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Using CARR: Community, Accountability, Relevance, and Reflection to Drive Classroom Instruction. Mark Francek, Central Michigan University

Learn how to incorporate "CARR" to drive instructional practice: C stands for community, A for accountability, R for relevance, and R for reflection. First, I discuss how to promote classroom community and civility. Students need to feel safe to express opinions in cooperative group activities and class discussions. Learn how the creative use of ice breakers, peer review, and service learning, builds class rapport. Second, students need to be held accountable for class learning objectives. Here, I outline varying assessment strategies, ranging from pre-class quizzing employing the "flipped classroom" approach to frequent in-class formative assessment strategies. Next, I outline strategies to improve content relevance. Think back to when you were an undergraduate. What was important to you? Hollywood movies, music, food, sports, exercise, dance, travel, and service would probably rank high. Here, we'll view clips from Titanic and Gravity to illustrate science misconceptions. Learn how rap music, a Snickers bar, body movement, a LeBron dunk, a quick backyard field trip, and a pen pal project can serve as exciting "hooks" to apply class content. Finally, 1 suggest strategies to reflect on the teaching strategies mentioned above. Handouts provided.

Wider Perspectives on Transportation in a Small Michigan City. Barbara Andersen, Central Michigan University

Alternative transportation in small cities and rural regions is more limited than in metropolitan areas. Building upon social justice theory from Rawls' A Theory of Justice and Walzer's Spheres of Justice, this research focuses on transportation access as a common goal of local government, institutions, and social service organizations. Justice, i.e., fairness for all people, in transportation planning is important to understand because transportation serves a basic human need--the ability to travel to work, school, shopping, social events, and medical care. The inclusion of all in the provision of transportation, regardless of disability or income, supports human rights. This research examines the transportation situation in Mount Pleasant, a small Michigan, USA community, and asks key decision-makers, as well as members of underrepresented groups, about their views and experiences with transportation and justice.

Through key informant interviews, this research explores alternative transportation options and transportation justice through an investigation of opinions, attitudes, values, and experiences of users, transportation service providers, local government officials, and organizations serving people with disabilities, older adults, and students. Analysis of ridership data and agency reports supplement interview data and together yield key lessons to inform transportation planning prioritizing the needs of all people for transportation access.

Historic Paths and Future Expectations: The Macroeconomic Impacts of the Offshore Wind Technologies in the UK. Marcello Graziano, Central Michigan University; Patrizio Lecca, JRC Seville; Marta Musso, King's College

Offshore wind power (OSW) plays a key role within the UK strategy for a transition towards a low-carbon economy, offering vast potential for establishing a high-tech manufacturing industry. Previous experiences in the onshore sector (OWP) suggest the UK might fail in fully capturing these macroeconomic benefits. In this work, we investigate the history of UK renewable policies, comparing its national strategy to those of other major OSW-export countries. Through the use of a numerical general equilibrium model, we quantify the macroeconomic impacts under three scenarios: a baseline, which relies on previous estimates and foresees limited local content; a 'contamination' scenario, where the UK content reaches the same levels of OWP; and a 'non-myopic' scenario, where investors expect governmental support to decrease or disappear, replicating a common path of past renewable policies. We identify the UK as a FDI-oriented country. Our results suggest that increasing the share of locally-sourced capital goods in OSP to OWP-level could generate larger income and employment effects in the UK economy. We find that under forward-looking investors the economic benefits are significantly lower than the case of myopic agents. Our results show an inherent conflict with stated purposes of UK policy for OSW.

Variable Performance of the Farm Sectors of East and West China: 2005-2015. Gregory Veeck, Western Michigan University

The inflation-adjusted output value of China's agricultural sector doubled in the 26 years from 1952 to 1978. After economic reforms were instituted in the 1980s, production value increased an astounding 56-fold from 1980 to 2015. On the eve of reform in 1978, farming, forestry, and husbandry accounted for 67.6% of the nation's workforce but this declined to only 28.06% by 2016. Simultaneously, per capita income increased 60-fold as labor moved from the sector and sector productivity increased dramatically. However, these increases in production, yields, and farm-sourced incomes have not been evenly distributed throughout the nation. This research, based on county-scale archived data for 2005, 2010, and 2015, will use standard measures such as gross crop production, yield, crop value and input use to compare and contrast how the farm sector has fared during this time period for a wealthy east coast province (Jiangsu) and a poorer interior province (Gansu). Production in wealthy Jiangsu has increasingly diversified as farmers adjust investments to meet demands of more-profitable urban markets for fruit and vegetables, fish, shellfish, tea, organics and other specialty crops. In contrast, the farmers in counties of poorer interior Gansu have raised incomes largely through higher yields of traditional crops.

Spectral Discrimination of Phragmites australis at Different Phenological Stages in Saginaw Bay, Michigan. Trenton Benedict, Western Michigan University

Michigan Great Lakes' wetlands are among Michigan's greatest bio-diversified ecosystems. One threat to this ecosystem is invasive species. Phragmites australis is one of these invasive species creating problems in Saginaw Bay wetlands. Identifying Phragmites with satellite imagery creates challenges to accurately discriminate Phragmites from other vegetation within the wetland ecosystems. The purpose of this study is to increase the accuracy of separating Phragmites from cattails using remote sensing. This study used an ASD HandHeld 2 spectroradiometer to identify the phenological spectral properties between Phragmites and surrounding cattails. Using data collected from May through November 2017 by the spectroradiometer, ANOVA evaluated these gathered data. This determined if the reflectance means during the studied months, the different bandwidths, and vegetation indices were significantly different between Phragmites and cattails. If a significant difference was found, a post hoc Tukey HSD test determined which specific combinations show significant differences. Once these specified significances were determined, they were applied to USDA NAIP imagery for enhancing the separability of Phragmites and cattails in the studied Saginaw Bay wetlands. The most significant vegetation indices were used to compare different NAIP imagery dates to determine Phragmites' spread rate.

Assessing the Permanence of Agriculture within Urban Areas in China. Erik Breidinger, Western Michigan University

In the early 1990s, geographers Terry McGee and Norton Ginsburg noted that rapidly growing East, South, and Southeast Asian megacities were developing a spatial organization distinct from cities in the West. In contrast to the urban-rural dichotomies typical of Western cities, these cities were developing with mixed urban and rural land-uses including agriculture. McGee and Ginsburg termed these spaces as desakota regions, derived from the Indonesian words for village (desa) and town (kota). Much research has been conducted on desakotas since, but knowledge regarding the permanence of agriculture in such places is lacking. This study seeks to answer whether desakotas are temporary pockets of agricultural space, labor, and economic activity, or if they can stand the test of time against increasingly competitive urban activities and opportunity costs. Research is being conducted at the township scale for Jiangning County in Nanjing, China. Time-series analyses using both socio-economic and agricultural variables, such as GDP per capita, workforce sectors, and agricultural production, and remotely sensed satellite imagery from years 2000-2016 reflects mixed results. Expected outcomes include a greater understanding of how agriculture within desakotas changes over time, and contributions to desakota mapping techniques.

Historical Story Map of Bay City State Recreation Area. Mark Alfini, Saginaw Valley State University

As Bay City, Michigan continues to evolve and change with the times, society often loses sight of the progress and changes that have occurred from the beginning through the present, and what that could mean for the future. The Bay City State Recreation Area is a prime example of how many parts of the city have changed over time. Utilizing various programs such as ArcGIS, ArcGIS Online, and Flickr, I wanted to demonstrate the value and importance of the historical change that the Bay City State Recreation Area has experienced. To do this I created a historical story map to showcase both the physical and historical changes to the park over time. The goal of this project was to increase interest in the park not only in Bay City but also within the Saginaw Bay region and beyond. The historical story of the park is one of great importance that many people do not remember, and understanding its role in the development of Bay City, Michigan is crucial to the impending future.

John Farmer of Detroit: America's Most Astonishing Mapmaker. Kathleen Weessies, Michigan State University

In 1844 John Farmer of Detroit launched his masterwork, The State of Michigan and the Surrounding Country. This map contained extreme detail of every surveyed square mile, every stream, swamp, and every road and trail. No other state in the Northwest Territory or in the entire United States has such detailed cartographic records from this time period. A close analysis of all 22 editions made over 30 years compared to political and civil changes in the state reveals Farmer's likely source documents and clues to his cause of death.

Comprehensive Mapping of Michigan's Coastal Sand Dunes. Clayton W. Queen and Alan F. Arbogast, Michigan State University; Brad Garmon, Michigan Environmental Council

Michigan's coastal dunes are important landscapes in the context of tourism, biodiversity, and economic development. Parts of the system have been previously mapped, primarily for management purposes related to sand mining and residential development. The State of Michigan has regulated these dunes since 1976 in accordance with the Sand Dune Protection and Management Act. This act initially designated "sand dune areas" that included areas mapped as "barrier dunes". The act was amended in 1989, resulting in ~30,000 hectares of "critical dunes" (including barrier dunes) that are defined by criteria such as height, aerial extent, and associated plant communities. Additional mapping in northwest Lower Michigan has focused on coastal resiliency. Given the limits of earlier maps, large areas of wind-blown sand along Michigan's coasts were excluded. This project addresses this spatial discrepancy by creating the first comprehensive map of coastal dunes in the state. This map was primarily developed by visual assessment of dune forms using the highest spatial resolution DEMs available along coastal reaches. Decisions were also informed by ancillary data such as aerial photography, NRCS SSURGO soils data, and field-based investigations at representative sites. This comprehensive mapping indicates that approximately 65,000 hectares of coastal dunes occur in Michigan.

Spatial and Temporal Change in Halal Food Sales and Consumption: A Case Study of the City of Dearborn, Michigan. Sam Roodbar, Western Michigan University

With a population of 3.2 million and growing in the US, Arab Americans are an integral part of the economy and culture of the United States. The southeast portion of the state of Michigan, specifically the Detroit metropolitan area is home to more than 300,000 Arab Americans.

One of the main aspects of Arab American culture is their Halal food tradition. Since their introduction in the United States, the sales and consumption of Halal products have increased immensely, to the point that the global Halal market is estimated to have a $2.1 trillion potential. This article summarizes my thesis research which is focused on the entrance of larger, retail food corporations into this market segment traditionally occupied by smaller scale ethnic food stores.

An online survey of 260 Halal food purchasers forms the core of this mixed-method research project, which also includes participant observations in the Middle Eastern shopping neighborhoods of Dearborn, Michigan. The survey was designed to help better understand Halal food consumers, shopping habits, and the reasons behind their selections. Preliminary analysis points to religious reasons as the main driver behind people's Halal food purchase. Other reasons affecting people's Halal food purchases include the humane treatment of animals and food safety.

The Huron Mountain Climate Observation Network. Frederick E. Nelson, Northern Michigan University and Michigan State University; Kenneth M. Hinkel, Michigan Technological University

In 1889, J. M. Longyear and colleagues founded a private preserve, now known as the Huron Mountain Club (HMC). Following recommendations from Aldo Leopold about land management in the Huron Mountains, the Club undertook a program of environmental conservation that resulted in formation of the Huron Mountain Wildlife Foundation (HMWF), a nonprofit organization that encourages scientific research on Club property. HMWF provides a unique opportunity for investigating the north-central Upper Peninsula's natural environment. Encompassing a rugged, undisturbed 6,000 ha area, much of it old-growth forest, HMC facilitates scientific observation without vandalism, controversy, or conflicting management goals. Although HMC has supported ecological research for over a century, studies addressing local climate were absent until the Huron Mountain Climate Observation Network was created in 2005. This mesoscale network consists of 35 stations monitoring air and ground temperature and four full weather stations. Instrumentation is configured to obtain a geographic view of the thermal climate on HMC lands, including the effects of Lake Superior, topoclimate, the influence of land cover on soil climate, and microclimatic contrasts between forest types. Results confirm a steep thermal gradient between Lake Superior and inland locations, strong insulation by the snowpack, and topographic controls over air temperature.

Using High Spatial Resolution Imagery to Estimate Cherry Orchard Acreage in Michigan. Kin M. Ma, Grand Valley State University; Mark Whalon, Michigan State University

The northwestern Michigan region of Grand Traverse Bay has the highest concentrations of cherries in the midwestern United States. High-resolution 7/17/2011 IKONOS multispectral/ panchromatic images were used to estimate cherry orchard acreage. Corresponding fieldwork acquired Global Positioning System (GPS) locations of 250+ cherry trees across 25 orchards. eCognition object-oriented classification delineated medium density, sparse, and dense cherry-orchards for the Antrim County section of the images. Accuracy assessment performed on 127 stratified random points, generated overall classification accuracy, 74.80%, kappa statistic, 0.678. Cherry orchard area estimates compared with the 2007 and 2012 U.S. Agriculture censuses, were within [+ or -]3.09% of United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) cherry acreage amounts. High spatial resolution imagery is an effective tool for helping cherry growers estimate orchard acreage within this region of Michigan's agriculture.
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Title Annotation:classroom instruction techniques, transportation in Mount Pleasant, Michigan; offshore wind technologies macroeconomics
Publication:Michigan Academician
Geographic Code:1U3MI
Date:Sep 22, 2018
Previous Article:French & Italian Language & Literature.
Next Article:Geological Sciences.

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