   1.1    6.76    2.1
2.01   28.7    57      53      14     2.6    9.4     0.5
0.37   39.2    44      41      23     1.5    6.63    0.6
0.34   22      37      24.4    35.6   1.3    15.16   1.1
1.12   15.5    121     76.7    55.3   2.3    12.06   3.3
0.83   23.1    104     64.6    86.6   1.6    14.17   3.1
0.75   11.8    64      35.3    41.4   2.7    10.49   4.2

Table 2b: Summary of trace elements concentration in stream sediment
and soil samples

Elements   N    Minimum   Maximum   Mean        Std.        Ranges
                                                Deviation

Mo         10   0.16      2.01      0.7600      0.54328     1.85
Cu         10   22.14     98.33     48.8960     22.65938    76.19
Pb         10   9.30      67.33     26.2040     20.07774    58.03
Zn         10   25.30     203.20    74.5800     55.17978    177.9
Ni         10   6.30      25.00     15.7500     7.61420     18.7
Co         10   6.80      30.20     17.6400     7.83854     23.4
Mn         10   311.00    3269.00   1063.2000   874.61075   2958
As         10   0.20      8.40      2.0000      2.50422     8.2
Sr         10   8.90      39.20     21.9500     9.83410     30.3
V          10   28.00     121.00    66.5000     32.84729    93
Cr         10   20.30     76.70     47.7000     19.95846    56.4
Rb         10   13.20     86.60     40.8800     22.49068    73.4
Zr         10   0.80      2.70      1.7900      0.64369     1.9
Y          10   4.57      15.16     10.1370     3.39454     10.59
Be         10   0.40      4.20      1.9000      1.30809     3.8

Table 3a: Correlation matrix of trace elements in soil
samples and stream sediments.

     Mo      Cu      Pb       Zn       Ni

Mo   1
Cu   0.465   1
Pb   0.616   0.255   1
Zn   0.489   0.350   0.967    1
Ni   0.240   0.697   0.255    0.399    1
Co   0.188   0.634   0.219    0.352    0.961
Mn   0.249   0.335   0.182    0.258    0.772
As   0.120   0.086   -0.188   -0.217   0.240
Sr   0.260   0.318   0.523    0.495    0.198
V    0.461   0.820   0.330    0.418    0.912
Cr   0.611   0.859   0.444    0.516    0.891
Rb   0.071   0.425   0.011    0.111    0.867
Zr   0.795   0.419   0.407    0.298    0.325
Y    0.250   0.229   0.219    0.209    0.511
Be   0.082   0.260   -0.240   -0.196   0.545

     Co      Mn      As       Sr       V

Mo
Cu
Pb
Zn
Ni
Co   1
Mn   0.704   1
As   0.120   0.090   1
Sr   0.244   0.220   -0.392   1
V    0.867   0.580   0.374    0.161    1
Cr   0.827   0.692   0.164    0.354    0.923
Rb   0.927   0.626   0.347    0.040    0.790
Zr   0.198   0.308   0.626    0.162    0.535
Y    0.641   0.358   0.231    0.156    0.577
Be   0.491   0.287   0.874    -0.409   0.588

     Cr      Rb      Zr       Y        Be

Mo
Cu
Pb
Zn
Ni
Co
Mn
As
Sr
V
Cr   1
Rb   0.659   1
Zr   0.568   0.191   1
Y    0.421   0.686   0.325    1
Be   0.385   0.684   0.480    0.427    1

Table 3b: Metal Ratio of Trace Element in the Study Area

Sample      Mo      Cu     Pb      Zn
Location

L1          0.08    0.56   0.46    0.35
L2          0.36    1.17   3.36    2.25
L3          0.5     1.03   1.48    0.99
L4          0.15    0.58   0.70    0.57
L5          1.005   1.03   2.90    1.47
L6          0.18    1.17   0.71    0.46
L7          0.17    0.44   0.84    0.46
L8          0.56    1.96   0.96    0.80
L9          0.41    1.18   0.96    0.62
L10         0.37    0.61   0.68    0.28

Sample      Ni      Co     Mn      As
Location

L1          0.07    0.34   0.36    0.02
L2          0.28    1.22   1.46    0.15
L3          0.31    1.22   3.84    0.2
L4          0.15    0.72   0.60    0.1
L5          0.11    0.53   0.66    0.04
L6          0.14    0.66   0.59    0.03
L7          0.11    0.74   0.89    0.03
L8          0.31    1.28   1.52    0.36
L9          0.30    1.51   1.80    0.23
L10         0.15    0.58   0.73    0.84

Sample      Sr      V      Cr      Rb
Location

L1          0.02    0.21   .0.20   0.26
L2          0.07    0.73   0.61    0.51
L3          0.06    0.64   0.69    0.64
L4          0.03    0.23   0.31    0.28
L5          0.07    0.43   0.57    0.28
L6          0.09    0.33   0.44    0.46
L7          0.05    0.28   0.37    0.71
L8          0.038   0.93   1.21    1.10
L9          0.057   0.8    1.04    1.73
L10         0.02    0.49   0.64    0.82

Sample      Zr      Y      Be
Location

L1          0.004   0.13   0.13
L2          0.01    0.34   0.53
L3          0.02    0.29   0.7
L4          0.006   0.19   0.7
L5          0.014   0.26   0.16
L6          0.008   0.18   0.2
L7          0.007   0.43   0.36
L8          0.012   0.34   1.1
L9          0.008   0.40   1.03
L10         0.01    0.29   1.4

Table 3c: Geo-accumlation index classes

CLASSES   RANGES     INDICATION/WATER QUALITTY

0         Igeo<o     Practically uncontaminated
1         0<Igeo<1   Uncontaminated to moderately contaminated
2         1<Igeo<2   Moderately contaminated
3         2<Igeo<3   Moderately to heavily contaminated
4         3<Igeo<4   Heavily contaminated
5         4<Igeo<5   Heavily to extremely contaminated
6         5<Igeo<    Extremely

Table 3d: Geo-accumulation index of Trace Elements in Stream
Sediments and soils of the study area.

Sample     Mo       Cu      Pb      Zn
Location

L1         0.016    0.11    0.09    0.07
L2         0.072    0.23    0.67    0.45
L3         0.100    0.20    0.29    0.19
L4         0.030    0.11    0.14    0.12
L5         0.201    0.23    0.58    0.29
L6         0.037    0.57    0.14    0.09
L7         0.034    0.67    0.16    0.09
L8         0.11     0.07    0.19    0.16
L9         0.083    0.07    0.19    0.12
L10        0.075    0.05    0.13    0.05

Sample     Ni       Co      Mn      As
Location

L1         0.015    0.068   0.073   0.004
L2         0.057    0.24    0.29    0.03
L3         0.062    0.24    0.76    0.04
L4         0.030    0.14    0.12    0.02
L5         0.022    0.10    0.13    0.008
L6         0.028    0.13    0.11    0.006
L7         0.023    0.14    0.18    0.006
L8         0.062    0.25    0.30    0.007
L9         0.061    0.30    0.36    0.004
L10        0.030    0.111   0.14    0.16

Sample     Sr       V       Cr      Rb
Location

L1         0.004    0.04    0.04    0.05
L2         0.015    0.14    0.12    0.20
L3         0.013    0.12    0.13    0.22
L4         0.006    0.04    0.06    0.12
L5         0.014    0.08    0.10    0.05
L6         0.019    0.06    0.08    0.09
L7         0.011    0.05    0.04    0.14
L8         0.007    0.18    0.15    0.22
L9         0.011    0.16    0.12    0.34
L10        0.005    0.09    0.07    0.16

Sample     Zr       Y       Be
Location

L1         0.0008   0.002   0.026
L2         0.0020   0.068   0.107
L3         0.0024   0.058   0.140
L4         0.0012   0.038   0.140
L5         0.0028   0.053   0.033
L6         0.0016   0.038   0.040
L7         0.0014   0.086   0.073
L8         0.0025   0.069   0.220
L9         0.0078   0.081   0.207
L10        0.0030   0.060   0.280

Table 3e: Cumulative metal enrichment

Location   Total Conc. (%)  Background value   Cumulative metal
                                               enrichment

L1         96.26            500                0.19
L2         413.5            500                0.83
L3         265.34           500                0.53
L4         138.24           500                0.28
L5         304.22           500                0.61
L6         166.8            500                0.33
L7         114.39           500                0.22
L8         291.7            500                0.58
L9         223.26           500                0.45
L10        117.58           500                0.24

Table 3f: Descriptive classes of contamination
factor (Hakanson, 1980)

Class    Indication

Cf<1     Low contamination factor
1<Cf<3   Moderate contamination factor
3<Cf<6   Considerable contamination factor
6<Cf     Very high contamination factor

Table 3g: Degree of contamination of trace elements.

Elements        Mean            Average
                                Shale (ppm)

Mo              0.7600          2
Cu              48.8960         50
Pb              26.2040         20
Zn              74.5800         90
Ni              15.7500         80
Co              17.6400         20
Mn              1063.2000       850
As              2.000           10
Sr              21.9500         400
V               66.5000         130
Cr              47.7000         100
Rb              40.8800         50
Zr              1.7900          180
TY              10.1370         35
Be              1.9000          3
Degree of
contamination
index

Elements        Contamination   Overall
                Factor (cf)     degree of (%)
                                Contamination index

Mo              0.38            15.63
Cu              0.97            39.9
Pb              1.31            53.8
Zn              0.82            33.7
Ni              0.19            7.81
Co              0.88            36.2
Mn              1.25            51.4
As              0.2             8.2
Sr              0.05            2.0
V               0.51            20.9
Cr              0.47            19.3
Rb              0.81            33.3
Zr              0.009           0.37
TY              0.28            11.5
Be              0.63            25.9
Degree of       8.75
contamination
index
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Author:Akintola, A.I.; Bankole, S.I.; Ikhane, P.R.; Salami, O.O.
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:6NIGR
Date:Jun 1, 2014
Words:6754
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