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Geological Sciences.

The Comedy of Crystal Lake: Geomorphic Analysis and 3-D Modelling of an Historical Anthropogenic Event. Stacy Leroy Daniels, Benzie Co. River Improvement Co.; Trevor Hobbs, Contour Geographic

Crystal Lake, the 9th largest inland lake in Michigan, was a former embayment of proglacial Lake Algonquin (~11,000 ybp). It experienced a precipitous lowering of ~20 ft in 1873 during an attempt to build a slack-water canal to nearby Lake Michigan to promote settlement and resource development. A temporary dam across an intermittent outlet was washed away during a storm, and 21 miles of new beach was exposed for future development. This epochal event has been recreated using a QL2 LiDAR dataset (MiSAIL) to (1) assess current morphological features, (2) develop dynamic 3-D models of the watershed and surrounding area, and (3) reconstruct the magnitude of the original event. The drop in elevation, the surface area of the lake converted to beach; and the volume of water discharged down the Betsie River have been calculated. The paths of three canal routes have been traced on an overlay of the original 1873 project map and referenced to identified topographic features. Cross-sections of the canals have also been developed to facilitate comparisons of the most feasible route 144 years after the occurrence of this epochal event.

Genetic Origin and Diagenetic Transformation of Calcite Microcrystal Textures in Limestones. Mohammed Hashim and Steve Kaczmarek, Western Michigan University

Low-magnesium calcite (LMC) microcrystals are ubiquitous in ancient limestones. Previous work demonstrates that microcrystals can be grouped into three major textural classes and that these classes are good predictors of reservoir quality. Despite the numerous published studies, the precise controls on LMC textures are still largely unknown. This study systematically evaluates the physical and chemical factors controlling LMC microtextures through laboratory experiments involving synthetic and natural crystals. Stabilization and dissolution experiments are designed to test various diagenetic models through systematically changing fluid parameters such as temperature and chemical composition, as well as reactant parameters such as minerology, texture, and grain size. Powder x-ray diffraction will be used to determine mineralogy of the solids. Resultant textures will be documented using scanning electron microscopy. Laboratory experiments involve loading solid and fluid reactants into heated reaction vessels. Preliminary results show that LMC products exhibit the same textures observed in nature. Average crystal size was observed to increase with decreasing temperature. Whereas most experiments yield euhedral LMC textures, those with higher fluid Ca/Mg ratios promote more subhedral crystal textures. These findings represent the first comprehensive effort to experimentally evaluate diagenesis of LMC microtextures. This study contributes to the understanding of the origin and distribution of limestone microtextures and will result in more accurate porosity.

Effect of Pathogens on a Wooded Dune Environment. Matt Wierenga, Calvin College

Invasive insects and pathogens have long plagued North American forests, resulting in loss of native species and geomorphological change. This study evaluates the effects of these invaders on the wooded dunes of P.J. Hoffmaster State Park, Michigan and possible effects this invasion may have on dune stability and ecology. Tree density, composition, and girth were recorded across three visits utilizing point-quarter vegetation transects and large vegetation quadrats paired with wind measurements. American Beeches (Fagus granifolia), Red Oaks (Quercus rubra), and Sugar Maples (Acer saccharum) constituted a majority of tree cover with Hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis) occurring in concentrated groups. Wind speed was inversely correlated with tree density which generally increased with distance from the active dune slopes. There was no evidence of pathogenic infection found during fieldwork, suggesting that no infection has spread throughout the park as far as the coast. Due to the prevalence of Red Oak, oak wilt and its effect on dune stability may be a serious concern in the near future. The groupings of Hemlock may hinder the rapid spread of the Woolly Adelgid by limiting the contact between individuals.

Chronology and Sedimentology of Post-Glacial Alluvium within the Imlay Channel. Jonathan N. Luczak, Timothy G. Fisher, and Brian Samsen, University of Toledo

One outlet for glacial Lake Maumee is the Imlay channel in NE Lapeer County, Michigan that drained ancestral Lake Erie westward into the Lake Michigan basin. The channel area is poorly understood. One radiocarbon age of 13,770 [+ or -] 210 [.sup.14]C yr BP (16.1-17.3 kcal yr BP; 14899) from the Weaver Drain ~6 km NE of the channel divide has been associated with activity in the Imlay channel. Burgis (1970) used topographic maps to determine the elevation of the Imlay channel divide, but her work never considered that the floor of the channel might be buried by post-glacial alluvium. New results, including radiocarbon dates from channel fill consisting of laminated sand and mud and bedded gravelly-sand from vibracores, a cross-section from previously collected geotechnical cores, and geophysical data, suggest a minimum fill-thickness of 12 m was deposited before 10,250 [+ or -] 35 [.sup.14]C yr BP (11.8-12.1 kcal yr BP; OS135589). A strandline associated with Lake Maumee ~6.5 km south of the divide indicates the channel-bottom elevation extends more than 25 in below the Maumee water planes, which has implications for the duration and occupation history of the channel.

Dune Distribution, Classification, and Sand Drift Potential along the North American Great Lakes. Ian Gorgerson, Hope College

State and provincial databases combined with satellite images were used to classify and map dunes along the 15,700 km shoreline of the Great Lakes. Data from airport or NOAA meteorological stations were used to construct Fryberger and Dean (1979) sand drift potential diagrams for 41 coastal locations. Prevailing winds are from the southwest. However, most strong wind events are associated with extratropical cyclones. Wind directions rotate as cyclones pass through the region, often departing from the prevailing direction. High onshore drift potential occurs where onshore winds are amplified by long fetch, even along shores that do not face west. Dune complexes were divided into two basically different types. Foredune plain complexes (strand plain complexes) consist of parallel relict foredune ridges on sedimentary platforms accumulating in embayments, cuspate forelands, spits, and bars. These dune ridges mark the migration of shorelines into the lakes and are scattered throughout the region, relatively independently of the orientation of shores with respect to directions of highest sand drift potential. Transgressive dune complexes migrate inland over older geomorphic surfaces and occur where the orientation of the coast is perpendicular to directions of high sand drift potential.

Using Drone Acquired Remote Sensing to Map Sensitivity to Sand Mobility in Coastal Dunes. Max Huffman, Hope College

Dune mobility can threaten human infrastructure yet is essential to maintaining ecological diversity in coastal dunes. We are developing a technique for quantifying and mapping relative tendencies for surfaces in dunes to become or remain mobile. Our basic data are 1 [cm.sup.2]/pixel images obtained for red, green, and near-infrared spectral bands during a drone flight over a 1000 m x 400 m open dune area at Saugatuck Harbor Natural Area. The difference between the near infrared and the red intensities is sensitive to the presence of vegetation, and we used this to map the areas with little or no vegetation (bare patches). The tendency for a bare patch to develop into a migrating blowout depends on both its size and its elongation relative to the directions of sand transporting winds. We used a sliding window convolution to weigh each of these factors in mapping sensitivity to sand mobility. The orientation of the slope and the position of a patch on the slope also influence sensitivity to sand mobility. Topographical information will be collected via drone flights and these factors will be added to our analyses to create more realistic sensitivity to sand mobility, which we will then test with field observations over the next two years.

Measuring Wind Flow and Sand Transport in the Lee of a Large Parabolic Dune. Brian Yurk, Brian Bodenbender, Suzanne DeVries-Zimmerman, and Ed Hansen, Hope College

During high wind events, rotating eddies are visible carrying sand on lee slopes of large coastal dunes. After storms, sand is frequently visible on leaf litter or snow up to hundreds of meters past the lee slope. During several storms in autumn 2017 we measured wind patterns and sand transport in the lee of a 40 meter high dune southwest of Holland, Michigan. Two ultrasonic anemometers capable of measuring three-dimensional windflow were placed on the lee slope in a position to intersect turbulent eddies while cup anemometers measured wind at the crest. Transient sediment flux was measured with orthogonal sets of miniphones positioned to intercept sand moving vertically up, vertically down, and horizontally along the slope during the passage of eddies. The passage of eddies was recorded using a video camera. The net amount of sand settling out of the air was measured with a system of cups and funnels on poles set both on and beyond the lee slope. Grainfall in a 2-day wind event ranged from 0.640 g/[cm.sup.2] at the toe of the lee slope to 0.097 g/[cm.sup.2] 165 m downwind from the lee slope. We will continue with data analysis throughout the winter and spring.

Investigation of Sediment Cells in a Michigan Dune System. Jesse Dillon, Robin Gelderloos, Kathryn Mollison, and Kaitlyn Westra, Calvin College

Determining the sources and sinks of sediments in a coastal system is an important part of calculating sediment budgets, but this analysis has not been extended from the shoreline into Michigan dune systems. Our study explores the patterns of sediment movement on a parabolic dune system in P.J. Hoffmaster State Park to identify cells of sediment movement. We made predictions of erosion, deposition, and stable areas based on the presence of vegetation, spatial patterns and topography, and evidence of sediment disturbance; we mapped our predicted areas using GPS. We measured sand movement over a two-week sample period using erosion pins, and the data were compared to the predicted areas. Two clear cells of sediment movement were suggested by the data: (1) from the beach and scarp to the windward foredune, and (2) from the windward side of the parabolic dune crest to the slipface. In general, predictions were consistent with the collected data. Some anomalies did occur, such as deposition occurring on the windward side of the foredune. Our results indicated erosion areas were easy to predict from the bare sand, but deposition and stable areas were more difficult to predict because of the vegetation.

The Surficial Geology of Leelanau County. Kevin Kincare, Western Michigan University

Leelanau County is located in the northwest lower peninsula of Michigan. The surficial geology of the county is composed entirely of glacial and post-glacial deposits. Bedrock is up to 300 ft below glacial deposits. The dominant unit mapped is a drumlinized diamicton correlated to the Two Rivers glacial advance. That glacial advance also built the Manistee moraine, which is lobate due to being directed into preexisting valleys. The stratigraphy of the moraine coarsens upward with finely laminated lacustrine silt and clay in contact with till at the bottom transitioning upward into thinly laminated fine sand, then to plane bedded, ripple drift, and massive medium sand, overlain by medium to coarse sand, with sand and gravel at the top of the deposit. This is interpreted as a glaciodeltaic deposit. South and east of the moraine is a broad, kettled-outwash plain that becomes more fine away from the ice margin. This plain also contains inset terraces and outliers of older deposits. Glacial and post-glacial lakes reshaped much of the low-lying areas following glacial retreat which allowed lacustrine and shore processes to become active in the area. Wave action and longshore currents extended spits into embayments and initiated the beach-ridge growth process.

Geophysical Investigation of Boundaries and Uplifted Rim Strata of a Possible Impact Crater in Northwest Ohio. Eric Armstrong and Donald Stierman, University of Toledo

We are using geophysical methods to map a circular, ~1 km diameter sediment-filled hole in the Lockport Dolomite of NW Ohio. We think this feature, concealed by about 10 m of till, is an impact crater. Previous electrical resistivity measurements defined the crater edge in the SE, SW, and NW with few constraints in the NE. Recent dipole-dipole resistivity transects and HVSR analyses were used to locate the NE edge. Results agree with previously proposed boundaries based on a circular hole. A water well adjacent to the NW edge encountered shale, consistent with the underlying Rochester and Dayton Formations, 70-80 m above expected elevation based on oil well logs suggesting an uplifted rim. Recent dipole-dipole transects across boundaries reveal a thin (~20 m) dolomite layer near the rim underlain by less resistive material, substantially thinner than the ~100 m of carbonate documented by oil well logs. Moderate resistivity observed beneath the dolomite may represent shale from the Rochester Formation uplifted well above its expected elevation. One transect across the NE boundary reveals thinning dolomite from further outside the anomaly to the rim, suggesting maximum uplift near the edge. Evidence for an uplifted rim provides additional support tor an impact origin.

Evidence of Topographic Steering in a Small Saucer Blowout on Lake Michigan. Issac J. Jacques, Peter N. Duimstra, Nathan E. Hilbrands, Rachel K. Hubka, and Allison M. Lee, Calvin College

Understanding how wind and topography interact to form and develop blowouts is an important topic for both research and management. This study was conducted on a small saucer blowout on the coast of Lake Michigan to understand whether topographic steering of wind occurs and how the blowout responds. The objectives and methods of the study were to (1) map the topography of the blowout with a total station survey, (2) measure wind direction and speed inside and outside of the blowout using anemometers and wind vanes, and (3) measure erosion within the blowout using erosion pins. The saucer blowout has a relief of ten meters and deposition lobes extend to the NNE and ENE. WSW winds within the blowout contrasted with winds measured outside the blowout from the WNW, which suggests topographic steering is likely occurring. Erosion measured in the blowout corresponds with several events recorded in the wind data. While other studies have shown topographic steering occurs on large blowouts, our results indicate topographic steering is also possible on small blowouts.

Humans Alter the Sediment Budget for Beach-Dune Environments in West Michigan. Kei-Wing Wong, Andrew Crago, Caroline Komodore, Ty Nguyen, and Deanna van Dijk, Calvin College

Foredunes and beaches provide recreational opportunities and facilitate sediment storage and transport, but human activities also affect the sediment budget. Human influences on beach-dune sediment budgets are investigated at foredunes in Hoffmaster State Park and North Beach Park in Michigan. At each study area, we compared a human-impacted area with a nearby less-impacted area by measuring physical attributes (dune topography along a transect) and vegetation characteristics (plant height and density measured in random quadrats). Morphological and vegetation characteristics were obtained from field data and aerial photography. Foredunes in heavy-impact areas had steep slopes flattened out and a reduction in vegetation density and height compared to the more natural areas. The impacted areas also had more litter, and more management structures interrupting sand movement (sand fences). Our results suggest that human trampling leads to vegetation loss and amplifies the erosion in the foredune, while temporary physical structures increase the deposition on the heach. Sediment storage amounts in foredunes are significant because the dune is a buffer for extreme events (flooding and storms) and protects nearby physical properties from damage.

Spatial Patterns of Fine-Textured Eolian Sediment in the Lee of Large Dunes. Leslie Grove, Randall Schaetzl, Sarah Thomas, and Kara Komoto, Michigan State University

The goal of this study, done as part of a graduate seminar at Michigan State University, was to explore the spatial distribution and textural characteristics of silty-sandy eolian deposits in the lee of large dunes in the central Upper Peninsula. Innumerable small sand dunes occur on the wet, sandy floor of Glacial Lake Algonquin. Adjacent to bedrock uplands near Germfask, these dunes become considerably larger, probably due to agglomeration and accretion over time. Downwind, i.e., to the south and east, of these large dunes, thin deposits of silty-sandy sediment are widespread on the low uplands. Four large dunes were identified, and samples in their lee were examined for thickness and grain size characteristics. Soil maps, along with regression analyses and spatial statistics of these data, provide strong evidence of eolian transport from the northwest. In the immediate lee of the dunes, the eolian sediment is rich in very fine sands, becoming siltier with distance. This study, the first to examine Holocene loess in the upper Midwest, provides insight into paleoclimate and provides evidence for strong northwesterly winds. Our data also illustrate the effect of dune systems on eolian deposition downwind.

Gegenwalle Ridges: An Ecohydrological Chronosequence in Morfa Dyffryn, Wales, United Kingdom. Kathleen Fast, Suzanne DeVries-Zimmerman, Kaitlyn Caltrider, and Brian Bodenbender, Hope College

We investigated the ecohydrology of a series of gegenwalle ridges and swales at Morfa Dyffryn National Nature Reserve, Wales, United Kingdom. Secondary humid slacks or interdunal wetlands have developed in the swales, creating a chronosequence. Monitoring well data show the highest water levels in the winter months, flooding portions of the slack. Soil cores collected from each ridge along a transect from youngest (ridge 1) to oldest (ridge 6) parallel to the dune axis show the progressive development of an organic-rich horizon beginning in ridge 4. Similar development occurs in the swales beginning in slack 3. We performed vegetation sampling on each ridge/slack along the transect. Bare sand coverage decreases from 75% (ridge 1) to 1% (ridge 6). Ridge vegetation shows a progression from species tolerant of sand burial to those characteristic of fixed dunes. Bare sand coverage in slacks 1 and 2, 90% and 80%, respectively, sharply decreases to 50% in slack 3. The swales show a progression from sparse vegetation to plants tolerant of periodic inundation to vegetation requiring moist conditions. Species diversity in both the ridges and slacks increases from younger to older ridges/slacks.

Impacts of White-Tail Deer on a Lake Michigan Parabolic Dune System. Jennifer A. McClellan, Camilla J. Bjelland, Aidan N. Casillas, Samuel S. Jacobs, Alyssa J. Topping, and Klein D. VerHill, Calvin College

White-tail Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, have a significant impact on environments in North America with many populations over the carrying capacity of the area. This is the case in P.J. Hoffmaster State Park, Michigan, where we investigated a large parabolic dune system to determine where deer have the most impact. We mapped individual tracks, scat and trails with Trimble GPS units, and areas were visually assessed for the impacts of deer. In areas with deer evidence, vegetation quality was noted within quadrats. The foredune had the most presence of deer as shown by scat and tracks going to and from Lake Michigan. Deer tracks on human unmanaged trails suggest that deer use these trails as well as creating their own trails. Vegetation results show deer have not significantly impacted the quality of American beach grass. With the low level of vegetation damage, sand movement has not increased beyond what is characteristic of this type of dune system. While the significant presence of deer is noticed--especially on the foredune--at the moment there is no concern tor the destabilization of the dune system.

Measurement of Alongshore Dune Sediment Budgets and Movement. Maia Madrid, James Byker, Claire C. Costello, and Gabriela R. Lantinga, Calvin College

Studies investigating the relationship of dune interactions with beach sediment budgets along Lake Michigan have been sparse. This study examines the characteristics and sediment exchanges of the foredune-beach system at three locations along the east Lake Michigan coast: Rosy Mound Natural Area, P.J. Hoffmaster State Park, and Muskegon State Park. In November and December 2017, roughly 800 meters of beach in each location were mapped using GPS units; mapped features included the shoreline and beach-foredune boundary. The beach-foredune boundary was delineated into stretches of no, low, medium, and high scarp, and mapped as such. Measurements taken at each beach-foredune section included beach width, scarp height, and scarp slope angle. Results showed that Rosy Mound Natural Area primarily had high scarps, while the two other parks showed a distinct mix of scarp heights. This, along with other measurements, suggests that Rosy Mound is experiencing more dune erosion than the other two study locations, where several cases of wave deposition of sediments onto the foredune were identified. While results varied throughout the three locations, overall more sand was being contributed to the beach from the toredune than the converse.

New Late Woodland Radiocarbon Dates from Artifacts from Sediments in the St. Clair River, Port Huron Michigan. John M. Zawiskie, Cranbrook Institute of Science

Divers recovered an unmodified metabasalt netsinker with intact cordage, basketry and other artifacts during submarine excavation of sediments on the western side of the St. Clair River, south of the Blue Water Bridge (BW-SW site). AMS radiocarbon dating of the netsinker binding (Beta 388175) yielded an age of Cal AD 1020 to 1155 and the basketry (Beta 389163) was dated at Cal AD 1025 to 1190, concordant with the netsinker binding date. A previous radiocarbon date from the Draper Park fishing encampment site in Port Huron (Weston, 1978) was CALPAL calibrated to Cal AD 726+/- 49, while dates from the extensive encampment on the Canadian side at Point Edward range from Cal AD 140 to 660 (Prowse, 2009; O'Neal, 2002). The new dates from the BW-SW site extend the local Woodland period radiocarbon dated range of occupation of the St. Clair fisheries by 3 to 5 centuries, a time coincident with the Medieval Climate Anomaly (950 to 1250 AD) characterized by a 0.3[degrees]C to 0.5[degrees]C warm anomaly (relative to the period 1961-1990) in the Great Lakes region (Mann et al., 2009). This was followed by solar and volcanic induced northern hemisphere cooling (Pages 2K, 2013).

J. W. Goldthwait Joins the Leverett-Taylor Team in Northern Michigan in 1906-07. Diane Baclawski, Michigan State University

In May of 1905, Taylor received a letter from a promising student named James Walter Goldthwait who was working with the Director of the Wisconsin Geological Survey. Goldthwait had been tasked with studying the old shorelines in eastern Wisconsin over the coming summer, and was following up on a report Taylor made in 1893. Taylor responded to Goldthwait's letter with encouragement. Goldthwait spent the summer levelling and correlating beaches and completed a (1907) report for the Survey, and his thesis for Harvard.

Leverett, Taylor, and Goldthwait all shared similar interests in the history of the Great Lakes. In 1907, Leverett and Taylor arranged for Goldthwait to level the beaches on the eastern side of Lake Michigan as part of a USGS investigation under Taylor's direction. On June 5th Goldthwait sends Chamberlin a detailed plan which is approved for an initial amount of $400 for the six-week study beginning in July. Taylor invites Goldthwait and his assistant to use his Mackinac Island cottage as a base of operations as they work to identify the Algonquin and Nipissing beaches and terraces at the Straits and Hessel, and in Emmet, Antrim, Charlevoix, Leelanau, Grand Traverse, Benzie and Manistee Counties.

Changes in Annual Rain, Snow and Temperatures in Michigan--Is Climate Change Evident? Neal S. Turluck and Duane R. Hampton, Western Michigan University

We tested the hypothesis that the effects of climate change on precipitation and snowfall are discernible around Michigan using local data for annual precipitation, snowfall, and average temperature. Weather stations were selected on the lakefront of Michigan's Lower Peninsula, the southern coast of Michigan's Upper Peninsula, and within the interior of the Lower Peninsula. Graphs of annual precipitation, snowfall and temperature versus time in years were plotted, and trendlines were fitted. These data were compiled from data from the National Climactic Data Center (NCDC) and the Michigan Climatologist's Office. Periods of different lengths were compared for some stations: 1940s-2017, 1971-2017, and 1980-2010.

Trends differed by location. For example, at Pellston, 1971-2010, total precipitation decreased markedly while average temperature increased significantly, whereas for 1948-2017, total precipitation decreased not quite as convincingly. Snowfall versus time in Pellston also decreased markedly for 1971-1999, but for 1948-1999 annual snowfall increased slightly. In Manistee, precipitation (1940-2016) and snowfall (1940-1982) increased markedly. In short, it was difficult to discern a consistent overall pattern of climate change using local Michigan data. We will look for patterns relative to proximity to the lakeshore and location on Michigan's west coast versus east coast.
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Title Annotation:Crystal Lake, Michigan; Calcite Microcrystal Textures in Limestones; pathogens on wooded dune environment
Publication:Michigan Academician
Geographic Code:1U3MI
Date:Sep 22, 2018
Words:4080
Previous Article:Geography.
Next Article:Health & Human Services.
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